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REMARKS BY AUTHORITIES ON VOLUME I. 



1 The Journal of The American Medical Association," 28th September, 1907. 
THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON NOSTRUMS. 

Some three years ago we commented on the report of the Royal Commission, established in 1903 
to investigate the causes of the steady decline in the birth-rate in New South Wales. As will b',- 
remembered, the Commission in its conclusions gave as one of the causes of lowered birth-rate the 
use of noxious " patent medicines," of late years increasingly prevalent through unscrupulous 
advertising, and it was recommended that a separate Commission be appointed to pursue the line 
of investigation thus indicated. This recommendation was adopted and a Commission appointed, 
its functions, however, being broadened to an inquiry into the manufacture, sale, advertising and 
prevalent use of the alleged remedial agents of secret composition ; the effects of their use ; and the 
legislation in regard thereto in various parts of the world. 

We have just received from Australia the report of the latter Commission, appointed December 
llth, 1906, under the authority of the Australian Commonwealth. This remarkable official document 
consists of a folio volume of 455 pages, containing the most exhaustive arraignment of the nefarious 
traffic in measures for the prevention of conception and for abortion, and in secret nostrums both for 
the laity and the profession, either dangerous or fraudulent, or both, that has hitherto appeared. 
The Report is t of course, largely a compilation, but it is compilation that collects and lays bare officially 
all that has been done in this direction, and adds much important material gathered by the Commissioner 
in the course of his widely extended investigations. These investigations included a personal ex- 
amination of the conditions and the efforts made to cope with them in the United States, and particularly 
in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, Chicago, New York, and Boston ; in Canada, England, Berlin 
Saxony (as representative of tke component German States), and France. 

The report is divided into six parts : ( 1 ) Prevention of conception and fceticide, (2) infanticide, 
(3) injury and death to the adolescent, (4) injury and death to adults, (5) advertisements, and (6) 
legislation. 

" It is hoped," says the report, " that by contemplating one after another the various provinces 
of the inquiry under what may be called natural classification, legislators and other readers will be 
able to form a more permanent impression of the multifarious evils of the traffic in secret drugs. The 
principle of deception has come to be recognised as an unwritten law, a prescriptive right, a sanction, 
by long continued though not immemorial custom." 

The fundamental principles in the domain of public health established as essential to a remedying 
of the conditions are laid down by the Commissioner as: (1) prohibition of secrecy, (2) punishment 
of deception, and (3) responsibility both of the publisher and of the vendor. 

The Council of the A. M. A. on Pharmacy and Chemistry has been criticised for the stringency 
of its requirements in the endeavour to establish a standard of moderate honesty to which all privately 
owned remedies that aspire to any official recognition at the hands of the medical profession shall 
conform ; yet these requirements are lenient indeed when compared with those laid down as absolutely 
essential to check the waste of health and life, and the physical and moral deterioration of the race, 
by an independent commissioner not a member of the medical profession, and, therefore, not to be 
charged, as we of that profession are sometimes charged, with being possessed by impossible pro- 
fessional prejudice appointed by an enlightened Government to make an "authentic and authoritative 
investigation into the subject from a point of view that may be called international." These 
recommendations include among others the publication, with every sale, of a complete qualitative 
and quantitative formula in official nomenclature ; no advertisement, testimonial or award of merit 
to be permitted on the article or its container ; the absolute prohibition of advertisements of secret 
remedies by newspapers, etc. ; refusal of mail privileges to newspapers, books, etc., containing such 
advertisements ; compulsory registration of every proprietary name, but no right in any invented 
name, whether descriptive, fanciful, or other, to be allowed in respect of any chemical, pharmaceutical, 
organic, or bacterial preparation, or single or compound substance for external, internal, subcutaneous 
or intravenous use, in the prevention, alleviation or cure of human disorders or injuries of any kind. 

The perusal of the vast accumulation of evidence contained in this Report impresses on us two 
things : First, the significance of the undertaking of such an investigation by a Government, of its 
own proper motion and without pressure, and regardless of the antagonisms such a course must 
necessarily arouse among those whose " vested interests " are thus threatened ; and second, a sense 
of humiliation that such an independent, first-hand and exhaustive investigation should lead to the 
statement that " many or most of these swindles, together with the traffic in private letters of patients, 
are American." This statement is amply borne out in page after page f the facts adduced. 



In the German Confederation, in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Italy and other countries, the 
principle is fully recognized that the interests of society demand the publication of any real prophylactic 
or remedy, or palliative for any of the ills to which flesh is heir, and this principle ia conscientiously 
enforced in these countries by federal, state, municipal and parochial authorities, supported by the 
judiciary. 

In the Anglo-Saxon nations, on the other hand, the principle is acknowledged only by the medical 
profession, and can be enforced by them only on the voluntary associations of their own members ; 
while the legislature in Great Britain, Canada and Australasia, and until recently and even yet in 
ome part, the United States, sanctions, and the judiciary consequently enforces, an entirely opposite 
principle, viz., the right, without control or supervision, to sell under any representation, true or 
false, as cures for all or any ills any drugs, however noxious or however inert. It will thus be clear 
that the Anglo-Saxon countries are the principal victims of this nefarious traffic, while the United 
States is the chief offender, as well as the greatest victim of them all. 

We hope, though from past experience we hardly dare to do so, that this evil, now that it is 
officially pilloried for public execration, will receive that attention at the hands of the public press 
that the exposures and denunciations of the medical profession have hitherto failed to secure for it. 



" The Times," London, 12th October, 1907. 



SECRET DRUGS AND CURES. 



AN AUSTRALIAN COMMISSIONER'S REPORT. 

In December, 1906, in consequence of the inquiry made in New South Wales in 1903 into the 
decline of the birth-rate and the mortality among children, Mr. Octavius Charles Beale was appointed, 
by Letters Patent at the instance of the Australian Government, as a Royal Commissioner with the 
following reference, namely, to inquire into 

(a) The manufacture, importation, announcements, offering for sale, sale, and use of preparations 

commonly known as proprietary medicines, and of drugs, alleged curative agents, medicinal 
preparations, toilet articles, foods and drinks the composition of which is not disclosed, 
and which are alleged to have medicinal or remedial properties; 

(b) The effects or consequence of the use of any such articles, and 

(c) The legislation and administration in Australia or elsewhere relating to any of the aforesaid 

matters. 

In introducing the first volume of his Report, dated August 3rd last, which has now been printed 
(No. 28), Mr. Beale states that the preservation of secrecy and of the privilege to deceive is absolutely 
indispensable to the traders whose traffic is reported upon, but the perpetuation of the advantages 
they now enjoy mean moral corruption, physical deterioration, and national decadence. 

During his argument on the provisions of the Fertilizers and Feeding Stuffs Act (England), 
1906, which require the disclosure of the composition of the fertilizers and foods to which the Act 
applies, the Royal Commissioner urges that the first and chief legislative remedy is to place babies 
in the same protection by statute as that now afforded to chattel-animals, such as pigs, lambs, and 
calves. 

The mass of evidence included in the 455 pages of the report is of a sensational character, and 
the statements made concerning proprietary articles specifically named are of such a definite character 
that the Commonwealth Government deemed it advisable to stop the circulation of the report. 

Here the reviewer has fallen into error. A Royal Commission is privileged under Commonwealth 
law in like manner to the Justices of the High Court of Australia, as so set forth by statute. But a special 
Act of Parliament had to be passed by both Houses, and to receive Royal assent, before the document itself 
could be published and privileged. The most strenuous efforts were made by American and British drug- 
packers to obtain suppression. Powerful influence was also brought to bear upon the American Chief Executive 
(then President Roosevelt) to use diplomatic influence and at least to prohibit the introduction of the report 
into America. Documentary evidence hi my possession shows that the demands were referred to officers ot 
State concerned with the national health of the United States, and received from them no sympathy. On 
the contrary, the Department of State referred to applied to me for more copies, the Australian Government 
duly transmitted them to Washington, and they are in constant use by the American authorities. 

Equally heavy pressure was exerted upon the Australian Administration locally and from London, 
but the Act was passed and the whole issue duly circulated, copies being sent to several British and some foreign 
Governments. The cause of the consternation was that the evidence is all at first hand and as much as 
possible in photographic form. 

The " Times " article is throughout favourable and fills a column. It was written by a London 
pharmaceutical expert well qualified to summarise the recommendations. Many journals followed suit, but 
as they were not in possession of the Report itself their notices are not here quoted. 



Ill 

The " Lancet," " British Medical Journal," " Medical Press," and other medical serials reviewed 
the Report with acceptance as a contribution towards reform. The articles were many and lengthy, so that 
only a few paragraphs are here transcribed. There has also been much correspondence, and I have received 
in various languages a mass of informative material. 

" The Medical Press," London, October 9th, 1908. 

With regard to quack medicines, last Christmas the Government of Australia appointed a Royal 
Commissioner, not a medical man, to inquire into the question of quack medicines in the Commonwealth, 
and to recommend what steps should be taken with regard to them. This gentleman, Mr. Octavius 
C. Beale, has recently issued his Report, which is a very voluminous one, and the conclusions he comes 
to are most far-reaching and important. He recommends that letters-patent should be issued for 
approved and novel formulae for the prevention and cure of human ailments, and though this suggestion 
would sweep away all present patent medicines, not one of which is novel or original in any degree, 
we fear it would tend to act as a commercial incentive to real discoverers who now give their work 
freely to the world. Still, such a rule would do no harm if it were more honoured in the breach 
than in the observance, except in so far as concerns the denying of patents to remedies that are not 
novel, and such refusal in itself would constitute a valuable reform. 

But Mr. Beale's further recommendations are those which lie at the root of all proper patent 
medicine regulation. He suggests that every patent medicine, when retailed, shall bear its formula of 
preparation on a label ; that no advertisement shall be allowed on the article itself or its covering ; 
that no advertisement of any proprietary or secret cure shall be allowed to be published ; and that 
transmission of advertising matter concerning such medicines through the post shall be forbidden. 
If we make the slight reservation that genuine, new preparations prepared by respectable firms should, 
of course, be made known to medical men through the post and by advertisement, we can most cordially 
endorse Mr. Beale's conclusions, which would finally dispose of the most glaring public fraud of the day. 
It is a humiliating but none the less a well-deserved reproach that this Colonial Commissioner should 
point to the Mother Country as demanding " an eighth share in the full retail price of every, even the 
most pernicious, proprietary specific under quasi-medical pretence." We recently drew attention to 
the interesting fact that the Cape Legislature recognized the Undesirable character of certain cancer 
" remedies," and forbade their sale ; New Zealand is making a big struggle against the newspaper 
interest to rid itself of the plague ; and Australia has its own way mapped out for it, if it will move. 
The " Old Country " has not even turned in its bed. 

" The Medical Press," March llth, 1908. 

The storehouse of data on the subject of secret drugs, cures, and foods contained in the first 
Report of the Australian Royal Commission is bewildering in its vastness. Here we find for the first 
time in history the protean aspect of a corroding social evil displayed to the public gaze. It is 
impossible to glance through these pages without being convinced that the essence of the enormous 
traffic under investigation lies in secrecy, deception, fraud and crime. A general notion of the im- 
pression made upon the Commonwealth Commissioner may be formed from the following passage 
at the head of his " conclusions " : " Quackery, it has been shown, affects the domain of therapeutics, 
hygiene, and nutrition. It demands secrecy and deception as indispensable conditions, where the 
racial interests demand truth and candour. And, again by inversion, it invades, publishes and profanes 
that which the consensus of sane mankind from time immemorial has made secret and sacred the 
sexual privacies of women and the functions upon which depend the perpetuation of the race. It 
has also been shown herein, with such reserve as decency requires where none at all is exhibited by 
the quacks themselves or exacted of them by our laws that the natural phenomena of healthy puberty 
are utilised with satanic ingenuity by these quacks and their collaborators in the Press to frighten 
young men and young women into seeking their help. That it is not casual or unusual for many young 
persons to correspond with the gilded miscreants has been shown by the fact that one concern offers 
for sale 300,000 letters from their unhappy ' patients ' ; and another a broker offers 2,000,000 
assorted letters from various quack syndicates. One of these concerns has over 7,000,000 letters 
for sale. How large is the traffic can be gauged from the cost of their advertisements in daily papers, 
which halve the spoil with the brigands only that with highwaymen we do not read of quite such 
ruthless and ruinous betrayal. These letters thus offered in the market again by the help of the Press 
were written, as Dr. Stanley Hall (' Adolescence ') informs us, from actual purchase and inspection, 
with the ' youths' heart- blood.' " This extremely outspoken and emphatic opinion, be it noted, 
covers only a small portion of the ground. If similar practices are being carried on in the United 
Kingdom and we know that such is the case then the appointment of a Royal Commission is urgently 
required within our own gates. As a matter of fact, cases of wholesale blackmailing of luckless 
women have within recent years been divulged in the police courts. But the range of quackery is 
well-nigh illimitable, and wherever we turn to analyse its pretensions or its methods we are constantly 
faced with the same underlying trickery, cruelty and fraud. The probability of a scandalous reve- 
lation is no argument against the need of authoritative British inquiry. Nay, rather, it is a strong 
reason why that course should be adopted forthwith without a moment's delay, viewed in the light 
of the damning evidence set forth in the Australian Blue Book. 



IV 

" The Medical Press," November 4th, 108. 

Some months ago it was our privilege to comment upon the first volume of the " Report upon 
Secret Drugs, Cures, and Foods," presented by the Royal Commission appointed by the Commonwealth 
of Australia. The document in question contains an immense amount of pertinent and valuable matter ; 
it is complete and exhaustive, and it will form a classical work of reference to present and future 
reformers in the field with which it deals. As often happens in questions of social reform, we in the 
Mother Country are hopelessly behindhand, for no serious attempt has hitherto been made by the 
British Government to deal with the abuses arising from the traffic in secret remedies and proprietary 
medicines. Yet the majority of the injurious, and not in a few instances fraudulent, remedies of 
the kind sold in Australia for the " cure " of every conceivable ailment, curable or incurable, are 
widely advertised and sold within the confines of the United Kingdom, so that the facts disclosed by 
the Australian Commission are of direct importance and interest to the British Public. Unfortunately, 
it is not in the interest of lay newspaper proprietors to acquaint their readers with the official findings 
of that or any other responsible authority as regards the farrago of nonsense, fraud, duplicity, stupidity, 
and reckless indifference to health and life which form prominent features of this most deleterious 
trade. So far as we can see, the only hope for the future lies with the medical profession, which in 
the past has shown itself capable of fearless and absolutely unselfish action in defence of the national 
health. For ourselves we have always maintained a consistent policy as regards the necessity of 
controlling a trade which we believe to be nothing less than a standing menace to the safety of the 
community. We therefore hailed with considerable satisfaction the advent of the Report to which 
allusion has been made. Owing to its great bulk, and to the many points brought forward therein, 
it will be difficult to do justice to this monumental work. We propose, however, from time to time 
to deal with a few of the facts and conclusions as to secret cures and proprietary remedies that are 
disclosed therein, more especially in cases where the " cures " or "remedies " are extensively ad- 
vertised in the newspapers of the United Kingdom. 

" The Medical Press," September 29th, 1909. 

The best evidence yet collected, however, is Volume I. of the Report of the Royal Commission 
on Secret Drugs, Cures, and Foods, presented to the Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia. 
The able and energetic Commissroner, Mr. Octavius Charles Beale, has collected an invaluable mass 
of facts regarding the trade hi secret remedies, its effects, and its relation to legislation, with recom- 
mendations as to its control. This Report is likely to remain for some time the classical work of 
reference on the subject with which it deals. No candid person could even glance casually through 
its pages and fail to be convinced of the reality and the gravity of the evils attached to the secret 
medicine traffic in Australia. Quackery, however, is cosmopolitan and universal, and the Report 
shows that Australia is flooded with quack remedies sent from the United Kingdom, from America, 
and from other countries. The composition of these world-wide nostrums, their extravagant and 
fraudulent claims, their grossly extortionate cost, their catchpenny advertisements, are one and the 
same whatever the country in which they are sold. The steel and pennyroyal pills sent out from a 
Midland town of England are sold to credulous women at a high price in Melbourne and all over the 
world, for suggested purposes that it is impossible they could fulfil. Worse still, other pills, containing 
most deadly drugs (as shown by analysis) are sold in a similar fashion without anything on the wrapper 
to intimate that a dangerous drug is contained therein. Not all the British colonies, however, are 
foolish enough to permit their citizens to be deprived of their health and robbed of their money for 
the behoof of the patent medicine trader. 

" The Medical Press," October 27th, 1909. 

One of the best methods of gaining a thorough knowledge of the facts of the case and of educating 
the public thereon is undoubtedly by way of Royal Commission, with full power of summoning 
witnesses and of otherwise obtaining information. That plan has been adopted with extraordinary 
success by the Commonwealth of Australia, which is flooded with quacks and quackery of the same 
pernicious kind that devastates the British Isles. Recognising the advantages of this step, the 
General Medical Council have lately petitioned the Privy Council in favour of a Royal Commission 
upon irregular medical practice. 



A letter from President ROOSEVELT to the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture,. 

which includes the Bureau of Chemistry. 
The White House, 

Washington, D. C. 25th November, 1905. 

My dear Secretary Wilson, 

May I ask that you see that all possible courtesy is shown to Mr. Beale ? 

Any help that can be given him I want to give. I have the heartiest sympathy with his purpose.. 

T. ROOSEVELT. 



From a letter (5th December, 1903) of Dr. GEORGE H. SIMMONS, editor of the Journal of 

the American Medical Association. 

You are to be congratulated on what you have already done, and I am looking anxiously for 
a copy of your new book. I hope you will send me one as soon as it is off the press. 

No one can look into the patent medicine and quack-doctor business as you have done without 
appreciating the extent to which the public is being humbugged, and it is only by such work as yours, 
kept up for a considerable time, that the law-making bodies of the various countries will understand 
the crime of it all, and the inhumanity of it all, and stop it by legal enactment 



From a letter of EARL BEATJCHAMP, London, 30th March, 1908. 

I am very much obliged to you for your kindness in causing a copy of your Royal Commission 
Report to be sent to me. I do take a real interest in the matter, the importance of which I think 
it is difficult to exaggerate. 

A Select Committee of both Houses of Parliament has just been appointed here in England 
upon which I shall be serving. The Report, therefore, which has just been sent to me will be of most 
material assistance to the Committee. 

I shall venture to let you know something of the course of our proceedings, as the evil seems to 
me one of such a great magnitude that it needs more drastic treatment than that which any single 
nation can apply. With renewed and sincere thanks, 

Yours sincerely, 
BBAUCHAMP. 

From a letter of Father BERNARD VAUGHAN, London. 

Your Royal Commission Report has been absorbingly interesting reading. What an object 
lesson to the Mother Country ! You have your hands full and you have done your work nobly and 
thoroughly. 

The state of things in England is very distressing to some of us. Of course we " muddle along 
somehow," but the evil is like a cancer. Our shop windows are not what they were. Nobody minds ! 

I fear we shall have a rude awakening some day. God bless you for your pioneer work in the 
good cause ! 

Yours sincerely, 
BERNARD VAUGHAN. 

From a letter of a distinguished American medical officer of State. 

I often think of you and your work, as exemplified by the copy of your Royal Commission Report. 
The volume contains much valuable information. It is unique in character and undoubtedly has 
done a vast amount of good. The various agencies in this country felt aggrieved because of certain 
statements and exposures made therein, and carried them up even to President Roosevelt 

I have had many requests for the loan of the book, which I have granted with reluctance because 
of its scarcity, and am herewith asking you whether any additional copies are available. 

As you probably know, we are in the midst of many difficulties brought about by the enforcement 
of the Foods and Drugs Act. I should be pleased to have you advise me as to the progress your country 
is making by way of legislation against proprietary frauds. I learn indirectly through publications 
issued from London that certain activities are in progress in Australia, and of the various efforts to 
suppress the same, but I am not advised as to the actual outcome. 

There is much agitation on here relative to further restriction and control of the indiscriminate 
distribution of habit-forming drugs. Several bills have been introduced into Congress during the 
past few years, which of course died at the termination of the last Congress, but another Bill has been 
introduced this Session which, in my opinion, is framed along excellent lines. I am enclosing same 
for your information. I shall be pleased to hear from you at all times as to the progress made in 
your country along the lines in which we are both interested. 



Dr. HENRY SEWILL, in " Vanity Fair," 28th May, 1910. 

A complete account of quack remedies including cosmetic preparations is given in the Report 
of the Australian Royal Commission on Secret Drugs and Cures, Mr. O. C. Beale being the Commissioner. 
This large volume contains a truly amazing disclosure of the personalities and the practices of the 
men engaged in the quack medicine traffic. The book unfortunately is not privileged in England, 
and must not be published there. 



VI 

" Truth," London, 26th January, 1909. 

It has always been the policy of the law to curb the activities of those who prey on the ignorance 
and credulity of their fellow-creatures, and there is a special reason for doing so when the victims 
are not only robbed of their money but exposed to the risk of grievous bodily harm. This, and this 
alone- 3s the ground for strengthening the criminal law against the advertising quack. There can be 
no reasonable doubt as to the extent of the evils that result from the free hand which these harpies at 
present enjoy. In the Australasian Colonies things seem to be worse than here. A Royal Com- 
mission was recently appointed by the Commonwealth of Australia to inquire into this subject, and 
its Report is, I believe, now under consideration in some of the States of the Commonwealth. New 
Zealand has also been much exercised on the subject, and wo have the result of the Act referred to 
above. But though it is possible that the advertising quack is more rampant at the Antipodes than 
in the British Isles, we sec him before our eyes every day in the ugliest shape. Many of the advertisers 
who are most familiar in the pages of English newspapers and magazines are cosmopolitan operators 
who carry on their trade in the United States and the Colonies as well as here, and frequently in many 
European countries at the same time. Most of their names are enshrined in the Report of the Com- 
monwealth Commission on Secret Remedies. That these people, and all others of the same class, do 
infinite harm, extending far beyond the mere picking of the pockets of fools, is not open to question. 
They help materially to fill our hospitals and cemeteries, and they would do still more in this direction 
if it were not that a large proportion of the people who waste their money over quack remedies have 
either nothing at all the matter with them, or nothing which will not be speedily cured by a dose of 
aloes or calomel. This matter ought really to be regarded primarily from the point of view of public 
health. 

" Whitehall Review," 13th June, 1908. 

My recent indictment of quack medicines has brought me quite a batch of letters. One cor- 
respondent points out that Australia takes the lead in dealing with the matter. About a year ago 
the Commonwealth Government gave a Royal Commission to a Mr. 0. C. Beale, a well-known Aus- 
tralian merchant who has previously done much public service, to conduct an international investigation 
into the matter. 

The result caused no little sensation in Australia. Mr. Beale's report was a sweeping condem- 
nation and indictment of patent foods, medicines, drugs, secret cures of all descriptions. Practically 
all the quack nostrums of Great Britain and the United States come under Mr. Beale's scathing 
attention, those of the latter country, however, receiving the fullest share, probably because there 
are more of them. In this amazing report are gathered, inter alia, the opinions of the world's most 
prominent medical and surgical authorities, a summary of the legislation of all countries on the 
matter, and even facsimiles of lying advertisements and testimonials emanating from the principal 
quack-medicine manufacturers involved. The Commissioner took the utmost pains to compile 
, the most damning exposure of patent medicines of all kinds that has up to the present appeared. 

The Report shows that in nine cases out of ten patent medicines are either frauds or poisons, 
pointing out at the same time that there is practically no State restriction on them, and urging that 
the result of such a lax system is inevitably grave social injury and racial deterioration. The Com- 
missioner places particular stress on the devilish ingenuity shown by the vendors of these nostrums 
in wording advertisements, wherein natural and healthy physical phenomena are used to frighten 
ignorant people into the belief that they have some serious disease. He went on to say : " Opiates 
for infants and children, mercurial teething powders, and doses of acetanilide, crude or mixed, are 
regularly announced, held for sale, and sold without practical restriction." Further, referring to 
secret cures : " These embrace everything conceivable in health and disease, under like trickery, 
treachery, humbug and fraud. They are not subject to preliminary examination, license and 
inspection. Though these humbugs are notorious and often ridiculous, prosecutions are either rare 
or entirely absent." The triumph of the quack in this country is simply a scandal. It is quite 
time that a society was formed to protect the public in this direction. 



RACIAL DECAY 



MR. THEODORE ROOSEVELT, writing on an advance copy of Racial Decay in the New 
York Outlook for April 8, 1911 (six page review), says : 

"An Australian writer, Mr. Beale, has written a work on Racial Decay, not good in form, but in substance 
I believe better worth the study of every sincere patriot, not merely in Australia, Great Britain, and Canada, but 
in the United States of America, than any other book that has been written for years. It sets forth in detail, and 
illustrates by chart, certain facts which have long been familiar to students and thinkers who care to face the 
truth, and whose studies and thought are not superficial. But, unfortunately, the facts set forth, though of 
fundamental importance to the whole people, are so unpleasant that ease-loving persons who do not care for any- 
thing that causes them disquiet refuse to look them in the face ; and the great bulk of good people are in ignorance 
of them, or at least wholly fail to appreciate their far-reaching significance. 

" Mr. Beale deals with the startling decline of the birth-rate in Great Britain, the Australian States, and 
France, this decline being due to the capital sin, the cardinal sin, against the race and against civilization wilful 
sterility in marriage. . . . Among the English-speaking peoples there has long been much complacent pointing at 
France as a nation that no longer held its own among the peoples of the earth. As a matter of fact the English- 
speaking peoples have now all entered on the same course. . . . Moreover, the decline in the birth-rate among 
the English-speaking peoples has proceeded at an even more rapid rate than in France itself. One of the strangest 
and saddest things in the whole sad business is that the decline has been most marked in the very places where 
one would expect to see the abounding vigour of the race most strikingly displayed. In Australia and New 
Zealand there is no warrant whatever in economic conditions for a limitation of the birth-rate. . . . New Zealand 
is as large as Great Britain and as fertile . . . the New Zealand people have realized, to an extraordinary degree, 
the institutional and industrial ambitions of democracy everywhere ; yet the rate of natural increase in New 
Zealand is actually lower than in Great Britain, and has tended steadily to decrease. The Australians are 
sparsely scattered over the fringe of the great island continent. It is a continent which could support, without 
the slightest difficulty, tenfold the present population, and at the same time raise the general standard of 
well-being. Yet its sparse population tends to concentrate in great cities of disproportionate size compared to 
the country population, just exactly as is the case in England and the United States ; and it increases so slowly 
that, even if the present rate were maintained, the population would not double itself in the next century ; while, 
if the rate of decrease of the last decade continues, the population will have become stationary by the middle 
of the century. . . . 

"The same causes that are at work in Australia and New Zealand are at work in just as acute a form among 
the English-speaking people of Canada, and in a less acute form, but in a form constantly growing more acute, in 
Great Britain. Moreover, they are at work here in the United States no less actively, and their effects are only 
partially obscured by the enormous immigration hither. . . . But throughout the north and west there has 
been the same shrinkage as in Australia, Canada, and Great Britain, and in the New England States the shrinkage 
has been not only greater than in the British Empire, but greater than in France itself. ... It is almost 
unnecessary to say that the sterility is not physiological, and is in no sense due to the change from Europe to 
another land. . . . 

"Men have striven to take comfort to themselves by saying that all civilized races are having the same ex- 

Serience. It is not so. There are some of the smaller states of Europe which have already begun to show similar 
ecadence; but the people of Germany have as yet hardly begun to show it. The great cities, Berlin and Hamburg, 
for instance, do show it substantially as it is shown in New York, Chicago, and London ; and if this tendency is 
not checked, Germany, in its turn, will begin to travel the same road which France has long travelled, and which 
the English-speaking peoples are now travelling. It was the warfare of the cradle more than anything else which 
during the nineteenth century gave Germany its preponderating and dominating position in Europe. In this war- 
fare Germany now shows signs of yielding to the Slavonic peoples, for the Slavonic races have been hitherto 
totally unaffected by the movement. 

" What I saw a year ago in East Africa was illuminating. In British East Africa the men who discovered the 
country, who annexed it, who started to settle it, who are governing it, who have made it what it is, are the 
English. But the men who are breeding its future citizens and masters are the Dutch ! The Englishmen there are 
fine fellows ; they are doing excellent general work ; I like and admire them. But as settlers they are hopelessly 
behind the Boer farmers whom I met, because they have very small families, and most of them do not look on the 
country as their permanent home. 

" Again, to quiet their uneasy consciences, cheap and shallow men and women, when confronted with these 
facts, answer that ' quality is better than quantity,' and that decrease of numbers will mean increase of individual 
prosperity. It is false. When quantity falls off, thanks to wilful sterility, the quality will go down too. During 
the last half-century, in which France has remained nearly stationary, while Germany has nearly doubled in 
population, the average of individual prosperity has grown much faster in Germany than in France ; and social 
and industrial unrest and discontent have grown faster in France than in Germany. 

"It is never safe to prophesy. Neither I nor any one else can say what will happen in the future. But we 
can apeak conditionally. We can say that, if the processes now at work for a generation continue to work in the 
same manner and at the same rate of increase during the present century, by its end France will not carry the 
weight in the civilized world that Belgium now does, and the English-speaking peoples will not carry anything like 
the weight that the Spanish-speaking peoples now do, and the future of the white race will rest in the hands of the 
German and the Slav. . . " 

The Outlook (New York), April 8, 1911. 



EACIAL DECAY 

A COMPILATION OF EVIDENCE 
FROM WORLD SOURCES 



BY 

OCTAVIUS CHARLES BEALE 

A ROYAL COMMISSIONER OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA, 1907, 
AND OF THE STATE OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 1903 



Homini nihil utilius homine 



LONDON: A. C. FIFIELD, 13 CLIFFORD'S INN, E.C. 
SYDNEY (AUSTRALIA): ANGUS & ROBERTSON LTD. 

1911 



MACHINED, FROM AUSTRALIAN PLATES, BT W. BRENDON AND SON, LTD., PRINTERS, PLYMOUTH 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

1. BIBLIOGRAPHY xiii 

2. INTRODUCTION 1 

3. DIVISION I. 

GENESIS OF THE CARCINOMA ... 13 

4. DIVISION II. 

THE EXAMPLE OF FRANCE .. 95 

5. DIVISION III. 

HISTORY OF THE FRENCH EXTRA-PARLIAMENTARY 

COMMISSION UPON DEPOPULATION ... ... 171 

6. DIVISION IV. 

PATHOLOGIC CONSEQUENCES ... 203 

7. DIVISION V. 

THE PROGRESS OF DECAY DEPOPULATION IN 

GRAPHIC FORM ... ... ... .. 301 

8. DIVISION VI 

THE PARALLEL OF ANCIENT ROME 379 

9. DIVISION VII. 

PARLIAMENT AND THE CHURCHES 403 

10. CONCLUSION ... ... 429 

11. INDICES- 

INDEX OP SUBJECTS, TABLES, DECLARATIONS pro et contra 

OF AUTHORITIES ... ... ... i 

INDEX OF NAMES ... ... ... ... ... xiii 

12. APPENDIX- 

COPY OF COMMONWEALTH ROYAL COMMISSION ... 
COPY OF NEW SOUTH WALES ROYAL COMMISSION 



Xlll 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

During the preparation of this Volume I have obtained and consulted the 
following works : 

EMILE LEVASSEUR : La Population Francaise, Histoire de la Population avant 1789, 
et Demographie de la France, comparee a celle des autres nations au XIXe siecle. 
Trois tomes, 1577 pp. Paris : Arthur Rousseau, 14 rue Soufflot, 1889. 

F. LE PLAY : La Reforme Sociale en France, deduite de 1'observation comparee des 
peuples Europeens. Trois tomes, 1753 pp. Tours : Alfred Mame. Of this 
noble work M. de Montalembert wrote to a friend, " I read Le Play's book and am 
amazed at it. I read it, I annotate it, I imbibe it drop by drop at the rate of four 
pages a day, and having completed the perusal, I do not hesitate to say that Le 
Play has produced the most original, the most useful, the most courageous, and 
and in all its relations the strongest work of this century." 

Unfortunately, the last edition during the author's lifetime deals with nothing 
later than 1878. 

EDOUARD VAN DER SMISSEN (Professor at the University of Liege, Belgium) : 
La Population, les causes de ses progres et les obstacles qui en arretent 1'essor. 
(Couronne par I'Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques de la France). 561 
pp. Bruxelles : Societe Beige de Librairie, 1893. 

ARSENE DUMONT : Depopulation et Civilisation, etude demographique, 532 pp. 
Bibliotheque Anthropologique XIII. Paris : Lecrosnier et Babe, Place de 
l'Ecole-de-Medecine, 1890. Natalite et Democratic, conferences faites a 1'Ecole 
d'Anthropologie de Paris. 230 pp. Paris : Schleicher Freres, 15, rue des Saints 
Peres, 1898. 

PAUL STRAUSS : Depopulation et Puericulture, 366 pp. Paris : Bibliotheque 
Charpentier, 11 rue de Grenelle, 1901. 

Dr. E. MAUREL : Causes de Notre Depopulation. Relevement de notre natality. 
(Medecin principal de Reserve de la Marine). 110 pp. Paris : Octave Doin, 
8 Place de 1'Odeon, 1902. 

JOSEPH GARNIER : Du Principe de Population, precede d'une Introduction par 
M. G. de Molinari. 580 pp. Paris : Felix Alcan, 108 Bd. St. Germain, 1885. 

P. DEGHILAGE : La Depopulation des Campagnes. Les Causes, les Effets, les 
Remedes. Ouvrage couronne par I'Academie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. 
324 pp. Paris : Fernand Nathan, 18 rue de Conde, 1907. 

GEORGES MERAN : La Natalite en France, 1900. 164 pp. Paris : E. Bernard 
et Cie., 29 Quai des Grands- Augustins. 

Dr. JEAN BRON : Les Origines Sociales de la Maladie. Motto : " Notre corps est 
le martyre de nos passions." 219 pp. Paris : V. Giard et E. Briere, 16 rue 
Soufflot, 1908. 

Dr. PAX SALVAT : La Depopulation en France. 154 pp. Lyon, A. Storck et Cie., 
1903. 

Dr. HENRI DE ROTHSCHILD (Laureat de la Faculte de Medecine : Depopulation et 
Protection de la Premiere Enfance. Paris : Octave Doin, 8 Place de 1'Odeon. 

CHARLES RAISIN : La Depopulation en France. Influence du Regime Succes- 
soral sur le Mouvement de la Natalite Francaise. 180 pp. Bourg-en-Bresse : 
Francisque Allombert, 1901. 



XIV 

HENRY CLEMENT : La Depopulation en France, ses Causes et ses Remedes. 64 
pp. Paris : Bloud et Cie., 1907. 

PAUL LEROY-BEAULIEU : De la Colonisation chez les Peuples Modernes. Paris : 
Guillaumin et Cie., 1902. 

Le Collecti visme : Ibid, 1893. 

La Question de la Population et la Civilisation Democratique (Revue des 
Deux Mondes, 15th October, 1897). 

G. MICHEL : La Depopulation des Campagnes, Causes et Remedes. An article in 
L'Economiste Francais, 30th May, 1896. 

Dr. FERNAND DUCOURNEAU (de I'Universite de Paris) : Des Moyens de Combattre 
la Depopulation, principalement en favorisant 1'allaitement maternel. 108 
pp. Paris : Jules Rousset, 36 rue Serpente, 1900. 

HECTOR SONOLET, Docteur en Droit : Principe de Population et Socialisme. 
(Histoire des Doctrines de la Population depuis Malthas jusqu'a nos jours). 292 
pp. Paris : Arthur Rousseau, 14 rue Soufflot, 1907. 

AUGUST FOREL : L'Ame et le Systeme Nerveux, hygiene et pathologie. (Ancien 
professeur de psychiatric a 1'universite de Zurich). 334 pp. Paris : C. Steinheil, 
2 rue Casimir-Delavigne, 1906. 

Leben und Tod. 32 pp. Muenchen : Ernst Reinhardt, 1908. 

Dr. SICARD DE PLAUZOLES : La Fonction Sexuelle au point de vue de 1'ethique et 
de 1'hygiene sociales. (Professeur au College libre des Sciences Sociales). 393 
pp. Paris : V. Giard et E. Briere, 16 rue Soufflot, 1908. 

Dr. PAUL HARTENBERG : Psychologie des Neurastheniques. 248 pp. Paris : 
Felix Alcan, 108 Bd. St. Germain, 1908. 

THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS : Essay on the Principle of Population. 2 vols., 
London : John Murray, 1826. Sixth edition. 

JAMES BONAR, M.A., Oxford : Malthus and his Work. London : Macmillan, 1885. 

ANNIE BESANT : The Law of Population, its Consequences and its Bearing upon 
Human Conduct and Morals. Australian Edition, hundredth thousand. 

Theosophy and the Law of Population. London : Theosophical Publishing 
Society, 7 Duke Street, Adelphi. 

JAMES MILL : Article " Colony," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th Edition. 

JOHN STUART MILL: Principles of Political Economy, 9th Edition. London: 
Longmans, 1886. 

JOSEPH McCABE : Life and Letters of George Jacob Holyoake. London : Watts 
and Co., 1908. 

HANSARD'S Parliamentary Debates, 3rd Series, Vol. 89, Jan.-Feb., 1847. Vol. 91, 
Mar.-Apl., 1847. 

JOHN MORLEY : Life of RICHAKD COBDEN. 

Dr. W. CUNNINGHAM : Growth of English Industry and Commerce in Modern Times. 
Cambridge : The University Press, 1903. 

FRANCESCO S. NITTI, Professor at the University at Naples : Population and the 
Social System. English Translation. London : Swan, Sonnenschein, 1894. 

LESLIE STEPHEN: The English Utilitarians. London: Duckworth, 1900. 

BENJAMIN KIDD : Principles of Western Civilisation. London : MacmiUans, 1902 
Social Evolution, ibid. 



XV 

Dr. ARTHUR SHAD WELL : Industrial Efficiency. 2 vols. London : Longmans, 

1906. 
YVES GUYOT : Principles of Political Economy. London : Swan, Sonnenschein, 

1892. 

Dr. L. BERGERET : Des Fraudes dans PAccomplissement des Fonctions Genera- 
trices. 17th Edition, Paris : Bailliere et Fils, 1904. 

W. E. ASHTON, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Gynaecology : Practice of Gynaecology. 
Philadelphia. 

ROBERT R. RENTOUL, M.D., F.R.C.S. : Race Culture or Race Suicide. London : 
Walter Scott Publishing Co., 1906. 

HOWARD A. KELLY, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.S., Professor of Gynaecology, John Hopkins 
University : Medical Gynaecology. Philadelphia : Appleton, 1908. 

W. ROGERS WILLIAMS, F.R.C.S. : The Natural History of Cancer, with special 
reference to its causation and prevention. London : Heinemann, 1908. 

W. R. GREG : Enigmas of Life. London : Truebner, 1879. 

JAMES McKEEN CATTELL, in Popular Science Monthly, January, 1909. 

G.^ STANLEY HALL, Ph.D., LL.D., President of Clark University: Adolescence. 
New York : Appleton, 1905. 

COMMANDANT A. POILECOT : Des Unions Modernes et de leurs effete sur le depenple- 
ment de la France. Paris : Henri Jouve, 15 rue Racine, 1904. 

GEORGE FONSEGRIVE : Morale et Societe. 345 pp. Paris : Bloud et Cie, 4 rue 
Madame. 1907. 

MAX NORDAU : Degenerescence, traduit de 1'Allemand par Auguste Dietrich. Deux 
tomes, 604 pp. Bibliothecjue de Philosophic Contemporaine. Paris : Felix 
Alcan, 1903. 

Dr. F. W. FOERSTER : Sexualethik und Sexualpaedagogik, Ausaneindersetzung 
mit den Modernen. (Privatdozent fuer Philosophic an der Universitaet Zuerich). 
97 pp. Muenchen : Joseph Koesel. 

JULIAN MARCUSE : Die Sexuelle Frage und das Christenthum. Ein Waffengang 
mit F. W. Foerster, dem Verfasser von " Sexualethik und Sexualpaedagogik." 
87 pp. Leipzig : Verlag Dr. Werner Klinkhardt, 1908. 

HENRY GRAACK : Sammlung von Deutschen und Auslaendischen Gesetzen und 
Verordnungen, die Bekaempfung der Kurpfuschereiund die Ausuebungder Heilkunde 
betreffend. 152 pp. Jena : Gustav Fischer, 1904. 

Kurpfuscherei und Kurpfuschereiverbot. Ibid., 1906. 

HAHN-HOLFERT-ARENDS : Spezialitaeten und Geheimmittel, ihre Herkunft und 
Zusammensetzung, eine Sammlung von Analysen und Gutachten, zusammen- 
gestellt von Eduard Hahn und Dr. J. Holfert, bearbeitet von^G. Arends. Berlin : 
Verlag von Julius Springer, 1906. 

This is the most extensive published collection, I believe, of secret cures and 
specialities. In all 488 pp. and 4645 formulae. 

HANS WEGENER : Wir Jungen Maenner ! Das Sexuelle Problem des gebildeten 
jungen Mannes mit unbedingter Offenheit und ineinfacher Natuerlichkeit besprochen. 
Die Dinge gesehen und gesagt wie sie sind ! 216 pp. (75th thousand). K. R. 
Langewies, Leipzig, 1907. 

STADTRAT DER STADT KARLSRUHE : Gegen die Kurpfuscherei und den Heil- 
mittelschwindel. Amtliche Sammlung der oeffentlichen Warnungen des 
Ortsgesundheitsrates der Hauptstadt Karlsruhe. Karlsruhe : G. Braun, 1905. 



XVI 

LYDIA KINGSMILL COMMANDER: The American Idea. 332 pp. New York 
A. S. Barnes & Co., 1907. 

ENGLAND IN DEUTSCHER BELEUCHTUNG. Grosser Britannien, von Dr. Thomas 
Lenschau. Halle : Gebauer-Schwetschke, 1907. 

DR. H. THIEL, Wirklicher-Geheimrat, Ministerial-Direktor : Zur Frauenfrage. Stutt- 
gart and Leipzig : Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1908. 

DR. G. F McCLEARY : Infantile Mortality and Infants' Milk Depots. 135 pp. London : 
P. S. King and Son, 1905. 

DR. H. LLEWELLYN HEATH : The Infant, the Parent and the State. 191 pp. Ibid, 
1907. 

DR. G. RUHLAND, Prof, fuer Politische Oekonomie an der Universitaet Freiburg : 
System der Politischen Oekonomie. Band III. Krankheitslehre des Sozialen 
Volkskoerpers. 411 pp. Berlin : Puttkammer und Muehlbrecht, 1908. 

DR. H. STIRLING POMEROY, M.A., M.D. : Is Man Too Prolific ? The So-called 
Malthusian Idea. New York : Funk and Wagnalls, 1891. 

ADAM SMITH : The Wealth of Nations. 

J. W. WELSFORD, M.A. : The Strength of Nations, an argument from history. 327 pp. 
London : Longmans, 1907. 

RENE VALERY RADOT : Life of Louis Pasteur. London : Constable, 1906. 

REV. R, USSHER : Neo-Malthusianism, an Inquiry into that system with regard to 
its economy and morality. 325 pp. London : Methuen and Co., 1897. 

J. JOHNSTON, M.D. : Wastage of Child Life. 95 pp. London : A. C. Fifield, 44 
Fleet Street, 1909. 

SEVENTIETH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR-GENERAL of Births, 
Deaths and Marriages in England and Wales, 1907. The same for 1906. 

STATISTISCHES JAHRBUCH FUER DAS DEUTSCHE REICH, herausgegeben 
vom Kaiserlichen Statistischen Amt. Berlin : Puttkammer & Muehlbrecht, 1908. 

DAS DEUTSCHE REICH IN GESUNDHEITLICHER UND DEMOGRAPHISCHER 
BEZIEHUNG. Ibid, 1907. 

STATISTIQUE ANNUELLE DU MOUVEMENT DE LA POPULATION. Annees 
1905 et 1906. Paris : Imprimerie Nationale, 1907. 

STATISTIQUE INTERNATIONALE DU MOUVEMENT DE LA POPULATION, 

d'apres les registres de 1'etat civil jusqu'en 1905. Ibid. 

CENSUS OF CANADA, 1901. Vol. IV., Vital Statistics, etc. Published by the Govern- 
ment of the Dominion. 

COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA. BUREAU OF STATISTICS. Population and 
Vital Statistics. Summary of Commonwealth Demography, 1901-06. 

The Same : Official Year-Book of the Commonwealth of Australia, No. 2, 
1901-08. 

THEODOR MOMMSEN : Romische Geschichte. Band V. Berlin : Weidmann'sche 
Buchhandlung, 1882. 

(same author) Res Gestae Divi Augusti, ex Monumentis Ancyrano et 
Appoloniensi. Ibid. 
CORNELIUS TACITUS : The Histories of Tacitus, edited by Rev. W. A. Spooner. 

London : Macmillans. 

CAIUS SUETONIUS : The Twelve Caesars. Translation by Alex. Thomson, M.D. 
London : George Bell and Sons, 1884. 



XV11 

W. WARDE FOWLER : Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. 362 pp. London : 
Macmillans, 1908. 

J. B. BURY : The Student's Roman Empire. London : Murray, 1900. 

CHARLES LOUIS DE MONTESQUIEU : De 1'Esprit des Lois. (Des lois des Romaing 
sur la propagation de 1'espece). Tome troiseme. Published at Amsterdam and 
Leipzig, 1769. 

H. F. PELHAM : Outlines of Roman History. (Professor of Ancient History, Oxford). 
London : Rivingtons, 1895. 

J. B. FIRTH : Augustus Csesar and the Organisation of the Empire of Rome. London : 
Putnams, 1903. 

E. S. SHUCKBURGH : Augustus, the Life and Times of the Founder of the Roman 
Empire. London : Fisher Unwin, 1903. 

NIEBUHR : History of Rome, Vol. III. 
DURUY : History of Rome, Vol. III. 

MAURICE VANLAER : La Fin d'un Peuple. La depopulation de 1'Italie au temps 
d'Auguste. Paris : Ernest Thorin, 1895. 



JOURNALS AND OFFICIAL REPORTS. 

LA REVUE SOCIALISTS : September, 1896. 

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, March, 1908. 

REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFAN- 
TILE MORTALITY, June, 1906. Chairman, Evan Spicer, J.P., Chairman of 
the London County Council. Westminster : P. S. King and Son. 

REVUE D'ECONOMIE POLITIQUE, December, 1895. Fevrier, 1896. 
BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, London. Series. 
THE LANCET, London. Series. 

MEDICAL PRESS AND CIRCULAR, London. Series. 

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, Chicago. Series. 
REVUE POLITIQUE ET PARLEMENTAIRE. Paris : Octobre, 1906, et Juin, 1897. 
REVUE DES DEUX MONDES, Octobre, 1897. 

REPORT FROM THE SELECT COMMITTEE (House of Commons) ON INFANT LIFE 
PROTECTION. March, 1908. 

REPORT FROM THE JOINT SELECT COMMITTEE (Lords and Commons) ON THE 
POISONS AND PHARMACY BILL, May, 1908. 

REPORT FROM THE JOINT SELECT COMMITTEE ON LOTTERIES AND IN- 
DECENT ADVERTISEMENTS. July, 1908. 

JOURNAL DES ECONOMISTES, 15 Mai, 1895. 

LA REFORMS SOCIALE, Bulletin de la Societe d'Economie Sociale, 16 Dec., 1889 et 
1 Juin, 1891. 

WESTMINISTER GAZETTE, 26th August, 1908. 

LE JOURNAL DE PARIS, 7 Juin, 1908, 15 Novembre, 190& 

L'OPINION, 22nd August, 1908. 



xvm 

DIE NEUE FREIE PRESSE, Wien, Oct., 1908. 

LE JOURNAL DBS DEBATS, POLITIQUES ET LITTERAIRES, Paris, 29 August, 
1908. 

THE WORLD, London, 26 August, 1908. 

LA REVUE HEBDOMADAIRE, Paris. Series. 

THE DELINEATOR, Butterick Publishing Co., New York. 

The student may consult also the following supplementary list, but eome of the 
works he will find difficult, or actually impossible, to acquire. 

DES CILLEULS, A. : La Population. Paris, Lecoffre, 1902. 

COSTE, A. : La Loi de la Population. Rectification de la Theorie de Malthus. Paris : 
Guillaumin, 1901. 

GIDE, CHARLES : Principes d'Economie Politique. Ibid, 1902. 
GOTTSCHALK, Dr. : Valeur Scientifique de Malthusianisme. Paris : Stock, 1900-1902. 
JAVAL ET PAUL ROBIN, DBS. : Centre et pour le Neo-Malthusianisme. Ibid, 1897. 
LEUTNER, FERD. : Der Kampf urn Raum. Wien, 1882. 
LORIA, ACHILLE : La Morphologie Sociale. Paris : Giard et Briere, 1905. 
MABILLE, P. : La Loi de Malthus sur la Population. Dijon : Groffier, 1907. 
DE MOLINARI, G. : La Viriculture. Paris : Guillaumin, 1897. 
PIOT, EDME. : La Depopulation. Paris : Mouillot, 1902. 

RAMUS, PETER : William Godwin, der Theoritiker des Kommunistischen Anarchismus: 
Leipzig : F. Dietrich, 1906. 

SOETBEER : Die Stellung der Sozialisten zur Malthus' schen Bevolkerungslehre. Goet- 

tingen, 1886. 
TRENEY, XAVIER : Extraits des Economistes des XVIIIe et XIXe Siecles. Paris 

Quantin. 

TURGEON, CHARLES : Le Feminisme Frangais. Paris : Larose, 1907. 
GOUNARD, RENE : La Depopulation. Lyon, 1898. 
BROUARDEL, DE. : L' Infanticide. 

BAUDRILLART, DR. : Les Populations Agricoles de la France. 
CLEMENCEAU : La Melee Sociale. 

DAGAN, H. : Superstitions Politiques et Phenomenes Sociaux. 
GUYAU, M. : L'Irreligion de 1'Avenir. 
PORAK : Rapport a 1' Academic de Medecine, 1902. 
JOLLES : Die Aussichten der deutschen nationaloekonomischen Schriftsteller des 

sechszehnten & siebzehnten Jahrhunderts ueber Bevoelkerungswesen (Jahrbuch 

fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik, Jena, 1886). 

Of the literature in English upon Political Economy there is a whole Sahara, 
dismal and dry as dust. The impetus given by its exponents to Malthusianism induced 
the issue of a flood of pamphlets and books instructing in sexual irregularities. Some 
of these must of necessity be mentioned, but no list will here be given. Most if not all of 
them cite the leading Political Economists in recommending sexual frauds. 



RACIAL DECAY 



INTRODUCTION 



RACIAL DECAY. 



INTRODUCTION. 

1. Three years ago, a public officer called upon me and said : 

I wish to communicate facts which 1 conceive it my duty to impart to you as 
a Royal Commissioner charged with inquiry into secret preparations. They come 
before me in the course of my work. 

I have visited a factory where a row of boys are occupied making [certain 
articles which are sold by chemists for the prevention of conception]. They stand 
opposite blocks of ice in order that the preparations may be more quickly chilled, 
so as to be packed and sent out as required for orders. 

Q. Who packs these things in the cardboard boxes ? Girls or boys ? 

A. Boys. But near to the line of lads is a row of girls occupied at different 
work. 

Q. Who packs the abortifacient pills of savin and ergot that the same firm 
supplies ? Also the boys ? 

A. No, the girls pack these. But what I want to draw your attention to is 
this : Don't you consider that those girls are peculiarly liable to seduction, when 
they see in their daily occupation the supposed preventives of conception on the 
one hand, and the supposed " cure," in the case of " misfortune," on the other ? 

2. That officer is in the employ of the Government of the particular State where this 
everyday trade of our civilisation is carried on. There is nothing at all novel in it, and the 
narrative may seem to many quite pointless, because the traffic has been abundantly 
exposed in the Report of the New South Wales Royal Commission upon the Decline of 
the Birth-rate, and in the first volume of my own Report upon Secret Drugs. It does 
not appear that in England any report upon, or exposure of, these products has been deemed 
necessary, or that any intention has been manifested by Parliament in either country 
to inhibit their manufacture. 

3. The chief of a federal department was then requested to cause inquiry to be 
made through his officers as to the accuracy of the information. It was confirmed, as 
above related, and again corroborated by a lady in official position. The necessity to thus 
inquire at all would be to " the trade " anything but obvious, for " goods " cannot be 
on sale without firstly having been manufactured. Yet we thus arrive at the bed-rock 
of facts. 

4. Narrating this every-day phase of our commercial life to the editor of a London 
medical serial of the first rank, the physician replied with warmth, " It's seduction made 
easy." 

5. But by invitation of the physician of a London hospital for children, I met for 
an evening's discussion two of the medical officers of the great administrative departments 
in London, each being in a position of high responsibility. At the end of a very long and 
interesting conversation as to the control in Great Britain ot drugs, and more particularly 
of " preserved " and adulterated food-products, 1 preferred to the senior of the medical 
officers the question addressed to me by the Australian State official first mentioned. 

His reply was instantly, " But that's a perfectly legitimate business, the prepar- 
ation of ' preventive ' contrivances. It's as legitimate as the manufacture of ." 

(Another contrivance for the same purpose, invented in England). 



6. " What country is that factory in, which you have described ?" queried the 
physician. 

" In Australia, but it is only a department of an extensive concern. Now I 
know of a much larger factory in one of the Midland counties" (that of the original inventor). 

" All the same," said the authority, " it is a perfectly legitimate business. Don't 
you think so ?" turning to the other two. Both doctors signified complete assent ! 

7. These two articles are the things most commonly employed as preventives and 
are those referred to repeatedly in the evidence before the Joint Committee (Lord 
Beauchamp's). It is difficult to perceive why the sale of such " perfectly legitimate " 
articles of commerce, by descriptive circular to their wives, should have aroused the 
anger of " noblemen and labourers," as well as people of all other classes, unless they 
regarded the trade as an outrage. But that is exactly the word they applied to it. (Vide 
Division VII. Pars. 206 to 245 of that report.) 

8. The commerce is upon an '* enormous scale," as other public officials declared 
to the Joint Committee, but it might be more accurate to describe it as general and usual. 
It would be an unfortunate mistake to conclude that because there are many notorious 
shops in London (par. 1030) whose chief business is the sale of preparations for the 
prevention of pregnancy and the destruction of the foetus, that " respectable " dealers do 
not also supply them. The latter is precisely the case, for such merchandise is sold all 
over England by ordinary druggists just as in Australia and New Zealand. Ample evidence 
is supplied in the Report of the New South Wales Commission, and in Volume I. of this 
Report. (Vide pars. 1095, 1800 et seq.). 

9. In the First Division of my previous volume will be found a lengthy and detailed 
account of the drugs commonly used to induce abortion, together with the fatal results 
that follow upon that degrading crime. It is unnecessary to reproduce the evidence in 
extenso, but the statements in pars. 1405 e.s. upon authority, are the least that should be 
quoted. As the practice of child-prevention is upon an ever-widening scale in Anglo- 
Saxondom, and as we have it upon the declaration of the leading medical journals that 
the married woman who does not know of this practice, and of its methods, is now a rara 
avis, we must set forth the risks. It must be reiterated that these journals contain the 
authoritative communications of healers to one another. That fact should emphasise 
for us laymen the declarations. When they say that the consequences ought to be known 
to all that schools, colleges, and all other channels of instruction should educate the young 
in right conduct sexually, and warn against aberrations and incontinence, it does not, 
alas ! amount to publication. It is only mutual confirmation, informing the instructed. 
Because our daily and serial literature publishes nothing of it, so that the people remain 
in darkness and deception as before. 

10. It can surely be claimed, at least by a layman, that amongst the most clear- 
sighted, cautious, earnest and analytical minds in the quest for truth are those in the 
healing professions who apply themselves to research. It is asserted that they are, in 
general, Materialists. A brilliant statesman said to me recently, " I am sure if you could 
take a census of the physicians you would prove 70 or 80 per cent, of them to be Material- 
ists." It is a hasty generalisation and their modern writings contradict it. The same 
accusation could be made with equal confidence of electricians, or of ship-builders, and 
their writings would not contradict it. From dealings with the corporeal and the mental, 
healers appear to be forced or led to include the psychical and the moral. Such may be 
deduced from the extracts supplied within relating to the population question, although 
these have not been adduced with any such object. 

11. Theirs is a world to itself with its several departments, and it is fortunate for us 
and for all nations that, in various languages as shown herein, they declare to us our 
wrong-doing and our duty. It is not nearly enough, yet in essence and in most of the 



3 

detail the work of rescue from national decay that has been done was done by them. If 
it were eliminated there would be little left to say. Therefore their declarations are given, 
as far as possible, in full or in sum. 

12. Notwithstanding, it would be useless to deny or to ignore the fact that a number 
of persons with medical degrees in all parts of the civilised world, especially in Anglo- 
Saxondom, have advocated and still advocate artificial interferences to prevent or to 
destroy human lives in the early stages. We have some of their statements as quoted 
within, and we have Mrs. Besant's declaration that she kept in communication with such 
doctors " teachers " and that they recounted to her their " successes." 

13. Wherever I have travelled I have also found it a belief with " the laity " that 
medical men largely practice the crime of abortion and generally recommend small families. 
I have questioned these conclusions and have pointed to their official and representative 
journals, to the ethical control exercised by their associations, and have quoted the text- 
books and authorities that they recognise. But the belief remained unshaken, whilst 
names were mentioned to me as instances. This phenomenon is particularly set forth 
in the American book of which extracts are supplied in pars. 1595 et seq. The reader 
has his own experiences in this respect, whether by knowledge or by hearsay. None the 
less, but all the more is it an absolute duty to display the consequences of perverse teaching 
and practice. And largely, but by no means wholly, will the demonstration of the course 
of Nature and Nemesis depend upon the aforesaid medical authorities. 

14. The parallels of history so often adduced are not academic allusions with doubtful 
application to ourselves and to our day. It is the same human race affected in the same 
way by the same follies, vices, crimes and abominations as of old. And these are followed 
by the same vengeance. I therefore cite the actual words of historians and poets because 
of their incisive force and illuminating quality, while supplying simple translations without 
pretence to poetic effect. 

15. The design of the present book has been to present sufficient of any quoted 
writings to make clear the general intent, hence mere references obtained in public libraries 
would not suffice. The books must be procured and studied. 

16. It is an easier method of writing, and more usual, to present a continuous narrative 
or connected argument identifiable with the author, whilst stating the references in 
parentheses and foot-notes. For a text-book the method has this disadvantage, that if 
the author's individuality be rejected the first claim of destructive criticism the whole 
goes by the board. In the present as in the former volume, the reader is invited to ignore 
or set aside anything that rests solely upon the author, and to regard only that which is 
authentic and authoritative. One may even take bricks out of a building and leave it as 
strong as before. 

17. Certainly there is trouble in compiling, but there is much also in closing down, 
in passing by corroborative evidence. That must be noticeable when it is seen how little 
is herein extracted from the literary mines of LEVASSETJR, of ABSENE DUMONT, and of the 
French Commission. But enough is given to express at least the weight of authority, to 
which the present writer could add nothing. When we cross a bridge we rarely know of 
the architect, nor would his name add aught to the utility. 

18. Wherever the word [Translation] appears in brackets the rendering is my own, 
and every care and patience has been exercised to give the correct meaning and strength. 
In all cases where works in foreign languages are quoted the translation is mine, unless 
specifically indicated as being from an authorised English rendering and the translator's 
name be supplied. 

19. The whole work in all departments I have preferred to do alone, as in the case 
of the first volume, without secretarial assistance of any kind. The graphs I have also 
prepared and have made the calculations for them, these being finally checked, at my 
request, by Mr. J. B. TKIVETT, Government Statistician of New South Wales. 



20. In acquiring the bibliography I found, at first, nothing to guide. It is easy to 
read such a list and then procure most of the books. The only method was firstly to obtain 
some by search, which I made in England, France, Germany and America upon two 
separate journeys, and from volumes thus acquired to endeavour to exhaust the authors' 
respective bibliographies. But no single bookseller, or even several, will undertake to 
procure them unless actual sources be indicated. 

21. MESSRS. BRENTANO, in the Avenue de 1' Opera, Paris, kindly informed me where 
I could probably obtain some of these works upon depopulation. In booksellers' shops 
on the Quai Voltaire, in the Quartier Latin and elsewhere, I was able finally to procure 
some yards in thickness. 

22. But in London, Paris, Berlin and Leipzig I found it would not do to take no for 
an answer. To get such things without going for them, and then insisting, would be 
impossible. Of this the most curious instance was the difficulty in obtaining the Rapports 
of the great Commission Extra- Parlementaire of France. First learning of its existence 
by an allusion in an article in " L'Opinion," I tried the Imprimerie Nationale. They 
knew nothing of the Comptes Rendus. My London booksellers and their Paris agents 
failed completely to get a trace. A copy of three of these Rapports had strayed into the 
possession of a second-hand bookseller on the Quai Voltaire where I found them, and 
they bore the imprint " Imprimerie Melun." 

23. I was assisted, through old personal friendship with an official, by a foreign 
Embassy, but their willing efforts were unsuccessful. At the same time I requested another 
friend, who is a prominent industrial in the City of Paris, to desire his acquaintances in 
the Chambre des Deputes to procure the series. I felt sure of getting them and returned 
to London, where to my amazement and discomfiture the letter came of which a fac-simile 
is below, names omitted. It declares only too eloquently, how wholly ineffectual the 
efforts of these 75 eminent and patriotic men have been for the salvation of France. My 
friend informed me also that he had searched Paris for the " Imprimerie Melun," had 
even searched Melun itself, and had failed to find such an office. Afterwards we discovered 
that the papers had been printed in the great prison of Melun. 



Ctt&MBRJB 



IL octet*. 



ex^ 




4 




c<P(ASU. 



Z&M4 






y 



3 






6 

[TRANSLATION.] 

Your client has been wrongly informed. No Report whatever upon Depopulation has been 
deposited in the Chamber, and I have in vain sought for the Commission which is said to have been 
charged with the study of this question. Neither my colleagues, nor the officers of the House whom 
I have questioned, have had knowledge of a Report such as that you desire. 

Is it not a matter of a proposition ? In that case it would be necessary to give me the name 
of the mover, and I should make it a pleasure to transmit it to you. 



25. In the end, through the courtesy of the London Home Office, a complete set of 
these Rapports was supplied to me upon loan. They were apparently only proof copies. 
I was then enabled to study at leisure and at length the invaluable record. After examin- 
ation and some citation I returned the books. 

26. From the firm PUTTKAMMER AND MUEHLBBECHT, Franzosischerstrasse, Berlin, 
the official publishers to the Imperial Geiman Government, I received much courtesy and 
some of the literature that was required. In other German cities the remainder was pro- 
cured, but it is not so extensive as the French, whilst the English is small indeed. By 
that is meant books, pamphlets and articles upon the fact of, and the remedy for, depopu- 
lation. But one could get a cart-load of printed matter in English relating to, and coun- 
selling, sexual frauds and limitation of families. In answer to a note of inquiry, Dr. S. 
SQUIRE SPRIGGE, editor of " The Lancet," wrote to me on 21st July, 1908 : 

27. The English literature upon the subject of depopulation is very scanty. Our 
people axe not yet aware of the extent to which their fertility has ceased. 

28. From first to last my aim has been to prepare an exhaustive compilation of 
authorities so as to present a complete statement of the decay that has attacked our 
Anglo-Saxon race, to which my own ancestors belonged, as our family records show, for 
at least many centuries. It would be possible to present, in the manner of M. JACQUES 
BERTILLON or of the late M. ARSENE DUMONT, a series of observations and anecdotes, 
collected from a thousand sources, of the current phenomena of the decline. But I 
have preferred to suppress any natural desire for originality, to relinquish any claim to 
formulate a " law," to propound either a new remedy or a prophylactic. The whole 
retrogression is of a character old as history, and older, whilst there is no cure nor 
prophylaxis that is not embraced by the oldest formulae. The one cause is that which 
made Cain slay Abel, in the ancient poem or narrative selfishness. The one cure is 
social affection and self-denial. 

29. There is no corner for such a conclusion in that pseudo-science, Political 
Economy, which has been defined as " enlightened selfishness." The nation will not be 
saved by any scheme to turn children into Economic Assets. Hence we are driven to 
examine this modern science falsely so called from the inside, and to trace out its 
effects upon our own race in particular. It is inseparable from the investigation. Oikos 
meant a house, nomos a law. Hence economy meant household laws (Wirthschaft), 
and it becomes our duty to show how little could the core and essence of the " dismal 
science " agree with family life. Nevertheless the National- Oekonomie or Volkswirth- 
schaft of our German cousins may and does fall into natural accord with family law 
and life, with the " mores Germanicorum " of Tacitus' time. The great lesson to be 
learned is that the strength of a nation resides in the family and the home, whilst corruption 
of the family means national decay. We may alone reconcile politics and home 
law upon the basis of SPINOZA'S dictum, which I have chosen as a motto : Homini nihil 
utilius homine there is nothing more advantageous to mankind than man. 

30. The present volume consists of seven parts. The First Division deals with 
the Malthusian Apostasy, a history of the open advocacy of child-restriction as a racial 
practice, together with its adoption as the central idea of the " science " of Political 
Economy. 



31. The Second Division treats of the Example of France, and enables us to set 
forth at length the truly philosophic presentation of the subject by a galaxy of eminent 
French authors and demographers. 

32. The Third Division gives a synoptical view of the work of the Commission Extra- 
Parlementaire sur la Depopulation de la France, appointed by the administration of 
M. WALDECK-ROUSSEAU. My own is the first and only precis or account of it that has 
been published. Upon it were engaged seventy-five of the most learned men of France, 
forming the strongest public commission that has yet been, or is ever likely to be, charged 
with such an inquiry. 

33. The Fourth Division displays the opinions and observations of accepted authorities 
in both hemispheres upon the Pathologic Consequences of Sexual Frauds. Here it should 
be said at once that those who expect details to excite or to sate prurience had better 
instead spend a few shillings in obtaining the books which teach such frauds in detail. 
They are regularly advertised and sold, as well as carried by His Majesty's mails all the 
time. Photographic copies of these advertisements are supplied in my former volume, 
whilst that traffic in flagrant and flaunting iniquity is tolerated by our Governments. 
It is even encouraged by them, for State announcements appear side by side with those 
of the filthiest literature, old and new, which pornographers can print upon paper. Nothing 
will be found in this division but some account of the varied vengeance taken by Nature 
upon persons, families, and nations who outrage her iron law. 

34. The Fifth Division sets forth in graphic and tabular form The Progress of Decay. 

35. In the Sixth Division I have attempted to portray the Parallel of Ancient Rome, 
so often casually cited by writers upon depopulation. It is an inadequate presentation, 
especially so in relation to the towering genius, unshaken resolve, and admirable example 
of OCTAVIUS CJESAR AUGUSTUS. In so narrow a space it is impossible to convey a just 
idea of the laws, life, and peaceful reign, lasting 58 years, of him who was designated by 
unanimous vote of an adoring parliament and people, " Father of His Country." Nor 
of the " material progress " the incredible accretion of riches and the apparent increase 
of population, during a time of decadence and decay. 

36. The Seventh Division alludes to the Position of Parliament and the Churches, 
in relation to racial decline. 

37. It is not claimed that the position of the Churches is exhaustively shown by 
the authorities adduced, but it is fairly indicated. Neither can it be admitted straight 
off, that foreign missions are to be decried because we do not cleanse the inside of our 
own cup and platter, as so often the sneer is offered by persons who take no part in either 
work. It is probable that those who wish to share their enlightenment and happiness 
with less fortunate nations, braving disease and death in doing it, are just the very people 
who uphold Christian principles in their vital meaning now, as did their forerunners 
between the reigns of Tiberius and Constantine. 

38. It is a false deduction and a grievous error to conclude that by the sweeping 
process of artificial selection now proceeding, the inferior elements only of the population 
will be left. Although as shown with much elaboration herein there is a pronounced 
tendency, by retaining the early-born and cutting off the cadets, to increase the proportion 
of enfeebled as against strong children, of diseased and predisposed as against the healthy 
and immune it must not be overlooked that in a high proportion undesirables are being 
eliminated definitely. Those who are devoid of, or defective in, natural affection ; those 
who do not desire babies and will not suckle them, place their offspring under disadvantages 
which we show later arithmetically to be anything from 400 to 1000 per cent, greater 
than those of breast-fed children. Let us regard such people as a class, not socially, 
but demographically and apart from all other considerations. They are loaded with 
a hopeless handicap, and all the time some of them are dropping into extinction. Of 
course nothing need be said of those couples who refuse to have any children. Theirs 
is family suicide. 



8 

39. It is a wholly unsupported conclusion that the children of poorer persons are 

necessarily inferior in quality on the average to those of the rich. It is indeed often 
the case where the mothers are robbed of the opportunity to nurse, and where young children 
are denied suitable nourishment. These are purely artificial, not natural, disadvantages 
which laws can cure if we choose to vote them. It has been done and can be done again, 
Political Economy to the contrary. 

*40. That which follows from a strengthening of personal and religious obligation 

is now, has always been, and therefore will remain a stronger and more immune posterity. 
The normal-living remnant that is being saved, that can and will be saved from the flood, 
tends to a higher and not to a lower type. 

41. The inculcation therefore of the Churches with all imperfections, and whether 
Christian or Jewish is from life unto life, and will bear instant fruit if it be only bold 
and honest in the doctrine of MOSES or of JESUS. The other teaching is inevitably from 
death unto death. And that inculcation has the earnest and ceaseless urging of the 
medical profession, as proved from its own undisputed authorities. 

42. It is claimed herein that parliament is the conscience of the people, whence 
its laws must represent the principles of the nation. It cannot be denied that the Supreme 
Court of New South Wales expressly sanctioned the publication of Mrs. Besant's pamphlet 
upon the restriction of families by artificial interferences with the sexual functions. 
That book explains with unreserve the chemical agents and the mechanical contiivances 
for the destruction of the human germ, how they are to be prepared and used, together 
with urgent advocacy of the lessening of Anglo-Saxon reproduction. 

43. Neither can it be denied that in the trade newspapers issued to chemists and 
druggists throughout the British Empire, and carried by our mails, are contained full- 
page advertisements with a picture of the spermatocidal contrivance which is in all places 
stocked and sold. The advertisement declares, as a warning to imitators, that the High 
Courts of Judicature in Great Britain have issued several injunctions against imitators, 
and that the trade mark is registered in Great Britain, Australia, India and The Cape. 
The things professedly contain a drug poisonous and deadly to the human germ. They 
have no other use or object than destruction of the transmitted life-principle. Nor is 
any other use or object professed for them by the manufacturers. The evidence before 
the Select Committee of the British Parliament is that such things have " an enormous 
sale" (Rep., par. 232). That is the state of law and practice which history must here- 
after record as existing in Anglo-Saxondom at the beginning of the twentieth century, 
whilst British parliaments remained supine. 

44. Although Tacitus said that a thoroughly corrupt state has the most laws 
(corruptissima republica plurimse leges) a people desiring to preserve the vigour of its 
vitality will make laws to that end. They need to be few, simple, and forcibly adminis- 
tered. But where a nation grants free trade in secret drugs, and allows poisoning of 
family life at its source ; where it seeks to reconcile that with national development, 
it will have laws as numerous as they are futile. 

45. With the single exception of Mr. THEODORE ROOSEVELT it must have been 
observed by the reader that no statesman in Anglo-Saxondom, through his speeches or 
writings, appears to attribute importance to decline in reproduction of the race. In 
Germany, where the actual margin of gain is ever augmenting until it has reached the fine 
figure of nearly a million a year, keen interest is taken by monarch and people in the fact 
that the percentage ratio diminishes. If the border-line of extinction be taken at a 
birth-rate of 21 per 1000 of population, and as England has a rate of 26 whilst Germany 
has a rate of 33, the latter has 140 per cent, (as 12 to 5) more racial vitality than 
England. This is apart from national movements towards preservation of vitality, which 
are quite without match in England or her colonies. 



46. Discussing the question in London with a statesman who has more than once 
been a cabinet minister, he said : " Yes, there's no doubt it's a very serious matter, but 
I have faith that somehow we'll blunder through this difficulty, same as we've blundered 
through others." That abiding faith would be pathetic if it were not ridiculous. In 
war we may indeed have blundered through, because the other side being human also 
blundered, but when it comes to sheer arithmetic, blunders never helped, nor ever will. 
In that at the very least Nature makes no mistakes. 

47. The first volume of the present work was presented as a report under the Royal 
Commission, of which a copy appears at the end hereof. The execution of the duty 
required much travelling and difficult collation. The whole of the expenses, large and 
small journeys, services, purchases, fees, postages, stationery were at my own cost, 
and it was claimed by some members of Parliament that I ought to pay for the printing 
also. Even the distribution of the books afterwards was at my private expense, costing 
over half-a-crown each. 

48. It is merely what a practising physician submits to every day of his life, because 
in the sphere of public health and decency it is what is expected. Therefore a layman 
must also reckon upon it from the start. Mention is made in order to show the difficulty 
in causing the truth regarding their most vital interests to penetrate to the Anglo-Saxon 
people. In Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Scandinavia the case is quite different. 
It is a part of the duty of certain civil functionaries to keep the public informed of their 
danger. A number of such notifications I have translated and supplied in Vol. I. What 
some of these dangers are, will be understood if the reader will peruse that portion of the 
Report of the Joint Select Committee of the British Parliament contained herein. Of 
such Reports the general public sees and knows nothing. 

49. In my precis of the proceedings of the great French Commission will be seen how 
bitterly the President of the Academy of Moral Sciences and other distinguished men 
of the Commission feel their helplessness to bring the truths home, after their loyal 
and gratuitous labours. It is a great victory for the principle of evil. A patriotic 
French physician (par. 972), stricken as he is with physical blindness, offered eagerly 
to dip into his savings so as to provide the few hundred pounds necessary for the printing 
of the noble writings of his colleagues, under the Commission, upon improvement in the 
care of children, the extension and preservation of child-life, together with protection to 
child-bearing women and to the unborn. But, as we see, the offer was declined by the 
Government, so that even the members of the Commission not discharged to this hour, 
though not convened for years cannot have a copy of their own costless yet priceless 
work. 

50. The members of the New South Wales Royal Commission, of whom I was one, 
did not receive a copy of their own Report. Only twelve copies of the voluminous and 
unique evidence were printed, but promptly suppressed by the Government of the day. 
Merely a very general report was issued, at a prohibitive price. The evidence was all 
upon oath, at first hand, and in detail. A copy in private hands is always available to 
myself. The traffic carried on by the criminals exposed by it was checked a little for the 
time, as might be expected. But the same persons and shops sell the same iniquities 
as before, only on an extended scale. The articles are homicidal to both women and off- 
spring, as abundantly set forth by photographic and typographic representation in Vol. 
I. of my own report. Nothing of that kind will appear herein. 

51: Some attention has been drawn in a slight and ineffective way by magazirfe 

articles to the " cessation of fertility," or more correctly, of fecundity. They are usually 
sets of opinions accompanied by guesses and prophecies, rarely or never by an array of 
demographic data in unbreakable phalanx. For that reason, or perhaps through sheer 
indifference, legislators and citizens treat the whole subject of Malthusian practices and 
racial decline with levity and jocularity. We hear it in speech and we read it in the daily 
journals. 



10 

52. True as it is, however, that " nations like individuals are mortal," there is 
assuredly an important proportion of the British people to whom the facts of decadence, 
once demonstrated, will make strong appeal. For them not specially for Australia 
this work has been in chief undertaken, without other hope of acceptance, and that 
measure of acceptance is the sole possible reward. Beyond that, there is humanity and 
posterity, to whom this laborious compilation is offered. Finally, there is nothing claimed 
by the writer more than a very long training for the work, several years' practice within 
the work, industry bounded only by the limits of a sound physical eye-sight, with an earnest 
desire throughout to present complete authoritative evidence, from world-sources, upon 
the deepest and gravest of subjects. 

53. I conclude this Introduction by quoting the words of CORNELIUS TACITUS : 

" Exsequi sententias haud institui nisi insignes per honestum aut notabili 
dedecore, quod praecipuum munus annalium reor, ne virtutes sileantur, utque pravis 
dictis factisque ex posteritate et infamia metus sit." (Annal : iii., 65.) 

Which may be rendered thus : I have by no means undertaken to set forth 
men's purposes unless they be distinguished by morality or notorious shame ; for what 
I hold to be the pre-eminent function of history is that moral excellences sink not into 
oblivion, and that base words and deeds shall dread the execration of posterity. 



NOTES UPON THE TEXT. 

DEMOGRAPHY : Meyer's Lexikon (Vol. IV., page 630) supplies the following definition : 

Demographic (demos, Volk, und zwar das Volk in Beziehung zum Staat, im Gegensatze zu 
ethnos, d.h. dem Volk betrachtet in Bezug auf die Abstammung und ohne Riicksicht auf Staate- 
angehorigkeit). Wissenschaften vom Volk. Unter Demographic wird die einfache Beschreibung 
des Volkes verstanden. RIMELIN fasst sie als Volks-und Staatenkunde auf, also als gleichbedeutend 
mit der beschreibenden Richtung der Statistik im Gegensatze zu der mathematischen. 

Those clarifying contrasts are liable to confuse the reader. We may define it more simply thus : 
Demography is statistical writing upon the people in relation to the civil state. By " civil state " is to be 
understood etat civil, i.e., births, deaths and marriages, their enumeration and comparison. 

Throughout my own text the word fertility must be read as meaning the capacity of women to bear 
children, by the proof of actual production. The word fecundity must be read as meaning the capacity to 
produce more children than one, proved by production. A plant, an animal, a woman, may be fertile without 
being fecund. The N.S.W. Royal Commission used the words in senses opposite to the above. Some 
demographers have done the same. In an article of " The Journal of the Royal Statistical Society," by 
Dr. Reginald Dudfield, 31st March, 1908, " Some unconsidered factors affecting the birth-rate," still a different 
meaning is given, thus : 

" The distinction between fecundity and fertility is one of quality versus quantity. Fecundity 
is measured by the frequency of pregnancy, fertility by the absolute number of the progeny." 

In the French language the word fecondite serves both purposes, which is not convenient. In 
German there is the word fruchtbar fertile or fecund ; hence Fruchtbarkeit- fertility, fecundity, prolificacy. 
If it be said in English that a plant is infertile, the meaning is that it produces no seed. If it be said of a 
seed-corn that it is infertile, the meaning is that it will not grow at all. But if a plant produce much seed 
or an animal much progeny, we speak of its fecundity. Hence the current meanings are herein adhered to. 

Accents. The reader is asked to overlook the absence of accents in French words where capital 
letters or thick type are employed. 



DIVISION I. 



GENESIS OF THE CARCINOMA 



13 



GENESIS OF THE CARCINOMA. 



MALTHUS AND MANCHESTER. 

54. To comprehension of the subject it is essential to trace the origin of the disease in 
our national life, to find out its first point of departure, and to estimate the causes of 
its provocation. It is no new malady, for other nations have died of it whose history 
remains to us, and like cancer in the individual, it is probably old as the race itself. Not 
all nations have so perished, as history also tells, and others persist in health from a remote 
and obscure past. We have to search no musty and doubtful records ; less than a century 
suffices for the whole story of the trouble. Less than a generation since, the disorder 
became recognisable as carcinoma. 

55. " Our nation," the idea of " our country," has been called an abstraction, but to 
civilised man it becomes a very real entity when he fights to preserve it, or else submits 
to foreign levy and subjugation. We speak of the nation as a body, whilst it has also a 
mind and a conscience. It can be physically enervated, mentally disordered, or psycho- 
logically corrupted just like an individual. Part can be sound and part sick. As with 
a single person, there may be forces of destruction and reparation, of attack and resistance. 
All that is expressed in the sacred writings of the ancients, for it is ever Ormuzd against 
Ahriman or Michael fighting Satan. 

56. We begin by permitting a high French authority to state the case for child prevention 
without the necessity of following the devious arguments of the founders of " Malthusian- 
ism." We may leave to them the whole field of logic, but we are bound to deny their 
axioms, to expose the failure of their forecasts and to place the facts of nature opposite 
to their conclusions. We shall place precept and practice side by side, and all upon au- 
thority. There shall be no novelty, no originality. We shall invent no " progressions," 
discover no new " laws." The most ancient maxims and the oldest discoverable experiences 
of mankind shall suffice. We shall take as guiding principles primordial truths and only 
seek to reassert antique perceptions of the relation of man to his Creator. 

57. Through the writings of foreign authors, whether Malthusian or not, we may some- 
times obtain a better view of our own position and see ourselves as others see us. Therefore 
the chief work of an acknowledged leader in Political Economy in France is first selected. 



THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION, 

By JOSEPH GAENIEB, Member of the Institute, preceded by an Introduction by 
G. DE MOLINAEI, Correspondent of the Institute. 

58. The motto upon the cover is : " It depends upon man whether the growth of popula- 
tion brings progress or misery." 

This book of 615 pages is the chief exposition in French of the doctrines of Mai thus, 
which have had so lamentable an influence upon the Gallic nation in the first place and 
upon the English people who can claim the doubtful honour of originating and of pro- 
mulgating this remarkable " gospel " in the second. 
B 



14 

59. The French were the first to accept it, for the seed-bed was earliest prepared. But 
in England the cult had prophets, JAMES MILL (1), his son and disciple JOHN STUART 
MILL, JOHN RAMSAY MACCULLOCH (2), DAVID RICARDO (3), DR. THOMAS CHALMERS (4), 
all these names with others being adduced by GARNIER (page 248), and many quotations 
are supplied from their writings. He says " The ideas of Malthus have been professed 
and defended by most modern Economists." 

60. They are identified with, and have been pronounced essential principles by the leaders 
of the Manchester School, to whom must be allowed all the credit of the propaganda, 
from ADAM SMITH through Thomas Malthus himself and the Economist hierarchy generally, 
down to the present hour. 

61. The whole teaching of Malthus is often summed up in two words, " conjugal prudence," 
or " moral restraint," for nowhere does that clergyman indicate sexual interferences, 
either by mechanical, chemical or other means. But Garnier, the Malthusian leagues, 
and a host of writers, preachers and teachers have applied the principles of Malthus to 
those manoeuvres which are to eliminate conception or to destroy the foetus, for the two 
practices are complementary. To the former of these proceedings DR. L. BERGERET, in 
his celebrated work, gave the name " genesic frauds " or " conjugal frauds." Even the 
third alternative, infanticide, is not without its advocates amongst them, as will be seen 
herein from their own authorities. The admitted object of all these teachings may again 
be summed in two words " child restriction." 

62. Gamier s masterpiece was written in the year 1857, when the number of births in 
France was 26 per 1000 of population. The deathrate in 1854 and 1855 had shown a 
deficit in the natural growth. That is to say, in every million of the population there were, 

(1) LESLIE STEPHEN. " The English Utilitarians," Vol. II., p. 39. London. Duckworth, 1900. 

James Mill had no feeling for the poetical or literary side of things ; and regarded life, it would 
seem, as a series of arguments, in which people were to be constrained by logic, not persuaded by 
sympathy. He seems to have despised poor Mrs. Mill [by whom the great leader of Economists had 
nine children] and to have been unsuccessful in concealing his contempt, though in his letters he refers 
to her respectfully. Mill therefore was a man little likely to win the hearts of his followers, though 

his remarkable vigour of mind dominated their understandings He succeeded beyond 

all dispute in forcibly presenting one set of views which profoundly influenced his countrymen ; and 
the narrowness of his intellect enabled him to plant his blows more effectively. 

(2) Of MACCULLOCH it is said : 

It must be admitted that his treatment of the subjects with which he dealt is not marked by 
any special breadth or elevation. He adopted too hastily the theoretical exaggerations of some 
of ADAM SMITH'S successors, and exhibited in full measure their habitual deadness in the study of 
social questions to all but material considerations. (J. K. INGRAM, LL.D., Librarian to Trinity 
College, Dublin). 

(3) DAVID RICARDO, Member of the House of Commons and of the London Stock Exchange, Economist : 

For any large treatment of moral and political questions RICARPO seems to have been alike 
by preparation and nature unfitted ; and there is no evidence of his having had any but the most 
ordinary and narrow views of the great social problems. His whole conception of human society 
is material and mechanical, the selfish principle being regarded after the manner of the Benthamites, 
as omnipotent not merely in practical economy, but, as appears from his speech on the ballot 
and his tract on reform, the whole extent of the social field. ROSCHER calls him " ein tiefer 
Menschenkenner " [one possessing deep knowledge of mankind] ; it would be difficult to characterise 
him more inaptly. Roscher remarks on his " capitalistic " tone, which, he says, becomes 
" mammonistic " in some of his followers ; but the latter spirit is felt as the pervading atmosphere 
of Ricardo's works. . . . We ought perhaps, with HELD, to regard it as a merit in Ricardo 
that he does not cover with fine phrases his deficiency in warmth of social sentiment. The idea 
of the active capitalist having any duty towards his employees never seems to occur to him ; the 
labourer is in fact merely an instrument in the hands of the capitalist, a pawn in the game. Ricardo'a 
principal work is the ultimate expression of what AUGUSTS COMTE calls " I'ignoble metaphysique 
qui pretend etudier les lois generales de 1'ordre materiel en 1'isolant de toute autre " [that base 
metaphysics which claims to study general laws of the material order whilst separating it from every 
other order]. Against such a picture of industrial life as a mere sordid struggle of conflicting interests, 
contemporary Socialism is a necessary, though formidable, protest ; and the leaders of that move- 
ment have eagerly seiz d his one- sided doctrines and used them for their own ends. (J. K. JNQRAM, 
LL.D., Encyc. Britt., Vol. 20, 535). 

(4) Of DOCTOR THOMAS CHALMERS it was remarked that " He was more Malthusian than MalthuB." 
LESLIK STEPHEN, " The English Utilitarians " (page 246), London. Duckworth and Co., 1900. 



15 

in the former twelve months, 1900 more deaths than births, and in the latter, 1000 mora 
deaths than births. The number of children born there and then was at the same rate 
as in Australia and Great Britain now, but the margin of increase for several years had 
been extremely small. It was rather curious that Gamier should have chosen such a 
mission, or such a time, to spread the Manchester doctrines in general and the Malthusian 
part in particular, but he did both with most gratifying success. The seed-bed was ready 
in France, as was that of England twenty years later, when the first meeting of the Malthu- 
sian League, founded by CHARLES BRADLATJGH and ANNIE BESANT, was held in London 
in the Hall of Science, Old Street, 17th July, 1877. They were both epoch-making events, 
for then the poisonous plant took root, whose effect has brought the former nation actually 
to the period of dissolution, and has deeply, perhaps also fatally, spread disease through 
the fibres of our own people. 

63. Joseph Gamier was a prolific writer of the School of Political Economy, for there is 
only one school, one exclusive orthodoxy, in that which is called the " dismal science." 
He was the first and the chief editor of the " Journal des Economistes," and founder of 
the influential institution known as the Societe d' Economie Politique. To quote the 
words of M. G. DE MOLINARI, who was also an eminent exponent and followed Gamier as 
editor, " The success of his ' Dictionary of Commerce and Merchandise,' which contained 
numerous articles of the Economist teaching, encouraged him to undertake a publication 
which interested economic science more directly still. This was the ' Collection of the 
Principal Economists,' QTJESNAY and the Physiocrats, TTJRGOT (*), ADAM SMITH, MALTHTJS, 
RICARDO, JEAN BAPTISTS SAY, and others. He also undertook, in collaboration with 
Rossi, the publication of Malthus' works." 

64: Quesnay was the hasty savant who publicly announced his discovery of the quadrature 
of the circle. He did not discover it, of course, any more than his followers down to our 
day have discovered the cure for poverty, however confidently they have announced 
child-prevention as such, and still persist in announcing it as the complement of their 
theories this doctrine of Malthus. " Joseph Gamier, partisan as he was of social reforms 
in all that they contained of that which was legitimate and beneficent, was the adversary, 
the most resolute enemy, of Socialism" (de Molinari). The three phrases of socialist doctrine 
that received this lifelong enmity, and the lash of his literary whip, were (i) the right 
of the child to sustenance, (ii) the Droit au Travail, or right to claim work from the 
State, (iii) necessity of provision for the aged poor by public and private beneficence, 
or both. Germany has never been under Socialistic rule, yet all three claims are not only 
allowed, but there is daily enforcement of them by the State itself. 

65. The whole principle of laissez faire, laissez passer the very phrase is claimed by " the 
school of Political Economists " is the vehicle, the solvent, by which the poison above 
mentioned is spread. Let people grasp what they like, sell what they like, do what they 
like. Let them keep open shops to sell anti-conceptional preparations and instruments 
to pander to sexual abnormalities, as such articles are seen every day in the most central 
and prominent thoroughfares of London and of Paris. Books of instructions how to apply 
these things are advertised in newspapers, in railway and other journals under the control of 
members of Parliament, as shown in Volume I., and as denounced by the medical journals 
quoted therein. 

66. Abortifacient nostrums are sold universally ; fraudulent nostrums, condemned as such 
by the Courts of the British realm, including a High Court of Appeal, are sold and adver- 
tised exactly as before their exposure. And the State of Great Britain still receives its 
share, every day, in ever-increasing volume, upon those individual and identical swindles 

(*) TUBGOT said : " En tout genre de travail, il doit arriver et il arrive que le salaire de 1'ouvrier 
ee borne a ce qui est necessaire pour se procurer sa subsistance." [In every department of labour, it is bound 
to happen, and it does happen, that the wages of the worker are limited to that which is necessary to procure 
his subsistence]. 

If it be really so it is clear that celibate workers, male and female, must freeze out the married, and 
therefore atop procreation of the race. To that conclusion the much trusted argumentative faculty inevitably 
leads. 



16 

which its judiciary have officially declared to be swindles. That is laissez faire, laissez 
passer, and the wrong must be requited, for " alle Schuld racht sich auf Erden," all 
guilt avenges itself here below. These, which are not the worst phases nor even the 
ugliest symptoms and proofs of decay, justify the remark of Lord Beauchamp, member 
of the present Administration : " The evil seems to me one of such great magnitude 
that it needs more drastic treatment than that which any single nation can apply." 

67. We have it upon authority (La Depopulation en France, Henry Clement) that " The 
first to signalise the peril was M. LEONCE DE LAVERGNE, apropos of the census of 1856. 
From the time of the Restoration until 1846 the average general increase of the population 
was about 200,000 inhabitants. From 1846 to 1856, it had faUen to 60,000." Checking 
that statement by the French tables we find that whilst the average of those years was 
not so high as 200,000, the annual increase sometimes exceeded the figure, so that the 
essential truth of the potentiality, at least, is vindicated. But again recalling the fact 
of actual and serious deficit in births below deaths for two consecutive years, just before 
the introduction to France by Joseph Garnier of the English doctrines of Political Economy 
with that of Malthus as its centre, our conception of the infinite gullibility of man, once 
he departs from moral principles, is enlarged. To their everlasting credit, whatever 
were their mistakes or defects, the then Socialist school scouted and scorned the whole 
proposition. Right or wrong, they demanded regimentation to use HUXLEY'S word 
the exact opposite of laissez faire, laissez passer. The contumely was returned by the 
Economists with interest, when the Socialists insisted upon equality of opportunity and 
the right to work more properly, perhaps, the right to earn. In these claims the Roman 
Church was absolutely with them, whilst declaring against the communistic princip 1 ^, 
and both Socialists and Catholics, assisted by neutrals such as the healing professions, 
condemned the inculcation upon the part of the Economists of conjugal vice. In so far 
as the Malthusian teaching is concerned, as developed by the Malthusian leagues, complete 
victory is on its side, and death now triumphs in France definitively over birth. Once 
more in history shall life be swallowed up of mortality reversal of the Apostolic promise. 

68. France and England accepted and put in practice the " Manchester doctrine," but 
Germany and others rejected it. When PRINCE VON BULOW used the words as quoted in 
Volume I. (par. 1108) "We have conquered the Manchester doctrine," that was as a national 
and not as a party claim. Neither the Social-Democratic nor any other party would 
contradict him there, unless indeed they could not agree that it was sufficiently conquered. 
The opposite view to that of the Manchester school is contained in the words of HEGEL, 
" Ths State is the realisation of the moral idea of the nation." Otherwise put, it is the 
national conscience, it should constitute the restraining principle against immorality 
and be the principle which encourages morality. Throughout this Report, in both volumes, 
the word immorality is nowhere used to define, nor to apply specially to, mere sexual 
promiscuity. That is bad enough and racially injurious, but is in the latter regard not 
so destructive, depraving, annihilating as conjugal fraudulence the very vice which has 
been upheld as a virtue by prominent apostles of the Manchester school. 

69. The Introduction was written by G. de Molinari, and deals at length with the influence 
of Malthus, " whose prime impulse was to oppose those (Socialists) who advocated (page 
ix.) the replacement of aristocratic institutions by a regime of popular government in 
order to cure in an instantaneous manner the ills of society. They attributed moral evil 
and the evils of mankind to the vices of government," and so forth. It can hardly be 
disputed that there is a great deal to be said in support of such an obvious claim, though 
overstated perhaps by the Socialists ; and a good deal was said, in persuasive manner, by 
many social and Socialistic writers, GODWIN and others. 

(TRANSLATION). 

70. " This thesis a young disciple of Adam Smith," says Molinari, " undertook to 
refute. He was a minister of the gospel, curate in an English village, THOMAS 
ROBERT MALTHUS, and on this occasion he was led to study the laws of population, 



17 

arding himself by the researches of his predecessors. Malthus himself says ' It 
was a writing of Godwin an " Essay upon Avarice and Prodigality " which put 
the pen in my hand, as I have announced in my preface. I followed the impression 
of a moment and I employed the materials that I had within my reach ; Hume, 
Wallace and Adam Smith were my guides. Their works are the only ones which 
have aided me in developing the principle to which I have attached myself.' " 
71. At first published without the author's name, and when the French revolution 
occupied general attention (1798) his work remained ignored and the first edition took 
five years to run off. But from the date of the second, the success was rapidly 
accentuated. Editions, continually enlarged and improved, succeeded one another 
quickly. Violently attacked and insulted by Socialists of all the schools, not for- 
getting a number of devout people, and not less actively defended by the Malthusian 
Economists, the author of the "Essay upon the Principle of Population " acquired 
a universal celebrity. What was it that caused this resounding success ? What 
did his book contain to excite to such a degree the fury of some and to merit its 
adoption as a sort of gospel by the others ? It contained above all an energetic 
vindication of individual responsibility. The ills which Godwin attributed to the 
vices of governments, Malthus mputed principally to the wrong employment of 
the liberty of individuals, to ignorance, to improvidence, to lack of perception, 
and to the intellectual and moral defects which vitiate the government of the 
individual by himself. He further attributed the ills to the deceptive encouragement 
that laws and philanthropic practices, irreflective and imprudent, gave to improvi- 
dence by weakening the sentiment of individual responsibility. 

72. Then at great length and with tedious repetition is formulated the central idea of 
the restriction by married people of the number of their children. As is well known, 
Malthus proposed " moral restraint," to which two meanings have been given, his own 
being abstinence, the other and more popular being the practice of sexual interferences 
and abnormalities of several kinds. It should always be borne hi mind that there were 
not then 12,000,000 people in all England and Scotland,* that the nation had been im- 
poverished, or at least severely strained, by long and sanguinary fighting for its very 
existence ; that men were sorely needed for present and future defence and for work ; 
that the rate of increase in France was very slow ; that all Prussia only contained 2,000,000 
people, possibly not more than in the time of Nero. Malthus himself (page 425) states 
the population of England at 9,168,000 in "year 1800. Further, that the poor-laws to 
keep alive the " inferior classes " (as the Economists constantly called the poor) once 
they are past work, introduced by a great monarch, law-giver and administrator Queen 
Elizabeth were the only conceivable complement of a system which allowed unlimited 
right of individual acquisition of land and other property, whilst permitting the appropria- 
tion by the rich of foundation-schools, universities and other means of learning. 

73. The Socialists pointed out that Malthus and his school demanded as axioms things 
that were impossibilities. How could the farm labourer, untaught himself, fill out his 
lack of perception and all his other defects or those of his children, even if the children 
were limited by law (as subsequently proposed by John Stuart Mill) or by preventive 
checks ? How could poor little child-slaves educate themselves who in Lancashire fac- 
tories, then as also fifty years later with weak eyes and crooked spine, worked six 
days a week, twelve terrible hours a day, to pile up colossal fortunes for the very leaders 
of the Economist school ? The leaders voted in the British Parliament for the continuance 
of that slavery under the plea that it were interference with liberty to prevent the using up 
of this available child labour (pars. 289 e. s.). Though it cannot be said that Malthusianism 
was ever accepted by the British nation, it became intimately associated with the Econom- 
ist, eventually the dominant, party. In the monumental works of LEVASSEUR and of 

"The Statistical Tables of Europe, by J. G. Boetticher, dated 1800, and said to be 
correct to 1799, give the figures of the United Kingdom as follows (quoted by Benj. Kidd, "Soc. 
Evolution"): England, 8,400,000; Scotland, 1,600,000; Ireland, 4,000,000. 



18 

LE PLAY upon the demography of France, which are neutral, and in the writings of the 
French Economists, it is admitted and declared that from England came the doctrine 
of limitation of families as a political cult. 

74. The theory of Malthus, continues de Molinari, occupies a great place in the 
history of the Economic policy. [Observe the definite article]. It has exercised 
a considerable influence in England, where it has contributed to the reform of 
the poor-laws, and it has awakened everywhere attention to the encouragement 
that public charity gives to the multiplication of the poor and the aggravation 
of the evils of pauperism. It is par excellence a theory of self-government. Man 
is free and master of his destiny, but he is, by the same thing, responsible for his acts. 
If he does not fulfil all the obligations which the government of himself implies, 
if he does not oppose any rein to his passions and his vices, it is for him, and for 
the beings for whom he is responsible, to support the consequences of his imprudent 
or vicious conduct. 

75. The argument proceeds that if the poor and the children are assisted, the burden 
will fall upon the wealthy and finally expose the latter to bankruptcy and ruin. 

76. Society will be in the necessity of restraining the liberty of those whom it will 
be obliged to assist, in other words to reduce them again to slavery or to impose 
tutelage upon them. Malthus refused to accept this necessity. He supposed 
that every man is capable of governing himself. In that, it may be claimed that 
his theory supposed a moral progress which alas ! does not yet exist, and will 
not be produced before long centuries. But does it not show a proof of singular 
ignorance or of blind party spirit, to accuse him of being an enemy of progress ? 
It ought to be remarked that not all of Malthus' disciples have fallen into what 
might be called the Utopias of the author of the " Essay upon the Principle of Popu- 
lation," that is to say an excess of confidence in liberty and an excess of asceticism 
[alluding to abstinence by married people, instead of the use of genesic frauds as 
inculcated by the other branch of the School]. Stuart Mill, for example, admitted 
that the limitation of the number of children in the family might be imposed by 
the law. " If the labouring class once accepted generally this opinion that its 
well-being requires the limitation of families, workmen that are respectable and 
well conducted would conform to this opinion, and no one would infringe it excepting 
those who habitually make light of social duties. Then there would take place 
the transformation of moral obligation not to have too many children into a legal 
obligation ; just as it very often happens after the progress of an opinion, the 
law finishes by imposing upon the recalcitrant minority those obligations which, 
in order to produce their effect, ought to be general and to which the majority, 
judging them useful, have voluntarily submitted themselves " (Principles of Political 
Economy, vol. I., book ii., chapter 13). 

77. No one can deny that this gospel of annihilation has had every success, and promises 
to carry the future with it. In the first volume of this Report (par. 881) is quoted 
the denunciation, perfectly impotent, by the great medical journals, of a railway news- 
paper which advertises regularly publications instructing women how to use certain 
articles to prevent conception. It is the representative newspaper of a powerful trade 
union, and the latter has its own member of Parliament. The medical journal quotes 
the curse of God upon the Canaanites, and threatened to the people of Israel if they should 
practice like abominations. The same practices that are taught by this filthy literature, 
which is sold in England and Australia without the smallest restraint or hindrance from 
the law, were used by the women of Rome in the time of Augustus. And it is incredible 
that the drop in the reproduction of human life could have been quicker amongst that 
Italian people who so perished, than amongst ourselves. We have seen how in a benefit 
society of twelve hundred thousand persons in England the number of children born has 
fallen in 20 years by one-half. In several of the larger English manufacturing towns 




19 

the margin of natality over mortality has fallen so rapidly and so low as to ensure the 
point of extinction. It is a great and conspicuous success. The Malthusian economists 
may soon be in a position to claim the fulfilment of John Stuart Mill's prophecy and require 
a law to be passed compelling " the recalcitrant minority " either to use the same prepar- 
ations or to become celibate. Possibly, however, devout Christians and devout Jews 
will be left to their honest beliefs, and moreover, in the words of a very representative 
Manchester Economist and Member of the House of Commons, " Babies are getting scarcer 
and, in accordance with the inevitable law of supply and demand, are rising in value." 

78. Monsieur de Molinari concludes his introduction thus : 

Having often had occasion to convince himself that those who attacked Malthus 
had taken good care not to read him, Joseph Garnier wished to take away all excuse, 
by making a resume of the Essay upon the Principle of Population. Published in 
1857, this resume obtained a well-merited success. The first edition had been 
exhausted for a long time and the author meditated preparing a second, when 
death prematurely removed him from science and his friends. In replacing him 
at this labour I have scrupulously respected the text of the work. . . And finally 
I reproduce the latest official report of the Malthusian League which has been formed 
in England to popularise the practice of the theory of Malthus. This book has lost 
nothing of its interest. We find in it tbe clearness, the precision, and the sobriety 
which characterised the talent of Joseph Garnier, and which have entitled him to 
be counted amongst the number of the most useful popularisers of Political Economy. 
(Signed) G. DE MOLINARI. 

"79. It will be seen later with what justice the Socialist and the religionist if we may use 
such a word writers denounced the hard and cold cruelty of the Economists. But it is 
a matter of profound astonishment that whereas M. LEONCE DE LAVERGNE drew attention 
to the threatened position of France as shown by the vitality figures of 1856, Garnier and 
his set at that very time imported and translated the negations of the English Malthusian 
school, whose chief mission was the abolition of charity, repudiation of national responsi- 
bility for poor and suffering infantile life, and the inculcation of checks against conception 
by married women ! When later historians shall apply themselves to record the active 
causes of the contemporaneous decline of France and England, the date of the commence- 
ment of the inculcation of preventive checks in each country cannot fail to puzzle and 
surprise them. Yet we have it in print, in Garnier's own words (page 3). 

80. The question of population is one of the most stupendous which can be ap- 
proached. In the economic and social point of view it is in that question that are 
included all others which illuminate it, or which it illuminates in its turn. 

81. We are at an epoch when the masses receive in this respect the most deplorable 
instruction, the most opposite to their true interest, to the spirit of the family, to 
morality and social tranquility when the most absurd prejudices, the most dangerous 
errors, circulate even amongst the superior classes of society. 

82. This moral situation is largely due to the mistakes, faults and misfortunes 
of the past. The object of this book is to expose succinctly the natural laws of 
population and to prove : the energy of its expansive force ; the advantages and 
the evils which may result from its increase, which is endowed with greater power 
than that of the means of existence ; the physical and moral obstacles which it 
naturally meets ; those that we propose to oppose to it ; the remedies that can 
counterbalance its fatal effects ; the diverse theories and the economic, political 
and moral illusions which it has produced. 

83. We show that the increase of population, far from being always a good thing, 
as they believed it in preceding centuries, and as they generally believe it still, 
may be the principal cause of poverty, soon followed by physical and moral maladies, 
by hard suffering and great mortality, by the aid of which Nature proceeds pitilessly 



20 

to the establishment ol equilibrium. We show the slight efficacy of the other 
rational means which might tend to the same result, if the populations do not 
from the first, and chiefly, practise the former [preventive methods]. 

84. We point out, on the other hand, how dangerous for society in general, how 
vain and demoralising for the masses in particular are the different means all 
at bottom alike which aim at the development of official charity. We point out 
the responsibility of governments, and of chimerical reorganisations of society 
which finally lead to a Communist despotism more or less dissimulated. 

85. It is one of the aspects of human Liberty and Responsibility to which we wish 
to contribute our share of light ; it is one of the verities of the natural social order, 
the most fundamental and most misunderstood, that we desire to make most 
prominent ; a verity perceived by the first Economists, proved to the hilt by the 
illustrious Maltlms, and professed in its generality by the whole Liberal Economic 
School. 

86. Garnier complains firstly : 

On the Continent it is regarded as representing the personification of the 
Economists of the self-styled English school, a denomination which serves as an 
argument to the inventors of social Utopias, and serves divers publicists, and 
even economists, who are under the illusion that they have worked to found a 
more Christian political economy, a pretended French School. 

87. He cites COLBERT, PITT and NAPOLEON as having accorded premia to the production 
of large families, three of the greatest men known to history, and also VAUBAN and 
MONTESQUIEU. He quotes on the other side the " physiocrats," with JAMES STEWAKT, 
ADAM SMITH, WALLACE and HUME. But the aureola of the illustrious " Malthus " out- 
shines them all. The recounting by Garnier of so many English names as expounders 
of the gospel of sexual abnormality may be a compliment, but many other Englishmen, 
we may be sure, will regret the truth of it. 

88. On page 100 Garnier quotes JOHN STUART MILL in the relation to the necessity of 
speaking plainly if they are to teach " foresight " to married people, and how to prevent 
the procreation of children without absenting themselves from one another. 

89. Some years after the first edition of my " Elements of Political Economy," 
Mr. Mill expressed himself upon this fundamental subject (of plain talking) with 
superiority, and much more candour than ourselves. Here is the excellent 
reason he gave : " The people have scarcely an idea of all that this prudery of 
language costs. We can no more prevent and cure social maladies than we can 
the maladies of the body, without speaking of them plainly." 

90. They have spoken plainly enough, this school of Economists no possibility of 
gainsaying that. Their work has been thoroughly and efficiently done. They have 
sown the wind in both nations, and both nations are reaping, and will continue to reap, 
the whirlwind. The salvation of the people is contained, according to these blind 
leaders of the blind, in the practice of the crime narrated in the 38th chapter of Genesis. 
It is not merely alluded to under all kinds of polished euphemisms, as " a moral act, an 
empty act, a vain act," but the whole nauseous discussion turns upon an utterly sophistical 
explanation of the phrase " et idcirco percussit eum Dominus, eo quod rem detestabilem 
faceret." And these Economists, curers of poverty and other social ills, claim that it 
was the disobedience of Judah's second son which was res detestabilis, not the abominable 
act itself, and this act is to be the panacea whereby France and England are to save 
themselves from social ills and to set examples to mankind. It is, once again, surprising 
to find a thick book, 615 pages, with such a practice, under various forms but always the 
same thing, as the central idea. And it is jumbled up with " Political Economy," uni- 
versal peace, and free exchange, the names of the British collaborators being quoted 
frequently and with admiration. A long political disquisition upon that remarkable 



21 

central idea, with specious and elaborate defence of it, together with the above-mentioned 
account of the Malthusian League established for its propaganda, will require further 
allusion herein. 

91. On page 103, in a letter received from CHARLES DUNOYER, one of the approved lights 
of the " Political Economy," are explained with a virginal naivete, " des managements 
a garder soit envers eux-memes, soit 1'un envers 1'autre, soit 1'un et 1'autre surtout envers 
les tiers qui peuvent etre le fruit de leur union." When as against themselves, as against 
one another, and the two together against the third persons who are the possible results 
of the union, these contrivances are practised by married couples in the conscientious 
manner taught by the Economists, it is easily understood how an economy amounting 
to 50 million pounds a year is effected by French married people as compared with their 
German neighbours. 

92. From the miserable national increase of 1857 the Economists can claim the success 
of bringing the births, once for all, to a less number annually than the deaths. Now 
these births include, and largely consist of, the children of the remnant who Jews or 
Christians have refused to bow the knee to Baal and Moloch. But the Economic success 
is not nearly at its zenith yet. Not only are there fewer children born yearly in France, 
there are fewer women who can produce children at all. The total number of women 
is not less, but every year there are fewer of that number within the child-bearing ages. 
As their highest statistical authorities say, it is indeed " Finis Galliae " more surely than 
in the time of AUGUSTUS, TIBERIUS and NERO, only a few years in all, it was " Finis 
Italiae." All the factors are present in France, as they are present in England and 
Australia, with only one influence against them that which will not bow the knee to 
Baal. 

93. There is no other influence. Patriotism amounts in this matter to nothing, for it 
may be little else than national arrogance, and when self-denial and self-sacrifice come 
into the question, it subsides. People prefer " to take their chance " or to rely upon 
the teachings of Political Economy. It has not been shown so far, that the Eternal 
Ruler gives or takes any chances ; whilst Political Economy in the persons of John Stuart 
Mill, Charles Bradlaugh and the French lights of that cult, found it expedient to specifically 
abrogate Him. There was such a Christian remnant in Rome also, though during three 
centuries, through ten terrific persecutions, they lived lives of purity, brought forth 
children and nurtured them even in the darkness of the Catacombs, and kept burning 
the sacred lamp of truth and innocence. So did the Jews, then and for long centuries 
afterwards, refusing to comply with the filthy practices of the " superior classes " around 
them. And to this very hour. 

94. Page 105. It would be a grand utility if there could be sunk into the minds 
of the young ecclesiastics the question of population and the fundamental notions 
of Political Economy. The first bishop who will introduce this instruction into 
the seminaries will render a signal service to morals and society. Before leaving 
this part of our subject we have to pause at the statement of a writer who is strongly 
opposed to those (ecclesiastics) whom we also have just been opposing. 

95. These principles of morality, already formulated by us in another publication, 
have been the object of very lively criticism on the part of M. PROUDHON in one 
of his more voluminous and more serious works. M. Proudhon has said in this 
regard many things, but we put to one side the arguments of the pamphleteer, 
and we pause at the following, the only serious ones in his refutation : " If it 
be true," he says in his " Economic Contradictions," on page 447, Vol. II., " that 
moral restraint, suddenly become physical restraint, and resolving in its own fashion 
the problem of population, should be a useful practice for married people, this 
utility will be none the less so for people who are not married. Now this is the 
immoral side of the thing, not foreseen by the Economists : the pleasure being 
desired and sought for itself without consequent progeny, marriage becomes a 



22 

superfluous institution, the life of the young people a sterile fornication ; the family 
is extinguished and with the family its property. The economic movement remains 
without solution and society returns to its state of barbarism. Maltlms and the 
moral economists render marriage inaccessible ; the physical Economists render 
it useless ; both of them add to the lack of bread, the lack of affection, provoking 
the dissolution of the social bond. And this is what they call the prevention of 
pauperism ! Behold what is understood by the repression of poverty ! Profound 
moralists, profound politicians, profound philosophers ! " 

96. M. THIERS, first President of the Republic, is also quoted as siding with Proudhon 
in his denunciations and as having written a pamphlet, " The Malthusians," attacking 
their principles. The contention is made by Gamier throughout, and is claimed to be 
the chief merit of the Economists' patent medicine for poverty, that as the working 
classes shall use preventives of conception, there will be fewer workers, therefore less 
competition and greater prosperity. To support this view, the usual impossible axioms 
are appropriated, and a huge superstructure of argument built up by the Economists 
de Mofinari and Gamier. We have nothing to do with the arguments, we need only 
regard the facts produced by the inculcation of the arguments, and also the facts which 
the arguments could not affect. As before said, all the arguments are on the side of 
the Economists there are only Nature and Nemesis on the other. 

97. Undoubtedly there are now fewer workers in France, and it is self-contained that 
there will be fewer still. It is not so sure, but it is possible, that there is less competition. 
Not sure, because foreigners go there in shoals and compete. But what the Economists 
do not perceive, or simply omitted to mention there is a constant increase in certain 
other classes of the community. There are more lunatics, imbeciles and idiots year by 
year, to be maintained in asylums, in France and Great Britain. The sufferings and 
difficulties of child-bed are greatly increased in spite of all the strides in medical and 
surgical knowledge, to those who follow the Economists' teachings that Economic 
" morality " so clearly taught by Stuart Mill, Gamier, Malthus, Bradlaugh and Mrs. 
Besant, together with all the other Malthusian lights. The mortality in child-bed has 
increased by over one-half (par. 1409). It has not been shown that these observed facts 
have application in general to those who live normal lives in accordance with ancient 
laws. But that is not all. The number of old persons constantly augments, and not 
only in number but in proportion to the workers. Besides the incapacitated, the defective 
in body and mind irrespective of non-producers, many of whom are indispensable 
there is the necessity to maintain the vicious, the criminal, the lazy and incompetent, 
the worthy and unworthy aged. 

98. To prevent or to destroy the young life is an easy proposition. In no country is 
this principle of action more successful and more thoroughly recognised than in Great 
Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and part of the United States. The literature 
and the commercial provision made to ensure its recognition (as shown in Volume I. 
upon authorities and by photographic representation) may be considered it is to be hoped 
ample. There is all reason to expect that even more commercial attention will be 
devoted to it in the future than at present, for there is money in it. 

99. But in accord with the poet's line : vitio parentum rara juventus by the vice of 
parents youth is scarce the difficulty mentioned above can only be avoided in one way. 
The Economists have left that to our intelligence. As the aged, and otherwise defective, 
increase out of proportion to the workers, who are already heavily taxed, and whilst 
the number of workers diminishes as it must, there comes in the suggestion of euthanasia. 
by no means new. That is also An ti Judaic and Antichristian, which fact may not count 
with the Economists later, any more than it did in the past. What is economically 
indicated is quite unmistakable, and the point has been discussed by them, only there 
is a huge difference between that and the taking or preventing of young life. None 



23 

of us can become young, and we all desire when we become old to be well cared for. No, 
the burden that the diminishing proportion of workers must bear in any Malthusian 
community, however deferred, is inescapable. 

100. Garnier, p. 111. From the economic point of view, foresight by the most 
numerous classes lessens the competition of the workers, which ought not to become 
excessive in order to produce the good effects that we have recognised in the prin- 
ciple of free competition in the Elements of Political Economy. 

101. On page 117 is given a celebrated phrase of Malthus which must here be translated 
from the French, for the reason that in the later English editions it was discreetly sup- 
pressed : 

" A man born into a world already occupied, if his family can no longer keep 
him, or if society cannot utilise his work, has not the least right whatever to claim 
any share of food, and he is already one too many upon the earth. At the great 
banquet of Nature there is no cover laid for him. Nature commands him to go 
and she is not long in putting this order herself into execution." The first phrase 
(continues Garnier) simply denies the right to work and to existence. It is not 
that which has been the most criticised. The second is a figure of rhetoric as 
pretentious as it is useless since the idea which it includes is found in the third, 
and the latter, it must be said, was neither exact nor conformable to the thought 
of the excellent Malthus. 

102. A few pages before, Garnier had occasion to mention the famine in Ireland, as illus- 
trating the consequence of prolificacy. That event, regarded as so natural, and the 
destruction of life so thoroughly in accord with the very axioms of Malthus, was hardly 
a good illustration of the necessity to use preventive and abortifacient means to keep 
population balanced with the production of subsistences. There was an enormous pro- 
duction of food that very year in Ireland ; corn was heavily exported and cattle also. An 
immense quantity of grain was destroyed for malt, far more than enough by itself to have 
fed the people who were temporarily short of food to eat. There was no lack of food 
but no cover was laid for the starving human creatures, under British laws, at the Economic 
banquet ! They were commanded to go men, women and children. Death did indeed 
put the order into execution, removing in quick time a million of them from the midst of 
plenty. Nature was not niggardly, nor the people idle. Merely the land " belonged " 
to persons elsewhere who did not toil, whilst those who toiled and produced the abundant 
food were thieves if they ate it. It was hurried away for fear they might. It went to 
other banquets. The illustration, like many others quoted by these Malthusian Economists 
and which have helped towards the undeniable success of their " gospel," shows rather 
that the laws of God were all right, but that there was something defective in the 
" economic " arrangements of our country. 

103. " It is Nature," says Garnier, " and not Malthus, which has placed a precipice beneath 
the feet of humanity." 

104. FREDERICK BASTIAT is cited by Garnier as saying : 

" I cannot truly conceive why Malthus has been the object of so much clamour. 
What has this celebrated Economist revealed to us ? After all, his system is 
only the methodical commentary upon that truth which is very old and very clear : 
when men cannot any longer procure in sufficient quantity the things which support 
life, they must necessarily diminish in number, and if they do not provide for it by 
prudence, suffering will take charge of the job." 

105. However, Bastiat himself somewhat changed his view later and received the sharp 
criticism of Garnier, de Molinari and the other strictly orthodox Political Economists 
of the Liberal school, in England and France, for attempting to relax the central idea of 
its economy. Some of these criticisms will be found in Garnier's " Principles of Political 
Economy." 



24 

106. An illustrative controversy is supplied in this book, in the shape of a series of letters 
between Gamier and the ABBE CORBIERE. The latter, with much gentleness of diction 
and exceeding grace of expression, adduces facts, figures, and the records of world-history, 
to disprove the thesis of Malthus that population increases in geometrical progression 
whilst subsistences food, clothing, dwellings increase only in arithmetical progression. 
The Abbe denies that human multiplication exceeds its powers to supply itself. It is 
impossible to quote the correspondence in full or even to summarise it, needful though 
it be, for the essence of the Malthusian dogma has to-day more acceptance in France, 
England and Anglo-Saxondom generally, than at any time since its introduction. In 
the other countries of the Continent the teachings of the School of Political Economy are 
rejected as a school, with whatever of good they may have contained, but in Great Britain 
they are plainly dominant, and likely to remain so until further decline towards the line 
of dissolution is recorded by the movement of population. A few sentences of the Abbe 
Corbiere demand translation here. 

107. Happily, true science can destroy this desolating system (Malthusianism), 
which leads to consequences as disastrous as they are immoral. Providence is 
vindicated ; it will be seen that He was able to proportion means of subsistence 
to the development of population, and that, if men suffer, it is not God who is 
mistaken as to the sufficiency of aliments, but it is they who did not utilise them, 
or who by no means made a division of them according to the rules of justice and 
charity. 

108. In the last words, the unpretentious cleric puts his finger on the chief cause of the 
whole trouble of poverty and ignorance. 

Although the world has been inhabited many thousands of years, it is far 
from being so in all its parts. " The population of the Old World," says M. 
DUCPETIATJX, " could be multiplied tenfold and that of America a hundredfold, 
and still they would not attain proportionately the rate of population in Belgium. 
To approach it, the United States would have fifty times more inhabitants than they 
have to-day. . ." 

109. It is a grave thing for a system of political economy which is thus contradicted 
by facts, for the object of this science being the formation and distribution of 
wealth, it should above all abstain from Utopias, and theories whose results could 
not enter into the domain of practical utilities. 

110. The Abbe then cites the power of multiplication of animals and plants, which is 
vastly greater than that of man, and is at his disposal. Then he deals with : 

111. Fecundity of the soil. We have seen how, according to Malthus, the fecundity 
of the soil is not equal to that of man, the former developing only as one, two, 
three, four, five, six, etc., but the latter as one, two, four, eight, sixteen, thirty-two, 
sixty-four, etc. Now this second proposition is as false as the first, and will no 
stand examination by facts or by discussion. 

112. The sole example of France would suffice to ruin it entirely. It is a constant 
truth that our agricultural products have doubled themselves within fifty years, 
whilst the total population has only increased by one-half. We have here a tho- 
roughly formal disproof. Malthusian restraint, if it had been accepted by rural 
workers, would have had no other result than to oppose the progress of agriculture 
and to reduce the bread supply of urban workers. 

113. Now, two principal elements constitute work : intelligence and strength. 
Intelligence is the principal cause which ceaselessly increases the fertility of the 
soil. It seems that if mind did not enter into the business there would be no 
fecundity of the soil whatever. It is that which handles the spade, utilises the 
strength of animals, profits by the seasons, chooses plants, turns aside injurious 
waters, and directs irrigation. Suppose the land had ever so many oxen and 
horses, you would not have, for that reason, one single ploughed furrow : you 



25 

would have animals to feed on your pasturages, but you would not have implements 
of work. But appear as master in your fields ; use, to render them fecund, your 
intelligence, and immediately they will be covered with harvests. 

114. It is intelligence, then, which renders the lands productive, which often 
multiplies products a hundredfold. Lessen the number of people applied to the 
work, and you will reduce the product, you will annihilate the necessary elements 
of wealth. A small number of great inventors in agriculture and in industry 
have done more for the well-being of man than all the marriages you call imprudent 
could do of harm to industry. 

115. After a hundred similar illustrations, drawn from many parts of the world, simple, 
plain and of everyday knowledge ; avoiding arguments geometrical, arithmetical, 
economical, political which the other side draws from the inexhaustible atmosphere, 
the Abbe concludes thus : 

116. Let us count upon the Divine foresight. He prepared in the bosom of the 
earth immense deposits of coal for the century when railroads would be constructed 
and steam would be applied to navigation. He revealed to this industrial century 
the art of transmitting news from one pole to the other in a second. He hid in 
the drop of water that steam which multiplies the light that illuminates, and the 
fire that warms our houses. Who knows what discoveries He has in reserve for us ? 
But the past guarantees to us the future, and the laborious, saving, moral and 
religious man will not invoke that foresight in vain for his children, for He who 
cares for the lily of the valley and the bird which beats the air, will not forget to 
furnish clothing and food to beings created in His Divine image. 

117. However, we cannot defend ourselves from a profound feeling of sorrow at 
seeing upon what fragile bases the Malthusians have founded a theory whose con- 
sequences are so grave to morals and to politics, which can compromise the wealth 
of nations and the accord of workers with those who find them work and those 
who offer them assistance. Geometrical and arithmetical progressions upon 
population and subsistences are practically false ; the tendency of population to 
surpass subsistences does not exist at all. Not only is the world not menaced by 
a plethora of men, but it is not inhabited in its fiftieth part. Everywhere agriculture 
progresses, commerce establishes equilibrium between the nations of the globe ; 
the average life of man is increased, and you, witnesses of these marvels, you say 
to the working man : Live separate, no matter what may be the needs of your heart ! 
At the banquet of life there will be no place for your children ! 

118. You insult the Providence of God in supposing that He had by no means 
proportioned aliment to the wants of man of whom He is the Father. You irritate 
the working classes, by charging them alone to maintain through their deprivations 
the abundance of the earth ; and to prevent the scourges of famine, pestilence 
and war, which, according to your system, will be the punishments of a too 
numerous population. You insult the clergy, who condemn in the name of the 
Gospel, not chaste celibacy, but the vices of youth and the outrages done to women. 
You bring economic science into disrepute in the eyes of serious philosophers, 
heads of families who understand the importance of public decency, moralists 
and statesmen to whom meditation and experience have revealed that morals 
are the strength of empires. At least let reasoning and facts come to your aid ! 
But sane philosophy you condemn ; six thousand years of experience deny your 
propositions. Let each follow the impulsion of his conscience. Whatever you 
may have said about it, the priests have never agitated these questions. They 
prescribe neither celibacy nor marriage, but they do not tolerate vice. Imitate 
their sage reserve, and remember that sin renders nations wretched, whilst justice, 
the sum of the virtues, elevates the people. Justitia elevat gentem, miseros autem 
facit populos peccatum. (Proverbs XIV., 5, 34). (Signed) L'ABBE COKBIEKE. 



26 

In another letter the Abbe Corbiere writes : 

120. Malthus founded a school whose doctrines will be disastrous. But it must be 
declared that the " moral restraint ' ' of which he recommends the practice is far 
from presenting the character of immorality that M. Gamier justifies. He wished 
it, said Malthus, to be accompanied by chastity. Whatever may be the meaning 
of this explanation, which his disciples do not at all interpret in the same manner, 
it is always thus that the evil tree has ended by bringing forth poisonous fruit. In 
our day a book is printed to justify an act that of Onan that the Holy Scriptures, 
medical men and moralists hava denounced with a common accord, whilst calling 
it by the name borne by the first recorded criminal, and of which Genesis has trans* 
mitted to us the iniquity and its punishment. After having shaken faith, they 
prepare the ruin of morals. 

121. Do you see the young man bent before his time and showing in his undecided 
look the dulness of his mind ? He is on the road to death, and by his tottering 
steps you would say that he jolts against the tombs. It is not that death is seeking 
him, it is he that has provoked the blow. Sin, if I may use a metaphor of Saint 
Paul, precipitates its arrival, as the goad in the hands of the ploughman accelerates 
the pace of his animals whose step is too slow stimulus mortis peccatum est [the 
goad of death is sin]. Before the fatal stroke which will terminate this shameful 
existence, the finest faculties of his soul will be extinct ; no more force or intelligence ; 
no more freshness of imagination ; his memory will be as uncertain as that of an 
old man. The heart of the victim will be dulled and a devouring ennui will pursue 
him everywhere. You sorrowing parents, you do not know the cause of this 
stupefaction and this langour which excites your heartfelt pity. Run through 
the books your son was reading ; inform yourselves of the company he frequented ; 
they are the murderers who have snatched away his life. Religion alone could 
have prevented your immense sorrow. 

122. What are you driving at ? you Malthusians say to me ; who justifies these 
excesses? Economists, writers, or professors, we condemn them as much as 
you do. 

You condemn them as much as I do ! Ah ! do you not see that the practices 
excused by you in marriage are only some of the means by which are accomplished 
those excesses of which Dr. Tissot has explained the lamentable consequences? 
(Par. 1234). They are even aggravated by the circumstance that they outrage the 
woman, that delicate flower whose purity you ought to protect, and whose conscience 
you are destroying. (Par. 998). No, the exhausted young man, the young girl 
who lets fall from her head her fragrant crown are not so criminal as you. A 
solitary sin, culpable as it is, has not at least the fatal effect of perverting an 
accomplice. 

123. In his answers M. Gamier, who was a professor in the State School of Roads and 
Bridges, by occupation, controverts at length that the second son of Judah was condemned 
for anything else than disobedience to his father*. It is a long disputation, very 
sophistical it may be thought by some, and a curious study in Political Economy, but its 
tremendous importance from the national and racial point of view is beyond all denial. 
However, the priest and his teaching went down, and the hedonist gospel of the English 

* Here is a piece of the argument (GABNIEB, " Principes de Population," page 424). Loquacious 
logic contra Nature's silent law : 

I>e deurieme fils de Juda faisait une oeuvre detestable, soit. Mais & quel point de vue cet acto 
6tait-il detestable ? 

Est-ce parce qu'il etait de mauvaise foi, desobeissant a son pere ; ou parce qu'il trompait la 
femme de son frre ? Est-ce parce qu'il songeait plus a I' interut de sa famille propre qu' a oelui 
de la famille de Juda ? Est ce par toute autre raison ? On serait fort embarrasse de r6soudre la 
question : tou jours est-il que la Genese ne dit pas que 1'acte fftt detestable pour immorality ou pour 
attcinte portee a I'accroissement de la population. Des lors, ce fait est sans portee et ressemble 



27 

Economists can claim unqualified victory. True, the merely commercial part of their 
Political Economy has been rejected in France, as also all over the Continent, but the 
essence prevails in France and is more operative than ever. As to this, no opinion to the 
contrary can be found on any side. 

124. Further. Gamier disputes the observations and conclusions of Dr. TISSOT, who is, 
notwithstanding, quoted and accepted by his medical brethren as an authority. (Par. 
122). Gamier defends the filthy practices condemned by the Abbe", who also cited 
abundantly the authoritative dicta of his Church. The intent plainly avowed by 
Gamier to be their justifying merit, being that these practices permit sexual pleasure 
whilst nullifying the intent of Nature. Thus these remarkable Economists teach re- 
sponsibility with one breath, and explain how to dodge it with the next. 

125. It is an important branch of this Inquiry as to what effects upon the individuals 
follow the use of these secret preparations for the prevention of children. Nothing is 
of more serious import to the individuals and to the nation, than to know what happens. 
That will be given herein, from authorities, but there is one serious disadvantage to the 
side of decency and truth, which is that we cannot mention without much reserve that 
which the Malthusians deal with in detail, whose books are sold without restriction and 
carried by the mails throughout Anglo-Saxondom. What is desired by disciples and 
pupils of this pervert gospel which is poisoning nations, is details. And they get them, 
in print, and also pictures of the human generative organs, with much perversion of the 
truth regarding sexual matters, but with no restraint or decency whatever. 

126. Concluding his argument upon the necessity of these sexual frauds for the national 
good, Gamier winds up his final letter thus (page 428) : 

It is the same as marriage of cousins, which formerly morality forbade and 
now forbids no longer ; or of lending money at interest, which morality formerly 
forbade but now forbids no longer and so forth. 

127. And the Abbe Corbiere finishes his last reply : 

I can explain to myself that M. Garnier has little sympathy for theologians 
because they have denounced the practices which he has set up as a theory of life. 
But that does not authorise him to distort their instruction. Finally, it will be 
difficult for him to disengage the act of Onan, of which he has attempted the 
justification, from the stigmas that several thousand years have accumulated upon 
it. My opponent, in accepting this task, has given proof of a most astonishing 
courage, for he fully knows that the rehabilitation that he has undertaken will give 
him a gigantic task, and will rouse everywhere the indignant voice of religion, of 
morality and of medicine. (Vide par. 999). 

128. The following noble words of PITT, spoken in the House of Commons in 1796, two 
years before the first edition of Malthus' work, came in for Economic condemnation by 
Garnier : 

Let us see, said Pitt, that assistance given to large families shall be a bond 
of honour and charity, not a sign of opprobrium and contempt. Thus we shall 
make the children of the poor a benediction and not a calamity ; and there will 
be found a line of honourable and rational demarcation between those who are 
capable of sustaining themselves by their own labour, and those who, after having 
endowed their country with a goodly number of children, have acquired the right 
to claim the means of bringing them up. 

a une foule d'autres dont la moralite nous echappe, a la distance du temps ou nous sommes et au 
point de vue ou nous pouvons nous mettre. II est sage de ne pas trop vouloir commenter sur la 
conduite de Juda et d'Onan a cette epoque, et il est impossible que les hommes serieux y voient un 
argument. 
There is no argument. None is needed and none will avail. The ancient and necessary narrative, 

dealing with the deepest of life-matters, pillories the conduct of the two men for everlasting execration. It 

is impossible to imagine for what other reason it is narrated at all. 



28 

129. The words of Proudhon as quoted by Gamier (page 501) are : 

The theory of Maltlms is the theory of political assassination, of assassination 
for philanthrophy, for the love of God .... 

The Economists are the first amongst us who have by an inconceivable blasphemy 
erected into a dogma of Providence this theory of Malttms. I neither accuse them 
nor calumniate them. In that, the Economists have the good faith and the good 
intention of Malthus ; they would not ask better than to make the happiness of 
the human species ; but they cannot conceive how, without some organisation 
of homicide, equilibrium between population and subsistences could exist. 



CHAPTER XXIV. (unabridged) OF GARNIER'S "PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION.'* 

(Translation. ) 

130. Shortly after the publication of Malthus' work, some thinkers in France remarked that in 
modern France prudence after marriage was substituting itself up to a certain point for late marriages, 
habitual in most of the States of Europe. Mr. FRANCIS PLACE was one of the first who, in a book 
upon population, recommended the adoption in England of the physical preventives so frequently 
employed by French parents. It appears that he had a discussion with Malthus [the latter died 
in 1834] upon the subject of the expression " vices," applied by Malthus in the first edition of hia 
Essay, to the employment of such preventives. Tradition says that in subsequent editions, Malthus 
renounced the use of this word. Finally, Malthus having had only two children [he had three], 
Mr. PORTER, of Nottingham, supposes that at the instigation of Mr. James Mill, father of Mr. JOHN 
STUART MILL, Malthus was himself one of the faithful in conjugal prudence as practised by the well- 
to-do peasants and citizens. [This procedure of the " faithful " in the Economic gospel is precisely 
that of 38th Genesis, without added modern refinements.] It is said also that Mr. Place converted 
to his opinion the socialist Robert Owen, and that Robert Owen owed the success of his colony of New 
Lanark to his knowledge of this matter, which he also communicated to his workmen. Mr. ROBERT 
DALE OWEN, son of Robert Owen, emigrated to America in his youth, became one of the most dis- 
tinguished citizens of the Western Republic, and died in 1877. He had, beyond all doubt, heard 
this question discussed by his father and other persons. In 1830 he thought it his duty to publish 
a treatise, well known to-day, upon the question of population, entitled " Moral Physiology." This 
work contains the most modern philanthropic ideas, written in clear and very careful language, 
fulfilling perfectly the oblect of the author * He describes in it the physical preventives above mentioned. 
This work had, however, been preceded by the treatise of RICHARD CARLILE, entitled '' Every 
Woman's Book," a treatise which calls things by their names. The author was one of those bold 
spirits which have done much to complete the reform of England, and to assure to that country liberty 
of press and speech. Without him and his collaborators, England would perhaps to-day be as 
backward as modern Spain. Then Dr. CHARLES KNOWLTON, a very distinguished physician ot 
Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States, wrote upon this subject his little pamphlet, now famous, 
" The Fruits of Philosophy.'" which contains in a popular form very fine physiologic notions and 
a very complete exposition of the preventives pointed out by Messieurs Robert Dale Owen and Richard 
Carlile. This work was followed, after a considerable interval, by a little pamphlet of Mr. Austin 
Holyoake, entitled "Large and Small Families." This was sold for very many years at the same 
time as the treatises of Carlile, of Owen, and two other works by the booksellers of the Ultra-Liberal 
Party of England. This party has taken, latterly, the name of the Secularist Party. 

131. In 1876, the pamphlet "Fruits of Philosophy," after having circulated freely during forty 
years, was prosecuted all of a sudden as an obscene publication, by virtue of an Act of Parliament 
called Lord Campbell's Act. A bookseller in Bristol, named COOK, was condemned to two years' 
imprisonment for having sold this book. The publisher in London, Mr. C. Watts, was also prosecuted, 
but made submission and was cleared by paying the costs, equal to a fine of about 5,000 francs (200). 
Knowlton's book was about to be suppressed, when Mr. Charles Bradlaugh, head of the Secularist 
party and editor-in-chief of the most advanced of the English journals. " The National Reformer," 
and a very distinguished young woman, Mrs. Annie Besant, set themselves courageously in the front 
to sell this publication. To bring the affair before the courts Mr. Bradlaugh and Mrs. Besant associated 
themselves, rented in Stonecutter Street, hi London, a bookseller's shop, sold publicly the " Fruits 
of Philosophy," and sent copies of it to the City authorities. Mr. Bradlaugh had been for many years 
an avowed Malthusian ; Mrs. Besant was also fully convinced of the importance of the question. 
Both were resolved not to allow that a bigoted society should, without experiencing resistance, put 



29 

this work under the ban of the law. The suit came on in the first instance at the Court of Guildhall, 
thence to the Court of Queen's Bench before Lord Chief Justice COCKBURN, where the case, begun 
m the 18th June, 1877, lasted for tliree days. Amongst the jurors, besides other persons enjoying 
exceptional position and fortune, was Mr. ARTHUR WALTER, son of the proprietor of the " Times." 

132. After a brilliant defence, when the speeches of Mrs. Annie Besant and of Mr. Bradlaugh made a 
pwerful impression upon the presiding judge and all persons present, the jury returned the following 
very enigmatical verdict : " We believe with unanimity that the book in question ' The Fruits 
of Philosophy ' has for its object the depravation of public morals, but at the same time we entirely 
exonerate the defendants from all corrupt motive in its publication." The judge, whose summing 
up was quite in favour of the accused, only inflicted upon them a nominal fine, but upon learning 
thai they had the intention of continuing the sale, he condemned them to a severe term of imprispn- 
meit, together with a fine. Happily, the Court of Appeal decided that there was an error hi the in- 
dictnent. The defendants were set at liberty. The prosecution has not been renewed. 

133. The stir caused by this suit resulted in the foundation of a society called " The Malthusian 
Leagae," created with the object of opposing an active and passive resistance to all attempts made 
to st(le the discussion of the question of population. Mr. Bradlaugh had already tried, some years 
before, to form a league of thia kind, but opinion was not then sufficiently ripe. The first meeting 
of the League took place in the Minor Hall of the Hall of Science, Old Street, on the 17th July, 1877. 
The orler of the day was the election of officers. In this reunion, Doctor C. R. DRYSDALE was elected 
presidext : Mrs. ANNIE BESANT, Messrs. HEMBER and SHEARER were appointed honorary secretaries. 
The Cotjncil of the League was composed of Messrs. BELL, BROWN, DRAY, PAGE, Mr. and Mrs. PARRIS, 
Mr. and Mrs. RENNICK, Messieurs RIVERS, SEYLER, G. STANDRING, TRUELOVE and YOUNG. Mr. 
SWAAGMIN was nominated Treasurer of the League. [M. Gamier was not precise hi his spelling 
of names', 

134. Ver) shortly after the constitution of the League, Mr. EDWARD TRUELOVE, bookseller, of High 
Holborn, vas prosecuted at the Court of Queen's Bench, on 2nd February, 1878. The incriminated 
works, of the same character as the " Fruits of Philosophy," were entitled, " Moral Physiology," 
a very brillant pamphlet by Mr. Robert Dale Owen, Senator of the United States, and " Poverty 
of the Indi^dual, of the Family and of the Nation." Mr. Truelove was admirably defended by Mr. 
Hunter. The proceedings were without result, one of the jurors having declared that he regarded 
the book in question as inspired by very moral and very philanthropic tendencies. Mr. COLLETTE, 
secretary of the " Society for the Suppression of Vice," took up the prosecution. On the 9th May, 
1878, Mr. Tnelove went before the Central Criminal Court and was condemned to four months' 
imprisonment ind 100 fine. An immense meeting, held on the 6th June, 1878, at St. James' Hall, 
to protest agaftst this fashion of treating an honest man like Mr. Truelove, presided over by the 
President of th* League, drowned with applause the eloquent speeches of Mrs. Besant and Mr. 
Bradlaugh. A\ the same time, the husband of Mrs. Annie Besant commenced an action against 
that noble womai in order to take away from her the care of her children, in violation of a formal 
engagement entered into by the two parents. The cause was judged and carried to the Court of 
Appeal. On the 9th April the Court of Appeal confirmed the judgment of the court below. Mrs. 
Besant's little daujliter was thus removed from her. The claim of the husband, who is a clergyman 
of the Established Church of England, was based upon the fact that Mrs. Besant did not believe in 
the Anglican theolojy and had published a book considered immoral by a jury. 

135. We shall add hit little to this very brief exposition of the history of the Malthusian League. 
The present vice-presdents are Messrs. C. GERRITSEN (Holland) ; YVES GUYOT (Paris) ; TALANDIER 
(Deputy, Paris) ; J. BIRCH, M.A., and Dr. ALLBUTT (London) ; G. ANDERSON and M. BRYSOH 
(Newcastle). The firs\ number of " The Malthusian," monthly organ of the League, appeared on 
the 1st February, 1879 'Office, 28 Stonecutter Street, London, E.G.). The League holds numerous 
conferences and causes the distribution of small tracts and leaflets. (Translated from " The 
Malthusian " of 1880). 

136. We owe to the courtesy of Dr. C. R. Drysdale a certain number of little tracts and leaflets to 
which allusion is made above. 

[A list is supplied by Gamier of the various publications, all of them Malthusian, and 
including one by John Stuart Mill, two pages 8vo., upon " Small Families." Then follows 
a reprint of the " Rules of the Malthusian League."] 



30 

"THE LATEST ANNUAL REUNION OF THE MALTHUSIAN LEAGUE. 1 ' 

137. De Molinari (for Gamier) reprints this report upon the proceedings of the yea? 1883-4 
upon pages 516 et seq. Only selections can be made, so as to show how the poisonous 
seed was sown and well drilled in. It commences thus : 

138. The last year has witnessed a, remarkable progress made by those ideas to which ihe League 
has devoted itself, as its mission, to promulgate and to sustain. The preceding aniual reunion 
was a great success, and without speaking of the action which the Association has this exercised 
upon the minds of its hearers, as numerous as they were intelligent, who attended, it has equally 
to felicitate itself upon the result of these frequent conferences held publicly upon th( question of 
population. Such conferences have taken place chiefly at London, but they have beei held in like 
manner in the principal cities of the Kingdom, and we believe that they have largeb contributed 
to construct opinion upon the true conditions of the problem of population. There has been, for 
example, a sensible diminution in the birthrate in all the quarters of the West End of london. a fact 
which we do not for a moment hesitate to connect with the conviction which is beginnirg to enlighten 
the minds of persons interested, that large families are inimical to the well-being a all classes of 
society where they are produced. For that reason the rate of natality in England las fallen to 34 
per 1000 of population [since fallen to 26 and still falling] and in certain rich quarters of London, 
such as Hampstead and Kensington, to 24 and even 22, whereas in Germany the rumber of births 
exceed 40 per 1000. At Paris, in the same way, M. de HATTSSONVILLE has provec in an article in 
the " Revue des Deux Mondes " that the number has fallen so low among the wel-to-do classes of 
Paris that there remains henceforward very little to desire for well being and Imgevity. M. de 
Haussonville adds that the poor classes procreate in Paris three times as many children as the wealthy 
classes. The League felicitates itself still more at having been able to maintain once more for the 
year its organ " The Malthusian," because almost all the journals of the Kingdomimpose upon them- 
selves a great reserve as to the foundation even of the problem of population The last year is 
remarkable for an excess of population in the great cities, an excess which ha*, as a consequence, 
an emigration of 320,000 native born [this excludes immigration again of many d these " emigrants," 
who are merely travellers]. This has occasioned in the Press numerous discussons upon emigration, 
housing of the working classes, Socialism, and nationalisation of the soil. Several members of the 
League have spoken their mind upon these important social questions in " Tie Echo," " The Daily 
News," and in " The Malthusian " itself. Dr. ZACHAEIAS in Germany, and Mr. KARL GERRITSEN 
in Holland, have devoted themselves to a most active propaganda in favor jf small families. Dr. 
DRYSDALB, the President, read an article upon infantile mortality at the Congress of Social Science 
at Huddersfield, whilst Mr. Cunningham stated the question of Malthusiaiism before the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science. The little book by Mrs. Amie Besant, '' The Law of 
Population," has been largely sold in Holland, and there has been fcunded in that country a 
Malthusian League, whose instruction will not remain unfruitful. 

139. The article of the DUKE of ARGYLL, which the " Nineteenth Century " published in its number 
of 1884, is a refutation of the views of Mr. HENRY GEORGE upon the caises of poverty [but nothing 
is said of the smashing refutation of the Duke of Argyle by Mr. Henry George]. Also an excellent 
republication of the theory of Malthus upon the circumstances which Imd to the reduction of wages 
and the increased cost of food. In a letter which the " Pall Mall Gazftte " has recently reproduced, 
Mr. CONWAY has shown that the terrible misery which reigns in a great part of industry, comes from 
no other cause than the enormous procreation of children which fellows upon a servile obedience 
to ill-advised theological precepts. 

140. MR. SAMUEL SMITH, of Liverpool, has combatted in an excellent little book the theories of MB. 
HENRY GEORGE and those of the Democratic Federation by showing the value and advantages of 
individual property combined with Malthusian foresight. Lord BBAMWELL, finally, in one of the 
pamphlets published by the Property Defence Association, reverted to Malthus' point of departure 
and has put the truth in full relief. Little by little, statesmen will be forced to follow this impulsion, 
if they desire to spare to society that indigence which is so heart-rending and to which governments 
have hitherto only closed their ears under the condition of perishing. . . 

141. Dr. Malthus rendered an immence service to humanity, for before his time people had only the 
grossest ideas upon the problem of population. Even in the most elevated ranks of society, and nearly 
everywhere, the priests were favourable to the procreation of large families. We find also in the Hebrew 
scriptures the precept to increase and multiply, and, to tell the truth, until very recently, it was the 
custom even in England for statesmen to regard the rapid increase in population as an unmixed benefit. 

142. Most assuredly that was not the opinion of John Stuart Mill. Far from that, he regarded the 
procreation of a large family as one of the greatest wrongs that any one of us could inflict upon those 
who earned their living by manual work. 

143. After the President, MISTRESS HEATHERLEY was the next to speak, and after having congratu- 
lated the League upon the increasing success which had been obtained recently by the Neo-Malthusiana, 
she expressed herself as follows : 



31 

" Our League must count upon adversaries of three sorts : (1). theological prejudices which use 
their influence in proportion as the population is instructed ; (2). the fear people have of injuring 
their health in not obeying the law of Nature, because of using preventive measures intended to prevent 
over-fecundity, although this fear is imaginary ; finally (3), the prophecies of some ardent antagonists 
of Malthusianism who call themselves Socialists." (Then follows an attack upon the latter school 
of politics). 

144. MBS. DOOTOB ALICE VICKERY spoke next and (during her speech) said : 

" It is time to finish with such rose-water and kid-glove sanitarians and with their traditions, 
and io accept with all its consequences the grand truth discovered by Malthus, namely, that the high 
rates of birth and the high rates of death are synonymous in this country. In my opinion it would 
be no attack upon individual liberty to proclaim by legislation that the production of a large family 
is the act of a bad citizen, and to attach a penal sanction to this proclamation. We are certainly free 
to act entirely according to our tastes and our personal opinions in things which only concern ourselves ; 
but it is not at all sure, at least in a civilised State, that we may perform such acts as are a cause of 
misery, of death and of destruction. 

145. "Mr. John Stuart Mill wrote an eloquent passage upon this point in his splendid 'Essay upon 
Liberty.' People ought to meditate upon it and take the advice. They see in OUT Australasian 
Colonies the absolute necessity to drive away the hordes of Chinese which infest them. In the Mother 
Country we are in face of a no less imperious necessity ; that of arresting the population of children 
in all classes, especially of the poor. It is the only efficacious means that we have of assuring good 
wages to workers and cheap food, those two elements of a prosperous and durable existence." 

146. MR. ROTHWELL was " quite of DR. ALICE VICKERY'S opinion, but he did not at all consider 
that the limitation of children, however desirabfe in itself, was an adequate means of lessening the 
social evil and the sufferings of the poorer classes. He would willingly agree to the nationalisation 
of the soil and some other measures of the same sort, but that he did not consider it apropos to indicate 
them." 

147. MRS. FENWICK MILLER, on the contrary, " had no confidence at all in Socialism and its recipes. 
What are the remedies that are offered to modern society P There are only two : Neo-Malthusianism 
and Socialism ; and who would hesitate between the two ? Political Economy teaches us that civilised 
man is bound to economise in order to procure for himself all the luxuries and comforts that civilisation 
brings with it. This truth is fully recognised by the Malthusian League, and that is why it counsels 
prudence in matrimonial unions and their consequences. Socialism has nothing positive, nothing 
precise, to oppose to that." She concluded by declaring that the League had only to await the progress 
of its ideas amongst the public for the fulfilment of its desiderata. 

148. According to MR. BLANCHARP it was " a shame for civilised governments not to have occupied 
themselves sooner in this matter, and he hoped that the English people would know how to do for 
themselves that which their legislators had not done for them. The greatest social evil resides in too 
large families, and it is vain to attribute to drunkenness the sufferings of the poorer classes. It is to 
excessive increase of families that must be attributed the dearness of living and the low rate of wages." 

149. Miss JANET WILKINSON was " not of the opinion that the law ought to interfere in such matters. 
It was to persuade the English nation of the many kinds of troubles which attached to large families 
that the League should apply itself. She did not think, moreover, that rich people had any more 
right than poor people to procreate themselves beyond measure. In her view, Chinese immigration 
into Australia resembled very much that of Germans, Belgians and Italians who were going to and 
settling in France and multiplying there very rapidly. Something ought to be done against that kind 
of immigration. As to emigration subsidised by the State, it was unjust, for this reason, that it had 
for effect the transportation beyond the seas of people in good health and vigour at the expense of 
the feeble and sickly, upon whom would thus fall a larger proportion of the burden of public 
expenditure." 

150. MR. CHATTERTON declared himself " not only Malthusian, but also Communist, and a resolute 
partisan of intervention by the State. He advocated that in future the legislature should occupy itself 
with the quantity and even with the quality of children. He himself had had ten children, of whom 
eight had succumbed to sickness and poverty. Therefore he could not give to the poor too energetically 
the advice not to procreate as many children as they were hi the habit of having." 

151. Finally, Mr. Chatterton "confessed without the slightest disguise that he would have no repug- 
nance whatever to the destruction of children born weakly or defective." 



32 

" AN ESSAY ON THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION ; 

or, A View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness ; with an 
Inquiry into Our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal or Miti- 
gation of the Evil which it Occasions." By the REVEREND 
T. R. MALTHUS, A.M., F.R.S., etc., etc. 2 Vols., 
London, John Murray, 1826, 6th edition. 

152. The title is as remarkable as the contents. For we can no more question the 
principle of population than we can the principle of gravitation. Population is noun 
substantive ; therefore if we discover, in any way, its principle, or that of any objective 
fact, we have found that which is unalterable, or it is not the principle. The word popu- 
lation is used by him in the sense of the present participle " populating." The principle 
of life we cannot alter, but we can choose or alter our principle of living up to its end- 
annihilation. Our language unfortunately does not provide us with clear perceptions 
of the ideas sein, dasein, and werden (to be, to exist, to become). " Being " we cannot 
alter, but the " becoming " of " existences " we can only too certainly modify, alter or 
annihilate. Therein is our liberty and there is our limit. 

153. No attempt will be made to controvert the prodigious arguments of these books, 
nor of the anti-human literature of the Political Economists anywhere, for the simple 
reason that such procedure would be entirely unfruitful. The whole fiekl of logic, argu- 
ment, casuistry, will be abandoned to them undisputed. But we must watch the realm 
of fact, and not abandon one inch of it because of the clamour of soi-disant, or of alleged, 
philosophers. We must examine that which they claim as axioms and postulates, ai.d 
beware of admitting as universally true that which is sometimes, or often, true. Especially 
where " laws " are declared we ought to be alert against political juggling with words, 
nor accept a superstructure built upon faulty basic phrases. 

154. Take for example the two sentences which enunciate the groundwork of Malthus' 
philosophy. They set forth alike starting-point and method, and are the opening para- 
graphs of the book. 

Book I., Chapter I. : 

In an inquiry concerning the improvement of society, the mode of conducting 
the subject which naturally presents itself, is, 

1. To investigate the causes that have hitherto impeded the progress of 
mankind towards happiness ; and 

2. To examine the probability of the total or partial removal of those causes 
in future. 

155. To enter fully into this question, and to enumerate all the causes that have 
influenced human improvement, would be much beyond the power of an individual. 
The principal object of the present essay is to examine the effects of one great 
cause intimately united with the very nature of man ; which, though it has been 
constantly and powerfully operating since the commencement of society, has been 
little noticed by the writers who have treated this subject. The facts which es- 
tablish the existence of this cause have, indeed, been repeatedly stated and ac- 
knowledged ; but its natural and necessary effects have been found totally over- 
looked ; though probably amongst these effects may be reckoned a very consider- 
able portion of that vice and misery, and of that unequal distribution of the bounties 
of nature, which it has been the unceasing object of the enlightened philanthropists 
in all ages to correct. 

156. The cause to which I allude, is the constant tendency in all animated life 
to increase beyond the nourishment prepared for it. 

157. It is observed by DR. FRANKLIN, that there is no bound to the prolific nature 
of plants or animals, but what is made by their crowding and interfering with 



33 

each other's means of subsistence. Were the face of the earth, he says, vacant of other 
plants, it might be gradually sowed and overspread with one kind only, as for 
instance with fennel ; and were it empty of other inhabitants, it might in a few 
ages be replenished from one nation only, as for instance, with Englishmen. 

158. This is incontrovertibly true. 

159. Here we have the foundation. Let us examine the joints, for a short space, 
of that upon which has been erected the most colossal error of modern times. 

160. 1. Causes cannot impede progress. Only impediments impede. We see his 
meaning, but these laxities of expression which are characteristic of Malthus, are not 
excusable in a postulate of such vast import. 

Is it so sure that there is a " progress of mankind towards happiness ?" In 
about a century every person now living will be dead. Just as some nations became 
diseased and died out whilst others arose and flourished, so the process still goes on before 
our eyes. " Mankind " is a term of convenience signifying the sum-total of living human 
creatures. Is a declining nation a happy one or not ? Anyway the concept quoted 
is abstract and intangible for a person, a family, or a nation, and is therefore too ethereal 
for use in foundations. 

161. 2. The " cause," whose probability of total or partial removal he promises 
to examine, is the " constant tendency in all animated life to increase beyond the 
nourishment prepared for it." 

By " prepared " we may assume that he means " available," inasmuch as the 
preparation would be in default. 

162. Overlooking that, the illustration of the potential spread of the fennel, quoted 
as " incontrovertible truth " by Malthus, is a most strange and venturesome untruth. 
No botanist could admit the statement as being at all near to the facts, either for the 
fennel or for any other plant. There is certainly not a hundredth, perhaps not a thousandth 
part of the earth where the plant named could live. 

Whole ranges of plants are dependent upon the provision of subsistences pro- 
vided by other plants, their supposed competitors. Others are dependent upon com- 
panionship of their own kind. 

163. What knowledge have we that the offspring of Englishmen could survive over 
all India, during ages, or all over Africa ? How then shall we accept as " incontrovertible 
truth '" as an axiom a purely hypothetical suggestion ? How much less can we build 
upon it a national and international philosophy ! In his enunciation of the problem 
he modestly suggests that the " tendency " in all animated life to increase beyond the 
means of subsistence has " probably " for its effects much of the vice and misery, and of 
the unequal distribution of the bounties of Nature, which good men have striven to correct. 
Later on, he drops the " probable " and becomes positive about it. 

But unequal distribution has surely been itself a cause rather than an effect. 
Is that not plainly shown all along history, in the ancien regime, and in the Irish famine, 
to take only two instances out of ten thousand ? Have greed, oppression and wrong 
not caused in all ages vice and misery ? Have they not been the chief, if not the exclusive 
cause ? No occasion to drag in a " natural tendency." 

164. Malthus was asked by someone what he meant by a " tendency " which nowhere 
had the effect ascribed to it. That remained unanswered. Flying birds have a tendency 
to fall, but then they do fall. Wet seasons have a tendency to cause rust in wheat. But 
it does become rusted. And so throughout. But it has not been shown that any animal 
or plant has tendency to overspread the earth, nor that mankind has ever pressed upon 
the planet's limits of production. 

165. Sexual abnormalities, prevention of child-birth, and infanticide, have a tendency 
to destroy nations and races. Nations and races have been thus destroyed. 



34 

166. His foundations have been shown above, and otherwise a hundred times, to be 
Joose and chimerical. But his superstructure of logic has none the less commanded the 
eager support of the rich and wise and prudent. Even his conclusions are called 
" axiomatic." 

167. His famous progressions have been disproved in like manner. Facts refuse 
to fit them. Nevertheless his doctrine became the centre of Political Economy, the 
core of Manchesterism. 

168. It would be presumptuous to ask the reader to follow even the shortest resume 
of his teaching and his argumentation. But it will interest many to know his plan for 
removing the burden of the poor-laws. Its intense practicality appealed to the minds 
of the Utilitarians it was bound to command Economic sympathy it was laissez-faire 
in translucent purity. The question was what to do with children born into extreme 
poverty. That condition of the parents might have been caused by disease, death, un- 
employment, robbery, military or naval service, accidents, illegitimacy, insanity, indo- 
lence, ignorance. Public charity had been the rule, but, surpassing the APOSTLE PAUL, 
Malthus will show you a more excellent way. It is worth reading. 



MALTHUS' SURE CURE FOR POVERTY. 

NATURE EXECUTES SUPERFLUOUS BABIES AND TAKES THE ODIUM. 
Why the Infant is of Little Value to Society. 

Page 337 et seq. 

170. I have reflected much on the subject of the poor-laws, and hope therefore 
that I shall be excused in venturing to suggest a mode of their gradual abolition, 
to which I confess that at present I can see no material objection. Of this indeed 
I feel nearly convinced, that, should we ever become so fully sensible of the wide- 
spreading tyranny, dependence, indolence and unhappiness which they create, 
as seriously to make an effort to abolish them, we shall be compelled by a sense 
of justice to adopt the principle, if not the plan, which I shall mention. It seems 
impossible to get rid of so extensive a system of support, consistently with humanity, 
without applying ourselves directly to its vital principle, and endeavouring to 
counteract that deeply-seated cause which occasions the rapid growth of all such 
establishments, and invariably renders them inadequate to their object. 

171. As a previous step even to any considerable alteration in the present system, 
which would counteract or stop the increase of the relief to be given, it appears 
to me that we are bound in justice and honour formally to disclaim the right of the 
poor to support. 

172. To this end, I should propose a regulation to be made, declaring that no child 
born from any marriage, taking place after the expiration of a year from the date 
of the law, and no illegitimate child born two years from the same date, should ever 
be entitled to parish assistance, And to give a more general knowledge of this law, 
and to enforce it more strongly on the minds of the lower classes of the people, 
the clergyman of each parish should, after the publication of banns, read a short 
address, stating the strong obligation on every man to support his own children ; 
the impropriety, and even immorality, of marrying without prospect of being able 
to do this ; the evils which had resulted to the poor themselves from the attempt 
which had been made to assist by public institutions in a duty which ought to be 
exclusively appropriated to parents ; and the absolute necessity which had at 
length appeared of abandoning all such institutions, on account of their producing 
effects totally opposite to those which were intended. 



35 

173. This would operate as a fair, distinct and precise notice, which no man could 
well mistake ; and, without pressing hard on any particular individuals, would at 
once throw off the rising generation from that miserable and helpless dependence 
upon the government and upon the rich, the moral as well as the physical conse- 
quences of which are almost incalculable. 

174. After the public notice which I have proposed had been given, and the system 
of poor-laws had ceased with regard to the rising generation, if any man chose to 
marry, without prospect of being able to support a family, he should have the most 
perfect liberty so to do. Though to marry, in this case, is, in my opinion, clearly 
an immoral act, yet it is not one which society can justly take upon itself to prevent 
or punish ; because the punishment provided for it by the laws of nature falls directly 
and most severely upon the individual who commits the act, and through him, only 
more remotely and feebly, on the society. When nature will govern and punish 
for us, it is a very miserable ambition to wish to snatch the rod from her hands, 
and draw upon ourselves the odium of the executioner. To the punishment there- 
fore of nature he should be left, the punishment of want. He has erred in the face 
of a most clear and precise warning, and can have no just reason to complain of 
any person but himself when he feels the consequences of his error. All parish 
assistance should be denied him ; and he should be left to the uncertain support 
of private charity. He should be taught to know, that the laws of nature, which 
are the laws of God, had doomed him and his family to suffer for disobeying their 
repeated admonitions ; that he had no claim of right on society for the smallest 
portion of food, beyond which his labour would fairly purchase ; and that if he 
and his family were saved from feeling the natural consequences of his imprudence, 
he would owe it to the pity of some kind benefactor, to whom, therefore, he ought 
to be bound by the strongest ties of gratitude. 

175. If this system were pursued, we need be under no apprehensions that the 
number of persons in extreme want would be beyond the power and will of the 
benevolent to supply. The sphere for the exercise of private charity would, 
probably, not be greater than it is at present ; and the principal difficulty would 
be, to restrain the hand of benevolence from assisting those in distress in so in- 
discriminate a manner as to encourage indolence and want of foresight in others. 

176. With regard to illegitimate children, after the proper notice has been given, 
they should not be allowed to have any claim to parish assistance, but be left 
entirely to the support of private charity. If the parents desert their child, they 
ought to be made answerable for the crime. The infant is, comparatively, of 
little value to the society, as others will undoubtedly supply its place. Its principal 
value is on account of its being the object of one of the most delightful passions 
in human nature parental affection. But if this value be disregarded by those 
who are alone in a capacity to feel it, the society cannot be called upon to put 
itself in their place ; and has no further business in its protection than to punish 
the crime of desertion or intentional ill treatment in the persons whose duty it 
is to provide for it. 

177. At present the child is taken under the protection of the parish, and generally 
dies, at least in London, within the first year. 

178. That teaching is a long way from the " Sinite parvulos " of the Lord CHRIST. 
" Let the darlings come to Me ! Of such is My kingdom." But Manchester, as we 
shall presently see, had still another way with these sad little English children. 

Do you hear the children weeping, my brothers, 
Ere the sorrow comes with years ? 

179. No ? Then let us listen a little while. Those underfed, weakly " pauper " 
children were set to work at the tender age of five years in workhouses, factories and mines. 



36 

And the evidence before Parliament is that they were cruelly whipped and otherwise 
tortured when their little frames fainted and failed. Children of five and six were 
placed in mines, in absolute darkness and wet, to open and shut doors during twelve 
to fifteen hours a day. They died, of course, by scores of thousands, but these are only 
" natural consequences," in perfect accord with the laws of Political Economy and at 
GOD if by chance there be one. Most successful and admired Economists doubted 
or denied Him. The puzzle is how the " excellent Malthus " could and did hold both 
kinds of faith. Pay might explain the puzzle policy and economy. 

180. The fear of GOD which is the beginning of wisdom initium sapientiae timor 
largely died out in Anglo-Saxondom. It is seldom preached now, being unpopular 
and not " in line with modern thought." We have seen above how terrific suffering, 
on a national scale, fell upon the absolutely innocent. Can we be quite sure that there 
is no such thing as Divine retribution ? The Scriptures assert it, but then, again, the 
Scriptures are " largely out of line with modern thought." It is so often said " What 
the people want is to hear the love of God preached to them." Quite so, but He seems 
specially to have loved little children, and to have made very strong provision for that 
sweet attraction in His human creatures. And where that love fades and wanes in any 
nation, turns to indifference or even aversion, is it not probable that the Administrator 
of the infinite universe made, long ago, ample counteracting provision ? 



PLASTIC TRUTH. 

Appendix to sixth edition, page 497. 

181. It is probable, that having found the bow bent too much one way, I was 
induced to bend it too much the other, in order to make it straight. But I shall 
always be quite ready to blot out any part of the work which is considered by a 
competent tribunal as having a tendency to prevent the bow from becoming 
finally straight, and to impede the progress of truth. 

182. Thus we see how flexible a thing is " truth " in the minds and the writings of 
these dialecticians and Political Economists. " Theology " in our times is required of 
the clergy to get " into line with modern thought." But modernity itself vacillates 
from generation to generation, so that instead of a straight and trusty weapon fit to speed 
shafts of truth through shields of error, we see in Malthus' work the corrugations of a 
useless rope of sand. 

183. In his title Malthus undertakes to deal with the " principle of population and 
its effects on human happiness " and " with an inquiry into our prospects respecting 
the future removal or mitigation of the evils which it occasions." 

Yet on page 496 he says, reviewing his own work : 

184. I have always considered the principle of population as a law peculiarly suited 
to a state of discipline and trial. Indeed, I believe that, in the whole range of the 
laws of nature with which we are acquainted, not one can be pointed out, which 
in so remarkable a manner tends to strengthen and confirm this scriptural view 
of the state of man on earth. 

185. On the same page and upon many pages he speaks of the " evils arising from 
the principle of population." And on page 438 he says : 

That the principal and most permanent cause of poverty has little or no direct 
relation to forms of government, or the unequal division of property ; and that, 
as the rich do not in reality possess the power of finding employment and 
maintenance for the poor, the poor cannot, in the nature of things, possess the right 
to demand them ; are important truths flowing from the principle of population. 



37 

186. Thus his astonishing " principle of population " was a source both of truth 
and evil. Mai thus easily refutes JAMES, the brother of our Lord, who asserted that 
a fountain cannot bring forth sweet water and bitter. A very old, very populous, and 
typical country is India. When the rajahs extracted from the workers through a hun- 
dred generations almost all the fruits of their toil, " the principal and permanent cause 
of their poverty had little or no direct relation to the form of government ! " The 
owners of vast estates, LUDWIG of Bavaria, JOHANN DER STARKE of Saxony, the Duke 
of SUTHERLAND, who, not working themselves, swept in the products of the labour of 
thousands, leaving the actual workers in utter poverty was there no " direct relation 
to unequal division of property," and did the lords of the soil " not in reality possess 
the power of finding employment and maintenance of the poor ? " 

187. Such are the axioms and postulates upon which was built up the philosophy 
of the Manchester School, or that of Political Economy. Thus the " laws of God " 
are made sources of evil. Let us follow the " excellent Malthus " a little further, lest 
we lose sight of the genesis of our national disease. 

p. 453. 

188. The great Author of nature, indeed, with that wisdom which is apparent in 
all His works, has not left this conclusion to the cold and speculative consideration 
of general consequences. By making the passion of self-love beyond comparison 
stronger than the passion of benevolence, He has at once impelled us to that line 
of conduct, which is essential to the preservation of the human race 

189. By this wise provision the most ignorant are led to promote the general happiness, 
an end which they would have totally failed to attain, if the moving principle of 
their conduct had been benevolence. Benevolence indeed, as the great and constant 
source of action, would require the most perfect knowledge of causes and effects, 
and therefore can only be the attribute of the Deity. In a being so short-sighted 
as man, it would lead into the grossest errors, and soon transform the fair and 
cultivated soil of civilised society into a dreary scene of want and confusion. 

190 Grant these axioms, and he proceeds to extol the quality of benevolence, within 
well-marked bounds. What those bounds are we have already found very clearly 
stated. Can we not already see how and why men hardened their hearts to their own 
flesh and blood, to the children of the nation, and amassed great fortunes by a continuous 
" massacre " of the innocents ? " The infant is, comparatively speaking, of little value 
to society, as others will immediately supply its place." 

191. That book has had a mightier influence upon the dominant school of politics 
and upon the Anglo-Saxon race, directly and by heredity through the Neo-Malthusians, 
than any other piece of literature in the English language. 



" MALTHUS AND HIS WORK." 

By JAMES BONAR, M.A., Balliol College, Oxford, Macmillan, London. 1885. 

192. This book " which owes much to him " is dedicated to Professor CAIRI>J 

193. The first lines of the Introduction explain the central position of Malthus' 
work and theory in Political Economy. 

Of three English writers whose work has become a portion of all Political 
Economy, Malthus is the second in time and in honour. His services to general 
theory are at least equal to Ricardo's and his full illustration of one particular 
detail will rank with the best work of Adam Smith. , 



38 

194. In 1798 Pitt's Bill for extending relief to large families, and thereby en- 
couraging population, was no doubt before the country ; but we owe Mai thus' 
essay, not to William Pitt, but to Wm. Godwin. The changed aspect of the book 
in its later editions need not blind us to the efficient cause of its first appearances. 

195. Godwin's humanitarian and optimistic teaching, perfectly in accord with the 
dictum of Spinoza that " nothing is more useful to mankind than man," provoked the reply 
of Mai thus, and in this way only do we owe to poor Godwin the whole " dismal " and 
savage " science " of Political Economy. 

196. It is not generally known that DANIEL MALTHUS, father of the celebrated founder 
of the gospel of restriction of families by healthy married couples, was opposed to the 
views of, and had much hot controversy with, his son Thomas Robert, the budding 
philosopher who became Headmaster amongst Economists. 

197. Daniel Malthus had been a friend and executor of ROUSSEAU, and was an 
ardent believer in human progress. 

198. Bonar asserts, page 9 : 

Men are always inclined to marry and multiply their numbers till the food 
is barely enough to support them all. This objection had since Wallace's time 
become a stock objection to be answered by every maker of Utopias. It was 
left to Malthus to show the near approach which this difficulty makes to hope- 
lessness, and to throw the burden of proof on the other side. As the " Wealth 
of Nations " altered the standing presumption in favour of interference to one 
in favour of liberty in matters of trade, so the " Essay upon Population " altered 
the presumption which was in favour of the advocates of progress, to a presumption 
against them. This may not define the final result of the Essay, but it is a true 
account of its immediate effect. People had knowledge of the objection before ; 
it was only now that they began to look upon it as conclusive. 

199. Bonar's is an exceedingly dreary book upon a dismal subject, without a touch 
of genuine humour or wit from cover to cover. Sometimes, however, involuntary humour 
affords relief and joy to the student who follows the weary controversy that has sufficed 
to bring great nations to the slope of ruin. HARRY MALTHUS, only son of the prophet, was 
asked when a boy what he would have done if he had found, as did the Good Samaritan, 
a man hah* dead by the road-side. " I would have killed him outright," promptly 
answered the youth. (Page 415). 

200. That modernised form of the parable of our gentle Lord might well be their 
illustrative anecdote, to incarnate the true principle of Political Economy. It contains 
an element of mercy pretty well in line with that of James and John Mill in their inculcation 
of the exclusion from life of the children who would come in the course of Nature to Great 
Britain. The boy's was a more merciful position than that actually assumed by the 
Political Economists of the House of Commons during the Irish famine. Humanitarians 
proposed to " interfere with liberty of trade " and to forbid the export of foodstuffs so 
that the people who produced the abundance might temporarily be fed. That, because 
of the failure of the root crop by which like the sheep they tended they were permitted 
to sustain life. But the proposal was rejected on Politico-Economic grounds. 

201. They lay, in literal fact, upon the road-sides in tens of thousands, dying under 
the cruel torture of hunger men, women and babies. Although " the tender mercies 
of the wicked are cruel " it would have been a real mercy to " kill them outright." My 
relatives of a former generation, the Quakers of Ireland, in general never adopted the 
doctrines of Political Economy or followed the leaders of the cult. They advocated ic 
1848 the intervention of the State to prohibit at the least the destruction of grain for 
malt, so that the human creatures, their beloved, industrious and faithful fellow-country- 
men, might be fed and kept alive. Failing in all such efforts to convince the ruling powers, 
they imported corn from America and also received cargoes of food from their friends 



39 

there, which food was supplied gratis and without cost of distribution. But it was too 
late to save the food-producers of Ireland, who perished by the hundred thousand for 
lack of food in the midst of plenty.* 

202. Here we have a clear antithesis. But even that is not the limit of Economic 
perversity, for it constantly occurs to these neo-Malthusian writers to adopt as one of their 
" proofs," the fecundity of the " ignorant and poverty-stricken Irish." By the accepted 
tests of morality that of these Roman Catholic Irish stood highest in Europe. Illegitimacy 
has always been at the lowest, and unnatural vice was practically unknown. Marital 
life, together with purity amongst the unmarried, was and is held sacred and extolled. 
Love and nurture of young children was regarded as the first and holiest duty, so that 
mortality of infants in the first year of life was the lowest in Europe, in face of all govern- 
mental neglect and of all poverty. That did not come by chance, it persisted against 
all difficulties because of specific inculcation thereto with steadfast adherence, as a nation 
and race, to the apprehensions of duty. 

203. Their principles and the racial practices which thus proceeded from them were 
in inflexible rejection of, and declared antagonism to, the teachings of Malthus, Miss 
Martineau, the Mills, and later of Bradlaugh, Besant, Drysdale, Gamier and the rest of 
the apostles of sexual abnormality. 



THE LAW OF POPULATION, 

Its Consequences and its Bearing upon Human Conduct and Morals," by ANNIE BESANT. 
Australian Edition, Hundredth thousand. 

204. This is not the work which first brought its author into notoriety and favour. 
Having separated from her husband, who is a Church of England clergyman, still practising 
his sacred calling in a country parish in England, Mrs. Besant joined the late CHARLES 
BRADLAUGH in publishing, as explained by Joseph Garnier (Par. 131) a pamphlet 
written by the late Dr. Knowlton of Massachusetts. It is advertised in the copy of Mrs. 
Besant's book which is before me, but both of them have lost circulation for the sufficient 
reason that the various articles recommended in these books are now so widely known 
obtainable at almost all chemists, as also from other dealers that little or nothing could 
be learnt from them. There are long-winded chapters upon the doctrine of Malthus 
and many extracts from the writings of John Stuart Mill and his father James Mill in sup- 
port of " scientific checks " against population. There are quasi-scientific demonstrations 
adapted from Darwin, Galton and other observers as to the tendency of animals and plants 
to multiply, out of which facts is made a sophistical analogy to human reproduction. 

205. Whenever, then, we look through Nature we find proofs of the truth of the 

law that " there is a tendency in all animated existence to increase faster than the 
means of subsistence." This is the law of which Miss Martineau said that it could 

* Note. LordGEOBGE BENTINCK, speaking upon the Corn Laws (Hansard, Jan. 21st, 1847, page 249) 
said : 

That for which I blame the Government, is their neglect in not having stringently prohibited 
the export of grain from Ireland. How does that matter stand ? They talk of the benefits which 
have been, and necessarily will be, derived from their Free Trade, and yet, by a paper before me, 
I find that whilst there had only been imported into Ireland between 400,000 and 500,000 quarters 
of foreign and British corn, full 1,700,000 quarters had been exported from Ireland, and that within 
the last eleven months. It cannot be denied that, if this export had been prohibited, they would at 
once have saved a sufficient quantity to maintain 2 503,000 of the Irish people from this time until 
the next harvest. 



40 

no more be upset than a law of arithmetic ; this is the law which John Stuart Mill 
regarded as " axiomatic " ; this is the law which Lord Chief Justice Cockburn, 
in the trial of the Queen v. Bradlaugh and Besant designated an " irrefragable 
truth." Controversialists may quarrel as to its consequences, and may differ 
as to man's duty in regard to them, but no controversy can arise among thinkers 
of the law itself, any more than in the sphericity of the earth. 

206. But there are many who have refused to take their religion from Miss Harriet 
Martineau, their politics from John Stuart Mill, their morals from Sir Alexander Edward 
Cockburn, or to regard any one of the three as an authority in natural science. Every 
simple observer knows and sees that there is not a tendency in " all animated existence " 
to increase faster than the means of subsistence. An axiom is a truth of universal ap- 
plication, it must always hold good. Now the statement is a half-truth, or in other words 
a frequently observed condition of things, but to which there are many exceptions and 
contradictions. One could fill a book with instances where animated existences show 
no tendency at all to increase up to or beyond the means of subsistence. Sea-birds have 
few or no enemies in our vast Southern Ocean, with its limitless means of subsistence. 
But they lay few eggs and some birds are strangely careless about them. How many 
remain celibate nobody knows, and any way the opposite tendency to that claimed is 
plainly shown. The great size of some animals and their lengthy period of gestation 
are also facts of tendency against their multiplication. So is the sexual periodicity of 
those breeding but once a year, as compared with animals like rabbits, which multiply 
all the year round in Australia, a country that was not, moreover, their natural habitat. 
The immense time required for the fructification of the splendid talipot palm (corypha 
umbraculifera) never to flower again, is a tendency towards extinction, or at least to its 
remaining comparatively scarce. Some plants, apart altogether from means of sub- 
sistence, prefer the company of other plants of different nature, and although they can 
live without them are seldom successful apart. There are limits of sexual selection 
amongst animals, including man, which tend to withhold them from any pressure upon 
" means of subsistence." So again with plants, whose " means of subsistence " are de- 
fined to be " moisture, air, light and suitable soil." But climate is left out, yet even 
in the same climate and same soil, there are often observed limits of habitat, so that the 
animated existences alluded to do not press upon or even touch the bounds of the means 
of subsistence. 

207. It is true there is a tendency in some animated existences, but not all, to increase 
faster than the means of subsistence, whence the truth not being of universal application 
breaks down as an axiom and most of all in relation to, and analogically to, human beings. 
These being gifted with reason possess means of adjustment, within the laws of their 
nature, to their environment. 

208. Bradlaugh and Besant, Mai thus and Mill, supply many illustrations of cruel 
privations suffered by innocent and helpless children in the United Kingdom, whilst 
surrounded by plenty. Protest is raised by the " philosophers " against the admission 
of human creatures to the banquet of life, but not a word in these books do we find against 
our folly and wickedness in securing, to those who never worked in their lives, the underpaid 
services of the starvelings that receive mere crumbs and refuse as reward for providing 
the banquet itself. 

209. There is no suggestion from these Political Economists that the children have 
social rights, to be claimed in every form, on the ground that they are the first treasures 
and the last strength of a nation. No, their " philosophy " has other " fruits " than 
that, and so upon page after page are described in minute detail, by these men and women 
philosophers in collaboration, the human generative organs and functions, as also the 
procreative act itself, together with instructions how most effectively to circumvent Nature. 
And that whilst encouraging people to indulge their distorted passions to satiety. To 



41 

satiety, because abstinences that have been for ages regarded as lawful and honourable 
are advised against, whilst methods of prevention, sometimes two methods at a time, 
are recommended to general use. 

210. The preventive check proposed by Malthus [moral restraint only] must, 
therefore, be rejected and a wiser solution of the problem must be sought. 

211. Later thinkers, recognising at once the evils of over-population and the evils 
of late marriage, have striven to find a path which shall avoid both Scylla and 
Charybdis, and have advocated early marriage and small families. JOHN STUART 
MILL has been one of the most earnest of these true friends of the people. In his 
" Political Economy " he writes " The paucity of births tends directly to prolong 
life by keeping the people in comfortable circumstances." Clearly and pointedly 
Mr. Mill teaches "conjugal prudence." MRS. FAWCETT writes: "Those who 
deal with this question of pauperism should remember that it is not to be remedied 
by cheap food, by reduction of taxation, or by economical administration in the 
departments, or by new forms of government. Nothing will permanently affect 
pauperism while the present reckless increase of population continues." MR. 
MONTAGU COOKSON says that some may think " prudential restraint after marriage 
wilder than anything Malthus ever dreamt," but urged that " the number of 
children born after marriage should be limited," and that "such limitation is as 
much the duty of married persons as the observance of chastity is the duty of those 
that are unmarried." 

212. It remains then, to ask how is this duty to be performed ? It is clearly useless 
to preach the limitation of the family and to conceal the means whereby such limi- 
tation may be effected. 

213. Then follows a list of the English inventions, with the names of the inventors, 
where to obtain the several articles, how they may be prepared, and above all how to use 
them. The names of various medical practitioners are supplied, with their comments, 
as also recommendations of vegetable and metallic substances to be employed by women 
for the destruction of the human germ. 

214. Very many citations are made from supposed authorities against celibacy, 
amongst whom SIR BENJAMIN BRODIE is made responsible for the statement that, " the 
evils of celibacy were so great that he would not mention them ; but that they quite 
equalled that of prostitution." When the consequences of venereal diseases to parents 
and to the offspring of modern nations are borne in mind, we are constrained to doubt 
the honesty of that quotation, which is, like the rest of the atrocious teaching of these 
Economist leaders of our society, flat in the face of " religion, morality and medicine." 

215. After describing in detail how to dissolve and prepare a metallic solution, for 
which there is now a very wide-spread demand amongst pharmacists in Anglo-Saxondom, 
Mrs. Besant says : 

As a matter of caution the solution must be kept from the reach of children 
or curious persons, and it is wise to label the bottle in which the solution is kept 
"POISON." 

Dr. . . . informed me that in his own practice he continually recommended 
the use of this check to married women, and that it had been very largely and very 
successfully adopted. 

216. Now this solution consists of two metallic salts, each an irritant poison, com- 
bined in water, both of them having caustic properties. Both are occasionally used 
by suicides. When used for conjugal frauds they are brought into direct contact with the 
os uteri externum when the latter is in a more or less congested and irritable state. It 
is an extremely unnatural procedure for a healthy woman, and the Journal of the American 
Medical Association asks the pertinent question as to what consequences are to be 



42 

expected from years of this kind of treatment ? (Par. 1056). The organ is very 
sensitive, and just that spot, the neck of the womb, is the seat of cancerous growths 
whose frequency has of late years greatly increased, and is rapidly increasing. It is 
no answer to say that nulliparous women are seldom affected, for these preventives are 
not reliable and pregnancy often ensues upon their use. Then comes the resort to abortion, 
so that it by no means follows that the childless woman is nulliparous. Again, the use 
of preventives is largely resorted to by the woman after having had one or more children. 
Taught by so many mistakes in the past, gynaecologists and physicians are exceedingly 
cautious in asserting consequences, especially in relation to the causation of cancer. 
Therefore " the laity " take blindly upon themselves risks of extreme anguish and 
untimely death, because positive warnings cannot be given from actual knowledge. 

217. It is not enough for the physician to say, or even the consensus of his profession 
to declare, " you must not use these things without medical prescription," or to the 
anxious but ignorant mother, " don't give your baby teething-powders " (chloride of 
mercury), " or soothing-syrup " (opium). The people must be made fully aware of 
what they are doing and what the probable consequences are. In like manner his 
entire profession is unable to say, or to guess, how much cancer is caused by these frequent 
interruptions to the course of Nature, and by the local irritations. He cannot cite a 
single proven case, for it is all but impossible to get the antecedent facts and to prove 
the sequence. But physicians can declare their beliefs, or even their apprehensions, 
as some have boldly done, in the face of controversy. Our abundant cause for gratitude 
to the healing professions has been herein frequently set forth, and as there is no other 
source for guidance to a misled and declining race, our people must perforce ask them 
for absolute candour. (Par. 1263). 

218. It is a pity that the users of these metallic salts do not firstly try them upon their 
hands pretty frequently, and mark the effects, before applying the poison to a more 
delicate, vascular and absorptive surface. 

219. How rapidly conjugal prudence may lift a nation out of pauperism is seen 
in France ; the proportion of adults to the whole population is the largest in Europe, 
the proportionate number of persons under thirty being the smallest ; hence there 
are more producers and fewer non-producers than in any other country. The 
consequence of this is that the producers are less pressed upon, and live in greater 

comfort and with more enjoyment of life France shows a pattern 

of widely spread comfort which we look for in vain in our own land, and this 
comfort is directly traceable to the systematic regard for conjugal prudence. 
Small agricultural holdings tend greatly to this virtue, the fact of the limitation 
of the food supply available being obvious to the most ignorant peasant. 

220. It is well worthy of notice that those who have pleaded for scientific checks 
to population have also been those who have been identified with the struggle 
for political and religious freedom. RICHARD CARLILE defended the use of such 
as advocated in his " Every Woman's Book." 

221. One of these courageous souls as mentioned, not bound by the conventions of 
morality, took all the oaths in Freemasonry and published in the smallest detail what 
is declared to be a complete exposure of all the harmless secrets of all the degrees of the 
Craft. 

222. Mr. FRANCIS PLACE argues : " The mass of the people in an old country 
must remain in a state of wretchedness, until they are convinced that their safety 
depends upon themselves and that it can be maintained in no other way than 
by ceasing to propagate faster than the means of comfortable subsistence are 

produced If above all, it were once clearly understood that it 

was not disreputable for married persons to avail themselves of such precautionary 
means as would, without being injurious to health, or destructive of female 



43 

delicacy, prevent conception, a sufficient check might at once be given to the in- 
crease of population beyond the means of subsistence, and vice and misery to a 
prodigious extent be removed from society." 

223. Mr. JAMES WATSON showed his views of the matter by publishing Dr. 
CHARLES KNOWLTON'S " Fruits of Philosophy." Mr. ROBERT DALE OWEN (son 
of Robert Owen, and American minister in Florence), in his " Moral Physiology," 
advocates and describes scientific checks. 

224. Mr. JAMES MILL says that " if the superstitions of the nursery were disregarded 1 , 
and the principle of utility kept steadily in view a solution might not be very 
difficult to be found." 

225. Mr. JOHN STUART MILL strongly urges restraint of the number of the family, 
and he took an active part in disseminating the knowledge of scientific checks. 

226. He certainly did, for it is narrated by Mr. McCabe in his " Life of G. J. 
Holyoake " that Mr. John Stuart Mill was arrested by the police, at the early 
age of eighteen, for distributing in " servants' areas " handbills explaining the use 
of preventives of conception. And the same sense of duty remained with him. 

Mrs. BESANT continues : 

227. The members of the old Freethought institution in John-street, made it part 
of their work to circulate popular tracts advocating scientific checks, such as a 
four page tract entitled : " Population : is not its increase at present an evil, 
and would not some harmless check be desirable ? " 

228. Mr. AUSTIN HOLYOAKE, in his " Large and Small Families," follows in the 
same strain, and recommends as guides Knowlton's Pamphlet and Owen's " Moral 
Physiology." 

229. Mr. GEORGE JACOB HOLYOAKE, writing as one of the Vice -Presidents of the 
National Secular Society in 1876, points to the difference between Christian and 
secular morality on this head ; he says : " Let anyone regard for a moment the 
Christian's theory of this life. It tells us that all human beings are born immortal, 
and that God has to provide for them above or below ! Yet in every portion 
of the land scoundrel or vicious parents may bring into existence a squalid brood 
of dirty, sickly, depraved, ignorant, ragged children. Christianity fails utterly 
to prevent their existence, and hurls quick words of opprobrium upon any who 
advocate the prevention of this progeny of crime. Yet the Christian teaches 
that, by mere act of orthodox belief, these ignorant and unclean creatures can be 
sent from the gutter to God. A Secularist cannot help shuddering at this doctrine 
and this practice, so fatal to society, so contemptuous to heaven." 

230. Thus has the effort to obtain social reform gone hand in hand with that for 
political and religious freedom; the victors in the latter have been the soldiers 
of the former. Discussion on the population question is not yet safe ; legal 
penalty threatens those who advocate the restriction of birth instead of the 
destruction of life ; the same penalty was braved by our leaders in the last 
generation, and we have only to follow in their steps in order to conquer as they 
conquered and become sharers of their crown. We work for the redemption 
of the poor, for the salvation of the wretched. The cause of the people is the 
sacredest of all causes, and it is the one which is the most certain to triumph, 
however sharp may be the struggle for the victory. 

231. Their victory has been won and it is undeniably complete. The poor 
" gutter children " of England, " dirty, sickly, ignorant, depraved and ragged," are 
infinitely worse off than were those of Nazareth, whose dusty little feet were lifted upon 
the seamless robe, who were pressed to the Sacred Heart and received the blessing of 
the ages. These harmless English creatures, denied entrance to the banquet of life 



44 

by the English philosophers and Members of Parliament, are also to bo denied a 
return from the gutter to God ! If there were no visible vengeance for the acceptance 
of that teaching we might well doubt the Divine Intelligence. 

232. Here and there throughout the copy which is before me of this " philosophic " 
work are printed on the left-hand pages urgent recommendations to buy other works 
by the same authors upon similar subjects ; many books upon matrimony on the modern 
pattern ; licentious and infamous tales by French authors ; works " illustrated with 
coloured plates and engravings of the generative organs ; " specimens of the salacious 
writings of Paul de Kock ; " Marriage, As it was, As it is, and as it should be, by ANNIE 
BESANT, with a sketch of the life of Mrs. Besant ; " several pages upon supposed excitants 
to sexual desire ; pages devoted to advertisements of " Neo-Malthusian Appliances ;" 
others offering " Ladies' Own Irregularity Pills guaranteed to remove all irregularities 
silently but surely." To these pills the names of the most distinguished physicians 
are unlawfully attached with wholly shameless effrontery. On the cover are advertised 
more illustrated books upon sexual matters, and all is expressed with total unreserve. 
These are the books advertised in the English and in the Australian daily and weekly press, 
which penetrates our homes and schools. 

233. In Vol. I. of this Report are supplied photographic copies of the advertisements 
of this literature published daily and weekly in Australia same as in the Mother Country. 
Curiously the announcements claim that there is " an enormous sale " for the merchandise, 
just as proved before the Joint Committee (Rep. par. 232). And the commercial articles 
purveyed by " respectable firms " are still openly advertised and carried through our 
own post-offices, exactly as before. Every week and every day these abominations are 
thrust before our citizens, and up to date excepting in New Zealand our Legislatures 
are supine. 

234. Dr. AMELIN wrote (see Nitti p. 76). " La castration vaut mieux, a tout prendre, 
qu'une prudence voisine de la pratique de 1'avortement." [All things considered, 
castration would be better than a prudence which is next-door neighbour to the practice 
of abortion.] 

235. The assertion has been made that Mrs. Besant recanted and repudiated her 
former convictions, which she stated with so much fierceness of emphasis in her long 
campaign against the superfluous baby. It is impossible to quote, and unnecessary, 
her angry declamations against what has been historically regarded as morality and 
decency, for the details of sexuality and sensuality are throughout involved. 

233. The president of a " Theosophical Association " sent me a copy of Mrs. Besant's 
later pamphlet, remarking, inter alia : 

All this occurred about 30 years ago, and Mrs. Besant has long since been 
convinced that the practices she formerly advocated are unjustifiable, and she 
has published a further pamphlet entitled " Theosophy and the Law of Population " 
in which she makes this change of opinion public, and states that she has decided 
to withdraw the earlier publication from sale and to refuse to sell the copyright. 

237. It is necessary to examine this later booklet, but in the meantime it must be 
repeated that " The Law of Population " as fully named at the head of this chapter, 
is advertised every day and week in England and Australia, whilst the name of Annie 
Besant, plainly as an aid to sale, is printed in large letters on the front cover and title 
page. At the foot of each of them are the words " The Trade Supplied." Very likely 
the lady did not sanction these sales, but the phenomenon is there all the same and we 
are only concerned with the consequences of it. I caused a copy to be purchased two 
years ago, and a pharmacist friend, not knowing that, voluntarily obtained for me this 
year another, first carefully pasting upon it a red label, " POISON." 

238. Most of the persons who engaged themselves in the propaganda of this Satanic 
" gospel " have gone to their account, and we are in no way interested in their person- 



45 

alities whether dead or living. We have to do with the teaching and its effects. 
" The waters of Shiloah that run softly," the stream of innocent love that had been the 
joy and strength of our nation and race, was permanently poisoned. The same was 
done for France, only too ready to receive the narcotic drug. No one of those persons 
is of more value than, or should be so much considered as, anyone of the host of 
women now suffering and dying in Anglo-Saxon hospitals, or than the next poor babe that 
will be cast as rubbish to the void. 

240. The latter pamphlet is a string of self-conscious, self-flattering casuistry, strongly 
emphasising the teaching of the former books and, be it said, quite as likely to meet with 
acceptance. 



THEOSOPHY AND THE LAW OF POPULATION," 

By ANNIE BESANT. 
London Theosophical Publishing Society, 7 Duke Street, W.C. (Pages 5 et seq.). 

241. The teaching of the duty of limiting the family within the means of subsistence is the logical 
outcome of materialism. Seeking to improve the physical type, it would forbid parentage to any 
but healthy married couples ; it would restrict child-bearing within the limits consistent with the 
thorough health and physical well-being of the mother ; it would impose it as a duty never to bring 
children into the world unless the conditions for their fair nurture and development are present ; 
and regarding it as hopeless, as well as mischievous, to preach asceticism, and the conjunction of 
nominal celibacy with widespread prostitution as inevitable, from the constitution of human nature, 
it quite rationally and logically advises deliberate restriction of the production of offspring, while 
sanctioning the exercise of the sexual instinct within the limits imposed by temperance, the highest 
physical and mental efficiency, the good order and dignity of society, and the self-respect of the 
individual 

242. The famous trial of Mr. Charles Bradlaugh and myself for republishing a pamphjet on the subject 
written early in the century by Dr. Knowlton, an American physician, was the commencement of 
a great popular movement on the subject. We published the pamphlet because it was attacked by 
the police, and that did not seem to us the fashion in which such a question should be settled. We 
accordingly reprinted th tract, and sent notice to the police that we would personally sell them the 
pamphlet, so as to put no technical difficulties in the way of prosecution ; we did so, and the trial 
was removed to the Court of Queen's Bench, on the writ of the Lord Chief Justice, who, after reading 
the pamphlet, decided that it was a scientific work, not an " obscene " one, in the ordinary sense 
of the word. To use his own phrase, it was a " dry physiological treatise." The prosecution was 
led by Sir Hardinge Giffard, the Solicitor General of the then Tory Government, who used every 
art of political and theological animosity against us ; th judge, Sir Alexander Cockburn, Lord 
Chief Justice of England, was in strong sympathy with us, and summed up for us in a charge to the 
jury that was really a speech for the defence ; the jury returned a special verdict completely ex- 
onerating us but condemning the book, and the judge reluctantly translated this into a verdict of 
Guilty. Obviously annoyed at the verdict he refused to give judgment, and let us go on our own 
recognisances. When we came up later for judgment, he urged us to surrender the pamphlet as the 
jury had condemned it ; said that our whole course with regard to it had been right, but that we ought 
to yield to the judgment of the jury. We were obstinate, and I shall never forget the pathetic way 
in which the great judge urged us to submit, and how at last when we persisted that we would continue 
to sell it till the right to sell it was gained, he said that he would have let us go free if we would have 
yielded to the court, but our persistence compelled him to sentence us. We gave notice of appeal, 
promising not to sell till the appeal was decided, and he let us go on our own recognisances. On 
appeal we quashed the verdict and went free ; we recovered all the pamphlets seized and publicly 
sold them ; we continued the sale till we received an intimation that no further prosecution would 
be attempted against us, and then we dropped the sale of the pamphlet, and never took it up again. 
I wrote the " Law of Population " to replace it, and my pamphlet was never attacked, except in 
Australia, where the attack ignominously failed, Justice Windeyer of the Supreme Court deciding 
in its favour in a remarkable judgment in which he justified the pamphlet and the neo-Malthusian^ 
position in one of the most luminous and cogent arguments I have ever read. The judgment was 
spoken of at the time in the English press as a " brilliant triumph for Mrs. Besant," and so I suppose 
it was ; but no legal judgment could undo the harm wrought on the public mind by malignant and 

C 



46 

persistent misrepresentation in England. No one save myself will ever know what that trial cost 
me in pain : loss of children (though the judge said that my atheism alone justified their removal), 
loss of friends, social ostracism, with all the agony felt by a woman of pure life at being the butt of 
the vilest accusations. On the other hand there was the passionate gratitude evidenced by letters 
from thousands of poor married women many from the wives of country clergymen and poor curates 
thanking and blessing me for showing them how to escape from the veritable hell in which they 
had lived. The " upper classes " of society know nothing about the way in which the poor live ; 
how their overcrowding destroys all sense of personal dignity, of modesty, of outer decency, till 
human life, as Bishop Fraser justly said, is " degraded below the level of the swine." To such and 
among such I wont, and I could not grudge the price which seemed to be the ransom for their re- 
demption. It meant indeed the losing of all that life made dear, but it seemed also the gaining for 
them of all that gave hope of better future. So who could hesitate, whose heart had been fired by 
the devotion to an ideal Humanity, inspired by the Materialism that is of love and not of hate ? . . . . 

242. I have refused either to print any more or to sell the copyright of the " Law of Population," 
so that when those that have passed beyond my control have been disposed of by those who bought 
them, no more copies will be circulated. I only in April last came to this definite decision, for I 
confess my heart somewhat failed me at the idea of withdrawing from the knowledge of the poor, 
BO far as I could, a palliative of the heart-breaking misery under which they groan, and from the 
married mothers of my own sex, the impulse to aid whom had been my strongest motive action of 
1877, a protection against the evils which too often wreck their lives and bring many to an early 
grave, worn old before even middle age has touched them. Not until I felt obliged to admit that the 
neo-Malthusian teaching was anti-Theosophical, would I take this step ; but, having taken it, it 
is right to take it publicly, and to frankly say that my former teaching was based on a mistaken view 
of man's nature, treating him as the mere product of evolution instead of as the spirit, intelligence 
and will without which evolution could not be. 

243. The details will here be omitted of these sexual perversities as taught by Mrs. 
Besant to mixed audiences, from the public platform, whilst publicly describing the 
pervert acts, yet enough has been shown above to justify the following scornful words 
of the ABBE COKBIERE. (Gamier's " Principles of Pop.") : 

244. How ere you to manage to persuade a young man that he ought to found a 
family? "Marriage," he will tell you, " costs a great deal. A wife might not 
please one after a while. The education of children is very expensive. I prefer 
to keep my liberty. When Christian principles used to act upon my mind I 
understood that the institution of marriage was to appease the voice of conscience. 
But I have changed my instructors since then, and my present ones have put the 
religionist to shame. They have taught me to suspect the Church, and I have 
learned from them the true rule of philosophy. Onan has got his panegyrists ; he 
has started a School, and I am amongst his disciples ! " 



NATIONAL MALTHUSIANISM, "PREVENTION " OF COLONIES. 

JAMES MILL. Article " Colony." Enc. Brit., 8th edition, p. 140. 

245. Things are a little more stubborn than the credulity of Engl'shmen. That, 
in general, is obedient enough to the affirmation of those who lead the parliament, 
and who have sometimes an interest in leading it wrong. Facts take their own 
course, without regard to the affirmations of parliament, or the plastic faith o.f 
those who follow them. 

246. This is the celebrated article denouncing the folly and expense of the retention 
by Great Britain of her oversea Colonies. It was merely a consistent extension of Mal- 
thusianism from the family to the nation. Fortunately, both Colonies and Parliament 
remained stubborn. 



47 

247. That the Utilitarians Mill, Bright, Cobden and many others opposed the 
" crescite et multiplicamini " as applied to the Mother Country with her lusty children, 
is known to all. The Little Englanders, just now, are rather discreetly silent, but it is 
well to read what a great savant and friend of our nation, PAUL LEBOY BEAULIETJ, says 
on the above subject. In his fine work, " De la Colonisation chez les Peuples Modernes " 
(Paris, Guillaumin et Cie, 1902), on page 711 the following appears : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

248. Can a great State nowadays afford to hold aloof, especially when its history, 
and even vast surfaces of the globe, invite it to take part in colonisation ? Never- 
theless the Economists, with the exception of a few, have dissuaded States from 
owning colonies ; why not (say they) simply push trade without taking charge of 
remote territories ? 

Verily a bagman policy attributable to " the inevitable law of supply and 
demand." 



MODERN MORALS AND ECONOMIC CHIVALRY. 

JOHN STUART MILL, " Principles of Political Economy," I., page 197, 9th Edition. 

Longmans, 1886. 

249. There is no doubt that a positive excess of nutriment is unfavourable to re- 
production ; and it is quite possible, though by no means proved, that the physio- 
logical conditions of fecundity may exist in the greatest degree when the supply 
of food is somewhat stinted. But anyone who might be inclined to draw from 
this, even if admitted, conclusions at variance with the principle of Mr. Malthus, 
needs only be invited to look through a volume of the Peerage, and observe the 
enormous families, almost universal in that class ; or call to mind the large families 
of the English clergy, and generally of the middle classes of England. 

Page 458 : 

250. Little improvement can be expected in morality until the producing large families 
is regarded with the same feelings as drunkenness or any other physical excess. 
But while the aristocracy and clergy are foremost to set the example of this kind of 
incontinence, what can be expected from the poor ? 

251. The reader will see that the word incontinence is here furnished with a new 
meaning. The pamphlet " What is Love ?" thrown into servants' areas by Mr. Mill 
himself, explained how actual incontinence need have no procreative results. 

252. JOHN STUART MILL was carefully trained by his father to a disbelief in God, and 
any immanence in man of the divine spirit, as the source of " fas," fairness, that sense 
of justice so constantly and elaborately insisted upon by the preachers of the Old Testa- 
ment, and by the Apostles in the New. To him there was no categorical imperative, to 
him the philosophy of Kant and Fichte was an ascetic dream. 

253. The father " seems to have despised poor Mrs. Mill " (par. 59 note), the mother of 
his nine children. What a pity we have no biography of the faithful, long-suffering 
woman ! For all we know, by her gentle motherhood alone she may have been a much 
more eligible national model and instructress, than sex apart was either the husband 
or son. 

254. Read again the infamous pronouncement quoted above from John Mill's own 
book, a complete footnote without context, and the reader will ask himself how we have 



48 

so far forgotten our traditional chivalry to English matrons as to have made these men 
and their writings our chief political guides for a couple of generations. They rejected 
the ancient law, which commanded : " Honour thy father and mother that thy days 
the days of thy nation may be long in the land." A new " Gospel " give I unto you 
Despise thy prolific wife and class thy fruitful and loving mother with the drunken and 
incontinent ! 



HOW THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MILL IS RECEIVED IN FRANCE. 

255. French Malthusians are still very fond of quoting those words of our great national 
prophet, preacher and teacher. They read thus in French : 

On ne peut guere esperer, que la moralite fasse des progres, tant qu-on ne 
considerera pas les families trop nombreuses avec le meme mepris que 1'ivrognerie 
ou tout autre exces corporel. 

256. They will thus be found on page 303 of " La Fonction Sexuelle," by Da. SICABI> 
DB PLAUZOLES, Paris. Giard et Briere, 1908. 

This very advanced Malthusian philosopher, who is also a pronounced doctrinaire 
Socialist of the later French type, says (page 320) in closing a chapter : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

257. The progress of science and industry permits us to foresee in the future a 
society in which production, no longer delivered up to capitalistic anarchy, but 
socially organised, will be able to satisfy the wants of all. 

258. If, however, births become too numerous, then euthanasia of the children 
which are degenerate, ill-shaped, sickly or superfluous, would bring the population 
to a proportion adequate to the means of production and of subsistence. 

259. He explains in a note that euthanasia means " an easy death without suffering.'* 
But this genial Socialist does not, like DEAN SWIFT, suggest a use for the flesh of these 
superfluous babies, after passing them through the Government lethal chamber, like 
so many puppies. 

260. The children permitted to live are to be handed over to the Collectivity, the 
true Socialist State, when that shall have been established, as Dr. de Plauzoles, with 
some reason, anticipates it shortly will be. The book is dated 1908. 

261. With still more reason this writer lays down the future position of sexual unions. 
It would take a bold man to deny that his forecast is not indicated by the tendencies of 
French society, of legislation, of increasing divorce, of displacement of religion, of increasing 
laxity in sexual unions now. On page 380 we read : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

262. We must admit that the sexual and economic emancipation of women will 
constantly multiply successive monogamic unions, of longer or shorter duration. 

263. The form of sexual union will be progressively simplified, in proportion as 
the law shall sanction more strictly all the responsibilities which arise from the 
sexual act itself, considered as a tacit contract. 

264. The union will be free freely formed, freely loosed, without any constraint, 
whether economic or legal. Its duration will be that of love. 



49 

265. The State must take charge of the health of the child, its physical, intellectual 
and moral development ; the authority of the parents must disappear before 
the superior right of the child. 

And so on, for about 400 pages of purest logic, argument, and prophecy. 

266. As often herein said, we shall not enter into any arguments, but rather leave 
the whole field undisputed in that regard to the Economists and Malthusians. The reader 
will be able to see for himself that, whilst these philosophies are merely hashes of ancient 
sophistries, they are also stigmata of decay. Religion, which French Socialists reject 
and repress, really means self-restraint religare=to bind fast hence as restraint and duty 
are cast off by the individuals, inculcation of it also ceases. 

267. Apart from the arithmetical certainty of further decline in reproduction, which 
is before both French and Anglo-Saxons, there is in the case of the former an 
ever-increasing laxity in sexual unions, which renders progeny increasingly undesired. 
To preserve freedom for fresh unions, the woman avoids " encumbrances," whilst 
euthanasia is already by no means an unfashionable practice. Moral decline ensures 
further racial decline, with equal certainty to the arithmetical. Therefore there are 
two sets of influences from whose crushing operation a decadent nation cannot possibly 
escape. To repeat : the first is the loss of procreators through the non-born, and the older 
age-constitution of the living females. The second is the progressive disinclination to 
have progeny. There are other factors, consequent upon previous practices, as will be 
abundantly shown herein upon authority and without argument, but the two just named 
are the chief and, alone, are quite sufficient for the utter ruin of any nation. Dr. de 
Plauzoles proceeds : 

268. It follows, of course, that at the same time as the sexual union is modified, so 
will be the constitution of the family. Instead of the father the mother will be 
head of the family. Since she is the fixed centre, the matrix and the heart, she 
will be the head of it. 

The children will be under her tutelage controlled by public authority. All 
will bear their mother's name. Thus the children born of the same woman, but 
of different fathers, will have the same name. No difference will any longer exist 
between legitimate and natural children ; there will no longer be natural children. 

Such is the developed Neo-Malthusian gospel, and there is little doubt of its 
progress for a while. 

JOHN STUART MILL. 

" Principles of Political Economy." * 

269. On page 462, Vol. I., he compares the man who has many children with the 
soldier who runs away from battle, and adds : 

270. It is the disgrace which naturally and inevitably attends on conduct by any 
one individual, which, if pursued by a majority, everybody can see would be fatal. . . 

271. It must be borne in mind also, that the opinion here in question, as soon as 
it attained any prevalence, would have powerful auxiliaries in the great majority 
of women. It is seldom by the choice of the wife that families are too numerous ; 
on her devolves the whole of the intolerable domestic drudgery resulting from 
the excess. To be relieved from it would be hailed as a blessing by multitudes 
of women who now never venture to urge such a claim, but who would urge it, 

* NOTE. The term " Political Economy " was used for the first time by Mountchrestien de Watteville, 
in 1615. Quesnay and his friends adopted this word and spread it. Adam Smith took it from them and used 
it without examination. Yves Guyot : Prin. of Social Economy, p. 41. 



60 

if supported by the moral feelings of the community. Amongst the barbarisms 
which law and morals have not yet ceased to sanction, the most disgusting surely 
is, that any human being should be permitted to consider himself as having a 
right to the person of another. 

272. He then labours the subject at great length in his usual cock-sure and didactic 
style. It is the same old, weary, remedy of the superior person, namely, " We must 
educate the masses in common-sense." Of course it means his own sense, however extra- 
ordinary. I have myself known a rich member of Parliament to say in a Chamber of 
Commerce to his fellow traders, with pounding emphasis : " It's our dooty, gentlemen, 
to hedjicate the massis !" The sentiment evoked applause, for his was a big soap-boiling 
firm, rich and influential, and he was a specimen of the much-admired " self-made man." 
Mr. Mill proceeds : 

273. Without entering into disputable points, it may be asserted, without scruple, 
that the aim of all intellectual training for the mass of the people, should be to 
cultivate common sense ; to qualify them for forming a sound practical judgment 
of the circumstances by which they are surrounded. Whatever in the intellectual 
department can be superadded to this is chiefly ornamental ; while this is the 
indispensable groundwork on which education must rest. Let this object be 
acknowledged and kept in view as the thing to be first aimed at, and there will be 
little difficulty in deciding either what to teach, or in what manner to teach it. 

274. An education directed to diffuse good sense among the people, with such 
knowledge as would qualify them to judge of the tendencies of their actions, would 
be certain, even without any direct inculcation, to raise up a public opinion by 
which intemperance and improvidence of every kind would be held discreditable, 
and the improvidence which overstocks the labour market would be severely con- 
demned, as an offence against the common weal. But though the sufficiency of 
such a state of public opinion, supposing it formed, to keep the increase of population 
within proper limits, cannot, I think, be doubted ; yet, for the formation of the 
opinion, it would not do to trust to education alone. 

275. How the education was imparted ; what to teach, and how Stuart Mill and the 
other Neo-Malthusians taught it, will be clearly shown herein. It is curious that such 
a very didactic person should in one sentence use the words " common sense " in the 
vulgar and incorrect meaning, and speak of "circumstances by which they are surrounded." 

276. Mr. JOHN MOBLEY (now Lord Morley) in his "Miscellanies," fourth series,page 315, 
Macmillan, 1908, wrote : 

" It would be possible for the State," Mill said, " to guarantee ample wages 
for all who are born. But if it does this, it is bound in self -protection, and for the 
sake of every purpose for which government exists, to provide that no persons 
shall be born without its consent." Only one prominent man, I think, in our time, 
has ventured to touch this dangerous question, and he was sentenced to prison 
for his pains. 

Yes, he was sentenced, but as the reader will see, a British judiciary quashed 
the verdict. Many others have since popularised and amplified the " question " 
and were not sentenced. 



51 
THE APOSTASY SEEN FROM INSIDE: 

"Life and Letters of George Jacob Holyoake," 
by JOSEPH McCABE. Watts & Co., London, 1908. 

277. On page 80, Vol. II., is narrated the close connection between Mr. Bradlaugh, 
Mrs. Besant and the Holyoakes as also their association for the publication and defence 
of the brutal Knowlton pamphlet. Here are the words of the biographer named above, 
an admirer of these people : " Holyoake agreed with its principle, but thought it coarse 
and offensive in parts ; as Mr. Bradlaugh and Mrs. Besant always admitted it to be." 
Anyhow they all united in its sale and advertisement. 

278. On page 81 a letter is printed from G. J. Holyoake to Mrs. Besant, which pre- 
sumably was supplied by the recipient for publication. 

" Dear Mrs. Besant, 

If you intend to publish the work it means ruin to you as a lady. At 
that I am concerned 

279. He objects to being identified with the defence of the publication of the 
Knowlton pamphlet, and concludes : 

" I cannot think of resting the defence of the liberty of publication upon a quack 
like Knowlton imposed upon us by an artifice in days of struggle. Let me 
add that the use of Mr. Mill's name is utterly indefensible. 

G. J. HOLYOAKE." 

Mrs. Besant thanked him for his " most kindly meant " letter and said they 
must be content to differ. He wrote again to say that, as she did not speak of 
an intention to publish the pamphlet there was no ground for differing and " In 
any case " he would be neutral. She replied : 

" Dear Mr. Holyoake, 

280. Thank you much for your nice little note. I think it probable that 
we shall follow the line of Mr. Bradlaugh (in the ' National Reformer ') 
objection to style of pamphlet as unduly coarse, but maintenance of right 
of discussion of sexual problems ; i.e., revise carefully, publish matter, but 
refine style " 

281. Unfortunately this revision did not go beyond grammar ; and the names of 
Austin and Geo. Jacob Holyoake were deliberately brought before the Court by 
Mrs. Besant as publishers of the book. 

At the end of March Mrs. Besant sent Holyoake a copy of their issue of 
Knowlton's pamphlet, admitting that they had made only " grammatical amend- 
ments " in it, and saying, " You may like to see it from curiosity, though you 
disapprove of our action." 

In a letter to the " Daily News " and " The Times " Holyoake explained 
that he had never selected the book for publication, nor published it in the ordinary 
sense of the v. ord ; that he had always disliked it and, after the British case had 
shown the use that was being made of it, he had advised its withdrawal. 

Nevertheless it is stated on page 84 : 

It was suggested at the time that Holyoake had made a considerable profit 
in the sale of the Knowlton pamphlet during 1 he year that he had sold it in Fleet 
Street . 



52 

282. Having distributed the obscenity on a large scale, it proved, however, to be un- 
profitable. The revised version of these unholy scriptures which carried a copyright 
under our amiable laws was later, however, a very remunerative enterprise for the 
revisers Bradlaugh and Besant. 

283. Re JOHN STUART MILL'S escapade and arrest by the police for distributing 
obscene handbills, more details can be found by the curious on page 63 of above book. 
It is declared to have completely alienated Mr. W. E. Gladstone's sympathy from Mill. 

The pamphlet is stated to have explained in detail how sexual intercourse may 
be carried out, whilst thwarting Nature of the natural consequences. 



THE UTILITARIAN SCHOOL. 

"The English Utilitarians," LESLIE STEPHEN. Vol. III., Duckworths, 1900. 

284. About this period (1828) JOHN STUART MILL, then aged 17 or 18, took part 
with some friends in distributing a pamphlet called " What is Love ? " advocating 
what are now called Neo-Malthusian principles. The police interfered and 
some scandal ensued. 

285. Let no one say that the story of the " dismal science " is devoid of the humorous 
side. Imagine the callow and dreary prig of eighteen deciding upon " What is Love " 
by the light of the lantern of Malthus, and starting at that interesting age to instruct 
married people in the practices cursed in Genesis ! It was from his sense of duty 
exactly where the humour comes in. Pity the police had to interfere ! He ought to 
have lived a generation later, but he preached the same views during life and was accorded 
posthumous honours. 

286. "Eraser's Magazine" in April, 1833, attacked the Political Economists 
(Stephen HI., 173), in a series of articles upon the horrors revealed by the official 
report to the House of Commons. They might be summed up as child murder 
by slow torture. The Tory organs, the "Quarterly " and "Blackwood's," took 
the same side (as Eraser's). 

The same side ! According to that statement a party led by Mr. JOHN BRIGHT 
and Mr. RICHARD COBDEN is said to have strenuously upheld the " principles " of child 
murder by slow torture. But the debate itself shows it plainly. Mr. Stephen writes : 

287. Lord SHAFTESBURY says that the argument most frequently used was the 
statement by NASSAU SENIOR "that high authority " a pronounced Malthusian, 
who had declared that all the profits of the manufacturers were made in the last 
two hours of the twelve. "Cut down the twelve to ten " he said "and profits 
will disappear, and with them the manufacturing industry." 

These, like the other prophecies of the Political Economists, were of course 
falsified by facts, as known to all. 

288. The employment of children had at first appeared desirable from a philanthropic 
point of view, but it had developed so as to involve intolerable cruelty. The hideous 
stories of children worked to death, or to premature decrepitude, revealed by the 
Commissions, had made a profound impression. 

289. The reader will bear in mind that these reports preceded the debate in which 
Mr. JOHN BRIGHT so " strenuously " upheld the practice of this intolerable cruelty of 
working the children for twelve hours a day, say thirteen and a hah* to fourteen hours of 



53 

actual attendance. They were wretchedly underfed, they were undersized and degenerate, 
they had been " soaked with opium " as babies, so that teeth and digestion were of the 
worst. Of these things, one caused the other a circulus vitiosus. Just as now, 
calomel sub-chloride of mercury was also freely and frequently administered by parents. 
When mortal sickness came the children had to die alone and untended, only one dis- 
pensary in the cruel city of Manchester. They perished like flies, only half surviving 
the fifth year and only one in six or seven reaching the age of thirty. And the Political 
Economists used every force of their intellects, all their powers of oratory, the influence 
of threats, and the compulsion of their trade organisations to perpetuate this national 
crime so long as the supply of " fixed capital " in the shape of " little children " should 
last. Each and all of that is contained in Mr. John Bright's speech as quoted herein. 
Why did the Registrar-General put the simple words in quotation marks, " little children ? " 
Apparently because Our Lord pressed the little children of Nazareth to His compassionate 
heart Luther's version says " Er beherzigte sie " and blessed them, and all such, 
for ever. Man needs the living force of His words more now than then, since people 
have come to use and to print the shameful phrase " the curse of fecundity " when 
speaking of the advent of children. Place the philosophy of His teaching beside our 
pitiful Political Economy of yesterday, a mushroom already putrescent. But the 
principles inculcated by those Political Economists, the national practices that they 
introduced and taught the obliteration of chivalry to our unborn and of chivalry to 
our children ought not and must not be ignored or glossed over. 

290, In the words of CORNELIUS TACITUS (Ann III., 65) I hold it to be the pre- 
eminent function of history that moral excellences sink not into oblivion, and that base 
words and deeds shall dread the execration of posterity. 



POLITICAL ECONOMY AND "THE HORRIBLE SACRIFICE OF HUMAN LIFE." 

(Vide par. 298). 

291. JESUS taught, saying : 

" Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are 
ravening wolves. You shall know them by their fruits. 

" Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles ? Even so every good tree brings forth 
good fruit ; but a corrupt tree brings forth evil fruit. 

" A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. 

"Wherefore by their fruits you shall know them." 

When JESUS had ended these sayings, the people were astonished at His doctrine, for He taught 
them as having authority. 

292. I submit the inexpugnable records of Parliament so that men may test the false 
prophets, judge the seed that was sown, and witness the harvesting of the fruit. 

293. HANSARD, January 26, 1847, page 489 et seq. Mr. JOHN FIELDEN (member 
for Oldham), moving for leave to bring in the Factories Bill, 

For my part, Sir, I think that a leading principle of Political Economy is the 
care of the lives, the health and the morals of the people ; and it is upon the ground 
that the life, health and morality of the young persons, and of women, are sacrificed 
by too long hours in our factories that I ask leave to bring in this Bill. 

The Report of the Registrar-General of England was quoted by Mr. Fielden 
as follows : 

294 " The population of the extra- metropoli tan district of Surrey was in 1841, 

187,000, and the population of the town and suburban districts of Manchester 
was 163,000. In Manchester with this less population the deaths registered in 



54 

seven years, 1838-44, were 40,000, and those in Surrey only 23,800, making a 
difference of over 16,000. There were 23,500 children under 5 years of age in 
Surrey, and the deaths of children under that age were 7,400. The children i i 
Manchester were 21,000, the deaths 20,700 ! 

295. "The returns of the past quarter prove that nothing effectual has been done 
to put a stop to the disease, suffering, and death in which so many thousands perish. 
The improvements, chiefly of a showy, superficial, outside character, have not 
reached the homes and habits of the people. The house and children of a labouring 
man can only be keep clean and healthy by the assiduous labour of a well-trained 
industrious wife, as anyone who has paid the least attention to the subject is aware. 
This is overlooked in Lancashire, where the woman is often engaged in labour 
from home. The consequence is that thousands, not only of the children, but 
of the women and men themselves, perished of the diseases, formerly as fatal, for 
the same reasons, in barracks, camps and ships. 

296. "In all Manchester there is but one children's dispensary, and this has two 
medical officers. Such institutions should be numerous in large towns, and 
much good might be effected ; but the unfortunate outdoor occupation of the 
women by causing the withholding of Nature's nutriment from the children is 
terribly destructive of the latter." 

The Registrar sums up as follows : 

297. "In Manchester 13,362 children perished in seven years over and above the 
mortality natural to mankind. These * little children ' brought up in unclean 
dwellings and impure streets, were left alone long days by their mothers to breathe 
the subtle, sickly vapours, soaked by opium a more ' cursed ' distillation than 
* hebenon ' and when assailed by mortal diseases, their stomachs torn, their 
bodies convulsed, their brains bewildered, are left to die without medical aid, 
which, like hope, should ' come to all,' the skilled medical man never being called 
in at all, or only summoned to witness the death and sanction the funeral." 

Mr. Fielden (from the centre of the cotton industry) continued his speech : 

298. I hear men talk glibly of the " horrors of war " and I believe there is in this 
country a Peace Preservation Society, whose object is to show mankind that nations, 
to avoid such horrors, should always remain at peace. I applaud their efforts ; 
but let me ask what are the " horrors of war " but a wholesale sacrifice of human 
life, now and then occurring ? They are horrors, and I respect those who bestow 
the energy of their minds in endeavours to convince the world of their futility and 
wickedness ; but when the Registrar-General, in the document I have quoted, 
notifies to us the horrible sacrifice of human life that is annually perpetrated in our 
own manufacturing towns, far exceeding the average sacrifice of life by war, I think 
we should give an earnest of our sincere desire to avoid such horrors by imme- 
diately setting to work, in every practical form, to effect the object at home. . . . 
I expect to hear that to reduce the hours of work of the child to such as is compatible 
with his strength and his necessary moral training. ... is a legislative inter- 
ference between master and man ; and that it is contrary to the principles of Political 
Economy. I understand the words " political economy " to mean the mode of 
rightly governing a State ; and my opponents have already asserted, that any 
interference, by legislative enactment, between master and man is a violation of 
the proper mode of governing. Let them recollect that they have all, whether 
as Ministers or manufacturers, defined the labourer and master to be two dealers 
the first a man who sells the commodity called " labour " and the other a man 
who buys that same commodity. They have defined them to be two dealers in 
one commodity. I ask my opponents to take their own definition and tell me why 



55 

it is contrary to the principles of Political Economy to interfere between these 
two dealers, any more than between any other dealers ? For my part, Sir, I think 
that a leading principle of Political Economy is the care of the lives, the health, 
and the morals of the people ; and it is upon the ground that the life, health and 
morality of the young persons and women are sacrificed by too long hours of 
work in our factories, that I ask leave to bring in this Bill. I must remind the 
House that, in 1833, it passed an Act for emancipating the black slaves of the 
West Indian colonies, in which a clause was inserted restricting the labour of the 
emancipated adult negro to 45 hours in a week a shorter period by 13 hours than 
the English factory child claims at our hands, many of whom have to work in rooms 
at as high a temperature as that of the colonies. 

299. MB. W. B. FERRAND (member for Knaresborough) in an earnest and per- 
suasive speech "implored the House on bended knees, to carry this Bill." 

300. SIR GEORGE STRICKLAND (member for Preston, Lancashire, close to the centre 
of the cotton industry), in his speech made this significant and trenchant statement, 
illuminating the whole position by a flash of light. 

The only arguments he had heard against the interference of the Legislature 
upon this most important subject (interference with working-conditions) were 
those which were usually urged by the persons who emphatically called themselves 
Political Economists. 

Political Economists in the House prophesied thus, if the working hours of 
children and young maidens were reduced to eleven per day : 

MR. W. BROWN (member for Lancashire South) said : 

301. My conviction is that the effect of the measure, if passed into law, will be 
similar to the injury inflicted upon the commercial interests of France by the 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, a blow from which France never recovered. 
If the Bill passes I predict that the population will be driven back upon the rural 
districts, thus causing a great increase in the poor rates. It is my opinion that it 
is a direct infringement of the liberty of the subject and it is robbing the poor man 
of a portion of the only capital he possesses his labour. 

MR. JOHN BRIGHT, page 126, amongst other things said : 

302. The principle of the present measure went so much in the teeth of the mill- 
owners that the House might depend upon it that it could not be carried out without 
their sanction. The number of the inspectors must be greatly increased, and the 
result would be that if the Bill did not destroy the manufacturers it would harass 
the owners of capital so much that they would form such a formidable combination 
that the House could not successfully legislate against it. ... Most of the 
manufacturers were most strongly opposed to it, and nearly all the distinguished 
writers on Politico-Economical subjects took the same view of the subject. As for 
Her Majesty's Government he was astonished at the course taken by them since 
1844 on the occasion of the first Bill ; and when they first did so he ventured to 
prophesy what the result would be, and that it would show that there was nothing 
so blundering as faction, nothing so blind as party. He hoped that the noble lord 
and other members of the Government would return to those principles which they 
had formerly held on this subject ; but if they did not he believed that such would 
be the effect of this measure that a retribution would overtake them from which 
their character and reputation would suffer in the estimation of the country. 

303. MR. G. DUNCAN (member for Dundee), page 146, believed that the measure 
would inflict the greatest injury upon the country, and he, therefore, felt bound to oppose 
it in every shape and form. 



56 

MB. J. S. TRELAWNY (Tavistock) : 

304. In my opinion the principles of non-interference are those which should be 
adopted by the State, and the adoption of any other principle will lead to great harm 
and inestimable confusion. And it lies on the supporters of this measure to make 
out an exception from the great principle of Political Economy. 

LORD JOHN RUSSELL, page 1149, 10th Feb., 1847, said, inter alia : 

305. The period of labour at present is 12 hours, being 13 to 14 hours of employment 
altogether, and is too much. I conceive that it is too much for their bodily form, 
which is then not matured. 

Concluding a lengthy and fierce declamation MR. JOHN BRIGHT replied : 

306. Believing as I do in my heart that the proposition is most injurious and de> 
tructive to the best interests of the country believing it is contrary to all principles 
of sound legislation that it is a delusion practised upon the working classes 
that it is advocated by those who have no knowledge of the economy of manufac- 
tures believing that it is one of the worst measures ever passed in the shape of 
an Act of the Legislature, and that if it be now made law, the necessities of trade, 
and the demands alike of the workmen and the masters will compel them to retrace 
the steps they have taken ; believing this, I feel compelled to give the Motion for 
the second reading of this Bill my most strenuous opposition. 



THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL. 

307. Who originated the term " Manchester School " is not, perhaps, known, but 
I find the following in a powerful and persuasive oration by LORD JOHN MANNERS upon 
the Ten Hours Bill (Hansard, Feb. 10th, 1847, page 1111) : 

Well, then, if this " School of Manchester " as it has been called by the 
hon. member for Shrewsbury, is worthy of attention if the reasons on which the 
Corn Laws were repealed were valid and sound reasons, viz. : that the prices of 
provisions were to fall one-third, and our foreign trade was to be extended, then 
the factory operatives have a clear and undeniable right to demand the fulfilment 
of the promises made to them in this respect. 

The caustic member for Shrewsbury was no other than MR. BENJAMIN DISRAELI. 

308. LORD JOHN MANNERS tells of the long struggle against the oppression of the 
white-slave holders in England, and the dreary outlook before the gallant army who must 
fight on and on, " going down to their graves, their hopes deferred, deputing to their 
children the advocacy of the cause they had themselves advocated. When I think of 
these children wko have been left to die of excessive toil, and how, over and over again, 
we have petitioned and protested, it must be conceded that our conduct of this great cause 
has been worthy of this country and worthy of the great interests involved in its satis- 
factory settlement." He alludes to " the head of the veteran MR. OASTLER becoming 
grey with years of disappointment." The latter died a generation ago, but let us honour 
that hoary head, and bow down before the old face ! 

309. Yet as long as women have eyes to weep and souls to pray as long as men 
have hearts to feel, voices to utter and hands to raise, so long will this struggle 
be continued ; so long will those ill-gained victories [of the Manchester School] 
be fruitless. 



57 

310. He quotes writers upon " over-population," for Great Britain was " over- 
populated " when she had ten millions, or twenty millions, or forty millions of inhabitants. 
Germany with a much less productive soil, was " over-populated " when she had fifteen 
millions, but is joyfully counting her increase now that she has fifty millions more. The 
queer Politico-Economic theories of " over-population " and " over-production " of goods 
form a two-headed, contradictory, bogey. To take a liberty with Horace, " Belua duorum 
s capitum !" 

311 Lord John Manners opens out the core of the evil itself by quoting medical 
observations of mortality in the factory districts. Let us say that the infantile mortality 
that of the first year of life in Ireland, Scandinavia, Australia and New Zealand, is 
about on a level, 80 to 90 per 1000 births. At this very day the death-rate of infants 
in the manufacturing towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, in spite of the vast strides of 
medicine, hygiene, and surgery, is a hundred to a hundred and fifty per cent, higher than 
that of the countries named. But in 1847, at the culmination of the fight between Michael 
and Manchester, it showed up as follows : 

312. Hansard, page 1113 (DK. FLETCHEB'S Report). In calculating the average 
age at death in the better and worse conditioned localities, I carefully distinguished 
the factory operatives from the other working classes. The result proves that the 
average age attained by the factory workers and their infants, was somewhat less 
than one-half that of the other operatives in the same districts. In order to prevent 
any doubt as to the accuracy of these calculations, I may mention that in finding 
the mean age at death of the factory population, in one district, so low as eight 
years, which appeared really incredible, I went over the registers a second time. 
I was assisted by a friend accustomed to such researches, when, finding the extracts 
and calculations perfectly correct, an explanation of this remarkable result ap- 
peared in the fact that of every 100 deaths a fraction over 61 are infants under the 
age of two years, while of the other operative classes, in the same locality, the 
deaths under two years are a fraction less than 33 in 100, and the average age at 
death 14 years. 

He then quotes various districts, amongst others these : 

313. Bury North, average age at death, factory operatives, 9-| years ; other opera- 
tives, 19 years. Woodhill district, age at death, factory operatives, 10 years ; 
other operatives, 21 years. 

314. I have only further to state that these calculations are made on an average 
of seven years' records and include every death that has occurred in these localities. 
They appear sufficient to rebut the assumption that it is the condition of large 
towns, and not the employment in factories, which produces the awful mortality, 
particularly of the infant population, in the manufacturing districts. This, you are 
aware, has been strongly maintained by several medical practitioners and others. 

Lord John Manners continued : 

315. These results too plainly show how the homes of the poor factory workers are 
desolated by the long hours of labour. They show to us the Saxon matron, like 
the Hebrew mother of old, weeping for her children, and refusing to be comforted, 
" because they are not." 

They show to us the cradle rifled of its fairest treasures ; they show us the 
funeral decked in white, to prove that the departed one has gone to join the army 
of the innocents. And, on this ground, I appeal to the House whether a case has 
not been made out for a passing of this Bill ? 

316. In a question of this kind, affecting the policy of the country, affecting the 
lives and the moral and social welfare of our fellow-subjects, the result is not to 



be left to the remote possibility of some unconceived, and as yet unexplained, 
regulations to be made between masters and men. We do not so deal with, 
interests of far less importance. We did not wait until the the rival companies 
which navigate the Thames agreed to regulate among themselves the speed of 
steam-boats ; we did not wait until the master builders joined in a mutual bond 
that they would pay all due regard to the sanitary regulations necessary in the 
construction of dwellings ; we did not ask whether master chimney-sweepers 
would of themselves consent not to send climbing boys up their flues ; we did 
not wait till the coal masters agreed that they would put a stop to the practice of 
harnessing women to coal trucks ; we did not wait till the proprietors of the slaves 
in the West Indies made arrangements with the slaves to emancipate them 
these, and thousands of other instances, can be adduced where we did not wait 
for private arrangements, but vindicated the imperial majesty of the law ; the 
law of which Hooker said " All tilings on earth do homage, the very least, as 
feeling her care the very greatest, as not exempt from her power." 

317. No ! We brought the majesty of the law to settle all those questions, and 
to vindicate the rights of the powers that are ordained of God, to watch over and 
protect the lives and happiness of the people. When hon. gentlemen object on 
principle to legislative interference in this matter, they ought in consistency to 
object to interference in all other matters. 

318. Can the hon. gentleman opposite (Mr. John Bright), or the school of philosophy 
to which he belongs, say they disapprove of interference, after the fact that they 
have interfered and are interfering in a thousand instances ? Can he persuade 
weakness to put itself at the mercy of power poverty at the command of wealth \ 
Can he persuade mankind that kings and governments and legislatures nave been 
established in order to do nothing in these matters? 

319. And if this were not the case, if all governments of all parts of the world, 
and in every period of the world's history, have interfered to protect and watch 
over the weakest and poorest of their subjects, then let them point out to me, 
if they can, a more feasible, a more safe, and less objectionable mode of inter- 
position, and give a more noble and glorious reason for interference than that 
which is now presented. It is not by the mere assertion of some abstract principle 
that has not yet been carried out, and which, if carried out at this moment in the 
sister kingdom, will consign millions of our fellow-beings to certain and inevitable 
deaths it is not upon such grounds that they can refuse to pass this Ten Hours 
Bill. *# 

320. The speaker here alluded to the carrying out of the " inevitable law of supply 
and demand " whereby the grain grown in Ireland was to be shifted away, instead of first 
feeding the growers of it and their families. It was, however, shifted away, and their 
fellow-beings more than a million of them did die that " certain and inevitable death." 

321. John Manners was right and John Bright was wrong. That fearful calamity 
was one of those many ills that kings or laws can cause or cure. But the moral con- 
sequences of false doctrines are even more terrible than the physical. The dragon's 
teeth were sown and we must accept the harvest. Lord John concluded thus : 

322. Will the House of Commons reject such a measure, because some hon. gentle- 
men (and their number is not very great in this House) are pleased to assert that 
it does not altogether square with their notions of Economic science ? Should 
it do so, and should the House most unfortunately come to a conclusion adverse 
to the second reading of this Bill, we at least on this (the Opposition) side of the 
House will retire from the contest undismayed and undeterred by ao great a 
defeat, and without despairing of future success. We shall retire encouraged 
and cheered by the reflection that, as all former defeats and disappointments 



have but stimulated the exertions of our toiling clients, so this will but lead to 
fresh endeavours. Animated by the gratifying conviction that we, the Tory- 
gentlemen of England, have maintained our just and historical position ; con- 
sisten'ly with the character we have ever aspired to, we have fought the fight 
of the poor against the rich, and have been fellow-soldiers with the weak and 
defenceless against the mighty and the strong, and to the best of our ability 
have wielded the power which the constitution reposes in us, to protect and defend 
the working-people of this country. I trust, however, that the Bill will pass into 
law, and that this protracted struggle will be determined protracted, indeed, 
but not necessarily ceaseless ; to be terminated, if the House so please, this very 
day, terminated amidst the acclamations of millions, and the blessings and prayers 
of a toiling and a patient people. 

323. Has the reader realised from Dr. Fletcher's Report as quoted, that the average 
life upon earth of these poor human creatures under the full dominion of Political 
Economy was only 8 to 10 years ? That the registrars' reports included persons of all 
ages, old and young ? Does he suppose that in the time of Polybios in Greece, or Cicero 
in Rome, when those nations made their fatal entry into decadence, there was anything 
worse than that to record ? 

Debate, March 17, 1847. Mr. J. DENNISTOUN, representing the Political 
Economist side, moved the postponement of the Bill and, among other arguments, stated : 

324. Again, they had prevented women working in collieries at all, the most 
monstrous interference with the rights of labour that even the House of Commons 
had ever perpetrated. All legislative interference with labour on the part of the 
Government was, in his opinion, most objectionable. 

Lord JOHN RUSSELL, during his speech said : 

325. I cannot look with indifference to the statement that the greater proportion 
of the people of this country have only to work, to sleep, to eat and to die. In 
my opinion it is the duty of the State that you should endeavour to have a population 
in the first place aware of the doctrines of religion, that in the next place they should 
be able to cultivate domestic habits and domestic affections ; and that in the third 
place they should be likely to look up to the laws and Government of the country 
as their protectors from undue inflictions upon the young of this country. I do 
not see that these objects can be obtained, so long as the hours of young persons 
are so prolonged as they have hitherto been. I cannot see how a child of 14 
years of age, actually employed for 12 hours in a mill, and engaged there for two 
hours more, coming home tired and exhausted and unable to do anything but 
rest, in order to be prepared for the labours of the next day I say I do not un- 
derstand how that girl can be brought up to be a good wife and a good mother. 
I am ready to incur the risk which is said to attend the passing of an Eleven Hours 
Bill in the hope of improving the character and elevating the condition of the 
manufacturing population. I shall therefore be ready to vote for the clause 
limiting the labour of women and young persons employed in factories to eleven 
hours. 

326. The Eternal Father who watches politicians, alone knows how His poor, fainting, 
anaemic children, delivered over to the tender mercies of the Political Economists, 
got any rest at all, inasmuch as they had to be in the factory at five o'clock in the 
morning, winter or summer snow or rain or hail to leave again at seven in the evening. 
The temperature, according to the admissions in the debate, was anything from 75 to 
90 degrees in the rooms where the white slaves worked out their short and dreary 
lives. No wonder that thirteen thousand of them perished, in one district alone, in 
seven years. 



60 

But Mr. JOHN BRIGHT replied (same day, page 142) : 

327. The noble lord at the head of the Government has spoken on this subject 
and has expressed an opinion favourable to the first clause of the Bill, which limits- 
the hours of labour in mills and factories to eleven instead of twelve hours a day. 
There are no doubt very divided counsels on this point ; but the House are fully 
in possession of my sentiments. I do not agree with the honourable member for 
Montrose that because we disapprove in toto of the principle of the Bill, we should 
suffer it to pass without seeking to amend the clauses. I feel bound at every 
stage to vote against the clauses, and of course the greater the limitation proposed 
and sought to be attained, the more zealously do I feel myself called upon to oppose 
it. 

328. Which he did, to the end, with extreme fidelity ; but his opponents carried 
Clause 1, enacting that from the 1st May, 1847, no persons under 18 should be employed 
in any mill or factory more than eleven hours in any one day, nor more than sixty-three 
hours in any one week. 

329. Thus, however, the Political Economists defeated the ten-hours proposal. 
What did JOHN BRIGHT or RICHARD COBDEN, recognised leaders of the school of Political 
Economy, care for the health, happiness, or lives of the future mothers of Manchester ? 
The masters kept them to their severe tasks twelve hours a day, fourteen all told, and 
when they fell ill there was rarely or never medical attendance, as stated by the indignant 
Registrar-General. They were cheap, these white slaves, much cheaper than the negroes 
of Jamaica. Besides, when 20,700 of them had died as infants under five years, there 
were 21,000 left a good half to come on in another four years at the mature age of 
nine, to work in those hideous prisons. They cost the taskmasters nothing to breed, 
unlike the negroes, and their wages were a whole shilling a week, as shown in the debate. 
Cheaper, again, than negroes, for the masters did not have to feed them. So admirable 
was their system of Political, and personal, and factory Economy, that Bright and Cobden 
declared themselves " bound to vote against any limitation, and, of course, the greater 
the limitation proposed and sought to be attained, the more zealously did they feel them- 
selves called upon to oppose it." 

330. Blows thus struck at the vitals of a nation, a never-ceasing irritation of the- 
sources of life, could not but have cancerous consequences. 



MORLEY'S "LIFE OP COBDEN." 

Vol. I., page 298 et seq. 

331. For children the hours of work were to be reduced to half-time, i.e. from 13 
to 6J hours per day. " Child " was defined as from age 9 to 13. The hours of " young 
persons " were not to exceed by the proposed legislation 13 of attendance each day, 
of which 1| were to be allowed for meals, or 12 hours net. 

332. Lord Ashley moved for 10 hours (year 1844) instead of 12, and on this issue- 
the battle was fought. What Cobden maintained was that all restrictions, however 
desirable, ought to be secured by the resolute demands and independent action 
of the workmen themselves and not by intervention of the law. Singularly enough 



61 

he objected to the workmen's combinations. "Depend upon it," he wrote to 
his brother, " nothing can be got by fraternizing with Trades Unions. They are 
founded upon principles of brutal tyranny and monopoly. I would rather live 
under a Dey of Algiers than under a Trades Committee." 

333. Now, in spite of rancorous opposition from the Political Economists, and dis- 
honourable accusations against the personal motives of the reformers, LOED ASHLEY, 
afterwards Lord Shaftesbury, and his supporters " had already secured the passing of 
the Mines and Collieries Act excluding women from labour under-ground [where even 
during advanced pregnancy they were ordinarily harnessed to, and dragged in utter 
darkness, trucks of coal] and rescuing children [of five to nine years of age] from conditions 
hardly less horrible than those of negro slavery." Cobden alluded to the Ten Hours Bill 
as follows in a letter to his brother (1844) : " This year's Ten Hours Bill will sicken the 
factions of such a two-edged weapon. One other good effect may be that men like 
GRAHAM and PEEL will see the necessity of taking anchor upon some sound principles 
as a refuge from the Socialist doctrines of the fools behind them. But at ah 1 events good 
must come out of such startling discussions." 

334. Cobden was abroad when the Eleven Hours Bill, as the result of these startling 
Socialistic discussions on the part of the Tories became law in 1847. 

335. Looking back calmly upon the rise and the history of their sorry philosophy, 
it becomes a great strain upon our credulity to believe in the actual sincerity of these 
legislators. They were tough and hard as horse-nails in their insistence upon actual 
control over the weaklings who provided a gorgeous " banquet of life " for the taskmasters. 
Imagine children of 9 to 13, young persons of 13 to 18, or women, or even men, making 
" resolute demands " independently of one another, and apart from associations ! 

336. These Economists, so hard to the fellow-citizens of their own flesh and blood, 
have accepted the praise that was due to them for limiting by law the working-hours 
of the emancipated negroes in the British colonies to forty-five per week. But the latter 
worked in the open air in a climate suited to them, with sufficient food, whilst the rachitic 
and underfed little white-slaves, without real option in the matter, were drafted into 
steamy rooms at 75 to 90 degrees for 81 hours a week. Those factories were a revival 
of the ergastula of Imperial Rome, under British Economic philosophy. And the racial 
effects are identical in degeneracy and decay. 

337. Plainly the children were useful enough, none too many then nor now, neither 
Nature nor the Divine Intelligence to blame, only their share of the banquet was unjust. 
So those amongst the Political Economists who had some bowels of compassion, coun- 
selled in default of a better prescription, the shutting out of children from life itself and 
its banquet. 

338. There are minds which cannot rest till they account by some guess, for such 
phenomena of evil. But it suffices merely to recognise that the principles and practices 
of these men were wrong, to whom molten and graven images have been erected all over 
the Kingdom, before which we are to bow in admiration. The prophets were, at best, 
afflicted with mental hemiplegia, and in their half-paralysis knowing no better, they 
cursed the sound men around them who followed the dictates of a human heart. " These 
be thy gods, Israel !" 

339. Is it for shame's sake that speeches involving the lives and health of children 
of the nation, gravest of all subjects, are carefully omitted from the collected speeches 
of these statesmen ? The very speeches which called forth their utmost fervour and 
their blackest prophecies ? I have such collections of speeches before me, but the mighty 
interest is entirely ignored. Is that honest ? 



62 
"THE TREMENDOUS CHILD MASSACRE." 

340. SIGNOB FRANCESCO NITTI, quoting and upholding the theory of his admired 
friend M. ACHILLE LORIA, both earnest though somewhat diffuse observers, writes 
(" Population and the Social System," page 136) as follows : 

341. Under the pressure of competition the working day in England reached its 
maximum and wages reached the minimum. And when the wages of the adult 
no longer sufficed for the needs of the family, the factory began to fatally attract 
women and children. 

342. In England, where this economic process developed more intensely than else- 
where, the factories were invaded by children, even from the beginning o! the cen- 
tury ; 10, 20, 25, children for every adult worker became normal proportion ; in 
Lancashire the proportion of children to adults was 55 to 1 ; in Dumbarton 60 
to 1. It was not the scarcity of adult workers which led the employers to this tre- 
mendous child-massacre ; nay, while the slender bodies of the children were being 
exhausted, adults remained unemployed and sought labour in vain. The mere 
employment of child labour secures employers a saving of a third in wages. 
FIELDEN exclaims in alarm : " The profit of capital is compared with the death 
of a child, our industrial prosperity is based upon infanticide." (Fielden : "The 
Curse of the Factory System," page 15.). Of 4000 children employed in the English 
factories at the beginning of the century, only 600 reached the age of 30 : the 
use of the children's frames went so far that there occurred something which an- 
tiquity never saw and which is still rare in our day the suicide of children. 

343. Apart from their theories as to the effect of " economic causes " these two 
words invariably mean business considerations upon the procreation of children, the 
facts they cite are what should chiefly interest us. Nitti skips about a little in the passage 
quoted, for he deals in the one sentence with the beginning of the nineteenth century 
and with the forties. But it is to the latter that his remarks are intended to refer, and 
it was of that time that Mr. John Fielden wrote and spoke, as we have already seen. 

344. Children have by instinct a very strong clinging to life, and the normal death- 
rate at the ages 10 to 18, is extremely low, about the lowest of all the periods. Hence 
their massacre, decade after decade, by these gentlemen employers and Economists of 
the House of Commons who " zealously opposed " the eleven hour day, and still more 
zealously any less working time, was of the extreme in cruelty. The children were 
systematically done to death, whilst the system involved of necessity that which was 
held by torture-experts of by-gone times to be the longest and cruellest death of all, namely, 
the prevention of sleep. It is not possible, and our comfort-loving people will not have 
the slightest intention of trying, to get their minds down to a realisation of the intensity 
of suffering undergone by myriads of their own race in Merrie England under the sway 
of the Political Economists. But we may reverently hope that the eye of the Eternal 
Father saw, and that His heart felt, the voiceless anguish of those helpless little English 
children before they took to Him their own harmless lives. Human sympathy was denied 
them then, nor will they get too much now, unless indeed, as the living British legislator 
recently said, " Babies are getting scarcer, and according to the inevitable law of supply 
and demand they are rising in value." M. Yves Guyot, the living French encomiast 
of Bright and Cobden, declares that " man is a form of fixed capital " ( par. 477). 
So these distinguished statesmen merely utilised the child-capital, and being true 
utilitarians used it for all it was worth. 



63 

CHILDREN IN COLLIERIES. 

345. The innocent creatures thus cruelly imprisoned and half-fed, slaked their thirst 
with the trickling waters of the mines. Therefore they were exposed to ankylostomiasis, 
which brings on extreme anaemia, exhaustion and early death. The disease is due to 
the presence in the digestive canal of a worm furnished with hooks. The parasite was 
introduced from abroad, and wreaks wholesale destruction amongst children in the 
Southern States of America. (Jour. A.M.A., November 6th, 1909, p. 1568.) Hanging 
to the walls in masses it continually sucks the blood of the victim, and through its eggs 
spreads to others in like manner. 

346. The children were merely Economic Assets, not superabundant, because the 
country was not thickly populated, but extremely cheap, and little else than human rubbish 
to be utilised to some Economic advantage or other. For had not the Master (Malthus) 
said : 

The infant is comparatively of little value to society, as others will undoubtedly 
supply its place ! (Vide par. 1426 e. s.) 

347. But the " Tory gentlemen of England " give them their due never rested 
until they passed laws to cure the wrong, for which legislation they were bitterly and 
persistently slandered by the Political Economists as we have read above, and without 
intermission afterwards. Meanwhile the healing professions sought concerning the 
maladies of children, causes, remedies and prophylaxis. Have we to thank politicians, 
still less can we take a flattering unction to our own souls, for that ? Some of us declare 
that our power is founded upon the Bible. Others that we do not need military defence, 
for if we be only humble, trusting and innocent, GOD will protect us. Were not the 
scores of thousands of martyred English children devoid of a ray of hope humble, 
trusting and innocent enough ? We are said by some to be a Chosen People, to have 
a divine mission and so forth. We can flatter and fool ourselves, but is it quite so sure 
that we can fool the Omnipotent ? Does history tell us that races escaped retribution ? 

348. Is it said that we have repented and reformed ? But we permit the free sale 
to deceived British mothers of lying nostrums which carry large profits to the vendors 
whilst bringing degeneration and ruin to the children. Why is this free trade persisted 
in, and why are the children not protected ? Because of the profits to the vendors and 
for no other reason. Enormous quantities of sub-chloride of mercury are sold as soothing 
and teething powders by all chemists and by grocers throughout the British Empire, 
without restraint of any kind. Millions of bottles of laudanum and morphine, called 
" soothing syrup," are sold every year wherever the English language is spoken. Worst 
of all, because the effects are so subtle upon the circulation, the brain and the heart, 
teething powders consisting of acetanilid, phenacetin and other synthetic heart-depressants, 
are being multiplied in all directions without control or interference by the State. No 
parliamentary party shoulders that mission of reform. 

349. Whether by interaction or by accidental impurity we cannot tell, but the teething- 
powders of calomel contain sometimes corrosive sublimate chloride of mercury. And 
the advertisements and packets always show the words " contain no poison." It is 
grossly criminal, but our laws are expressly devised to let the criminals go scot-free, and 
more than that to " protect " their commercial interests. All the evidence is given in 
my first volume, resting entirely upon unassailable facts given in detail. It has not 
been refuted at any point, and although measures are now being happily taken in Aus- 
tralasia to partially check the evil, there is no change whatever in Great Britain. No 
assertions of my own are made, the evidence is exclusively from medical and chemical 
experts, from coroners, juries, high courts and other authorities, all duly named.* 

* NOTB. " The homicide record of advertised secret nostrums will probably never be fully made up, 
but it would be appalling to the public could it be known." (Journal of the American Medical Association, 
Vol. 49, p. 1033 2lst September, 1907.) 



04 

350. So long as child-preventives are openly manufactured and sold as a " perfectly 
legitimate trade," so long as destruction of unborn and newly-born children are widely- 
spread practices seldom and slightly punished, so long as babes are fair game for commercial 
exploitation, there is no national repentance. 



HOW RICHARD OASTLER SPREAD THE ANTI-SLAVERY MOVEMENT TO 

ENGLAND ITSELF. 

351. It will be observed that Messrs. Bright, Cobden and the other Political Economists 
were much concerned about adequate protection to their manufacturing industries, not 
against the foreign competitor he was, as yet, nowhere in the race but against trade 
unions assisted by humanitarians. Interference with the black-slave trade was far off 
and interesting, highly philanthropic, and commercially safe. At least it appeared so. 
But the good leaven works similarly to the bad leaven, inasmuch as you cannot tell how 
it will spread. 

352. Anyone who studies DR. W. CUNNINGHAM'S " Growth of English Industry and 
Commerce in Modern Times " (Cambridge, The University Press, 1903), will find in the 
second volume some exposition of the working of " Laissez Faire." These two words 
appear on the cover and at the head of every left-hand page throughout the second volume 
of the book. It is a running commentary, but authorities are referred to and occasional 
quotations supplied. On page 777 is a note : 

353. ALFRED (SAMUEL KYDD) " History of the Factory Movement." MB. RICHARD 
OASTLER' s interest in the position of the slaves abroad led him to consider the con- 
dition of operatives at home. The movement for factory reform was thus directly 
associated with the Anti-Slavery agitation. 

No considerable share of public attention was directed to the subject until 1830 
when Mr. Oastler began a crusade on the subject in Yorkshire. 

354. How much occasion we have for rejoicing in the fact of the Anti-Slavery agitation 
spreading to England itself, will be seen if we take a paragraph or two from the Parliamen- 
tary Reports. These were primarily the cause of the majority in the House of Commons 
that defeated the Political Economists. The humble victory so to speak for the child- 
slaves, whereby the hours of work were reduced from 12 to 11 was, as Bright and Cobden 
declared, only the thin end of the wedge. These children were not by a long way so 
lucky as the black-slaves. 

Parliamentary Reports, Vol. XX., page 604. 

355. I have found undoubted instances of children five years old sent to work thirteen 
hours a day and frequently of children of nine, ten and eleven years consigned to 
labour for fourteen and fifteen hours. The parents, at the same time, have appeared 
to me, in some of these instances, sincerely fond of their children, and grieved at 
a state of things they considered necessary to the subsistence of themselves and 
families. . . The income from a child employed at the age of nine or ten, is 
Is. or at most Is. 6d. in the week. 

356. They were exposed to dust, all day or all night, some to continual wet, as in 
flax-spinning, whereby their fingers were constantly bleeding through the softened and 
tender skin, and (page 780) " there is abundant evidence that many children were crippled 
for life and that young women were seriously injured by their occupations. . . . The 
medical testimony proved that mischief of this kind was common in all the great industrial 



65 

centres. The Commissioners are careful to note that physical evils due to the over-fatigue 
of children were prevalent in the well-managed, as much as in the badly-managed mills." 
Again " the children were sometimes severely punished by the workmen whom they 
assisted." 

357. Statues have been erected to the men who fiercely opposed " interference between 
employer and employee," and to those who strenuously fought, like true Economists, 
for liberty to employ these little white-slaves. We see no statues to RICHARD OASTLER, 
liberator of English serfs, but let us keep his memory green ! The doctrine of laissez-faire 
has been handed down to us as a guiding light, and we have followed it only too much. 
Political principles founded upon laissez-faire are still dominant, and we are very far indeed 
from establishing for ourselves the claim that PRINCE BUELOW made for Germany at the 
last election : " We have conquered the Manchester doctrine !" 

358. Their influence remains their white slaves sank into unhonoured and forgotten 
graves. The rhetoric of those great statesmen is handed down for the emulation of our 
youth. Their lives are upheld as exemplars. But, only for a minute, just for once, let 
us listen to the half-articulate voices of a few of the weeping children. Unattractive 
and ungrammatical, they afford us lessons that we ought not to forget, still less deliberately 
to ignore. 

359. The following instances of excessive work on the part of the young were specially 
referred to by the Commissioners (Reports XX., page 16.) : 



"THEM AS WORKS MUST WORK." 

A. " Am twelve years old. Have been in the mill twelve months. Begin 
at six o'clock and stop at half-past seven. Generally have about twelve and a 
half hours of it. Have worked over-hours for two or three weeks together. 
Worked breakfast-time and tea-time, and did not go away till eight." 

Q. " Do you work over-hours or not, just as you like ? " 

A. " No ; them as works must work ! I would rather stay and do it than 
that anybody else should come in my place." 

Another said : " I have worked here at Milne's two years ; am now fourteen. 
I work sixteen and a half hours a day. I was badly, and asked to stop at eight 
one night lately, and I was told if I went I need not come back." 

Another : " I have worked till twelve at night last summer. We began at 
six in the morning. I told bookkeeper I did not like to work so late ; he said 
I must. We only get a penny an hour for overtime." (Eighteen hours !) 

Another : " We used to come at half past eight at night, and work all 
night, till the rest of the girls came in the morning. They would come at seven. 
Sometimes we worked on till half-past eight the next night, after we had been 
working all the night before. We worked in meal hours, except at dinner. I 
have done that too, sometimes three nights a week, and sometimes four nights. 
It was not regular ; it was just as the overlooker chose. Sometimes the ' slubbers ' 
would work on all night too, not always. The pieceners would have to stay all 
night then too. They used to go to sleep, poor things ! when they had over- 
hours in the night." [These were the small children and the work required 
alertness]. 

" The mills worked night and day. The day set used to work from six till 
eight and nine, and sometimes till eleven or twelve [fourteen, fifteen, seventeen 
or eighteen hours]. The children who worked as pieceners for the slubbers used 
to fall asleep, and we had much trouble with them." 



66 

360. Here is where the severe corporal punishments were inflicted on the slaves. 

361. Think of the rich members of the House of Commons, whose speeches you have 
read herein, in their homes of wealth and luxury. Think of the mill-owners and overseers 
who went home, slept, breakfasted, and then returned to their hateful ergastula where 
they drove on the sickly, fainting child-slaves who had to snatch their food while standing 
at work. They had worked all the night through, and must work till eight the next 
night. One penny an hour overtime cheapest of all slaves ! 

362. In the divine economy nothing is lost. Everything has its sequence. In 
Political Economy these evils were good, and must be left alone. Laissez faire laissez 
passer. " Verily I say unto you, by their fruits ye shall know them." 

363. A favourite quotation of the Economists was the jingling couplet written by 
Dr. JOHNSON and added to GOLDSMITH'S " Traveller," 

How small of all that human hearts endure 
That part which kings or laws can cause or cure ! 

364. Laws permitted both the black and the white slavery. Laws firstly cured 
the former completely, and ameliorated the latter by knocking off, as a beginning, one 
hour a day. Afterwards, much later on, laws were passed and enforced, to lessen 
materially the burden of the tiny shoulders. Eadem est ratio eadem eat lex, but laissez 
faire is Manchesterism the curse that has yet to be conquered. Our laws are our national 
principles, obeyed by most people voluntarily, with penalties only for the recalcitrant. 

Where law is, there is liberty. Where there is no law there is grinding tyranny 
Where laws are not made and enforced in the cause of decency, we have manufacture 
and sale of secret drugs of all kinds, " on an enormous scale," and of preparations to- 
prevent and to destroy human progeny, with all their devastating consequences to the 
health of the individual and to the strength of the nation. 

365. Professor NITTI of Naples speaks of the " continuous massacre of these English 
children " in the mills of the Economists. It was not so much a massacre as a martyr- 
dom, worse by far than the slaughter by HEBOD, or by CHABLES IX. on the eve of St. 
Bartholomew. Beautiful memorials in white marble have been erected to the victims 
of Lucknow and Cawnpore. Why not, in still more salutary commemoration, to the 
tender English children whose innocent blood has not yet been avenged ? 

366. To say that the godless commercialism of these Economists was the product 
of savage greed, is an insult to the savage. To say it was brutal is an insult to the brutes. 
Adjectives fail altogether. To say that these iniquities should be buried and hidden 
with the past, lest the reputation of the accepted leaders of our nation should suffer 
together with their vaunted system, means injustice to obscure patriots who obtained 
the laws that cured. The past made the present. 

367. Monsieur E. CHEYSSON, writing upon the " Depopulation of France," in the 
" Revue Politique et Parlementaire " of 10th October, 1896, says : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

As a ray of light which traverses eternally the regions of space, telling to the 
worlds that it meets upon its road the spectacles which it has illuminated at its 
point of departure, so a deed once done persists for ever with its consequences, 
even when they are in part corrected or masked by a subsequent act. To-day 
prepares to-morrow ; each of our acts interests our descendants ; poster! vestra 
res agitur ; all generations are conjoined ; across the centuries they are bound 
together by a mysterious chain, and each of them is the victim, or the debtor, 
of those which have preceded. 



67 

WHAT MILL AND THE ECONOMISTS WISHED TO SEE. 
WHAT RUNS THROUGH THE WHOLE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY. 

KIDD, " Western Civilisation," page 74. 

368. No system of opinion in recent times in England has so profoundly influenced 
the intellectual centres of Liberalism as that of the school of thought which cul- 
minates in the writings of John Stuart Mill. No theory of society has been, in 
its time, so generally accepted in English thought as a presentation of the modern 
democratic position. Mill's system of ideals, as a consistent whole, has been a 
leading cause which has determined, down even to the present day in England, 
the attitude in social questions of nearly all the representatives of the older 
Liberalism. 

Page 124. 

369. Mill and the leaders of the Manchester School actually wished to see accom- 
plished in England the general restriction of births. 

Page 405. 

370. The inherent tendency of all economic evils to cure themselves if simply 
left alone the characteristic doctrine of the Manchester School of thought in 
England becomes the central and fundamental article of belief throughout all 
that rigid system of social theory, in the influence of which almost the entire 
intellectual life of England and the United States begins to be held by the last 
half of the 19th century. 

Page 410. 

371. According to the received opinion, the labouring classes were considered 
as condemned by natural law to live and breed under the control of capital on 
that minimum reward which to quote RICARDO'S definition of the natural price 
of labour was " necessary to enable the labourers to subsist and to perpetuate 
their race without decrease." The remarkable conception which accompanied 
this theory, and which runs through the whole of John Stuart Mill's "Political 
Economy," delivered the labourer helplessly and permanently bound, as it were, 
into the hands of the capitalist class, making all efforts to free himself appear 
hopeless 

372. Finally, this conception had its corollary in that notorious theory of population 
propounded by Malthus socially suicidal and biologically foolish as we now 
perceive it to be which led John Stuart Mill to actually propose to the labourers 
as the main remedy for low wages that they should restrain their numbers and en- 
deavour to look upon every one of their class " who had more than the number 
of children which the circumstances of society allowed to each, as doing him a 
wrong, as filling up the place which he was entitled to share." " Principles of 
Political Economy," by JOHN STUART MILL. Vol. II., xiii. 



CHILD RESTRICTION THE " ESTABLISHED AND FUNDAMENTAL AXIOM 
OF POLITICAL ECONOMY." 

" Enigmas of Life," W. R. GREG. 14th edition, 1879. Triibner, London. 

373. Mr. W. R. GREG in his work, " Enigmas of Life," page 57, writes of Malthus' 

doctrine : 

No wonder that a proposition which seemed to condemn the human species 
to such hopeless, universal, eternal nay ever-increasing pressure and privation 
should have staggered and shocked those to whom it was first propounded. 



68 

It sounded like the sentence to a doom of utter darkness and despair. It seemed 
to untrained minds utterly irreconcilable with any intelligent view of the divine 
beneficence and wisdom. Yet MALTHTJS appeared to have framed his conclusions 
with such caution, and to have clinched it, so to speak, with such close bands of 
logic and with such a large and indisputable induction of facts, that recalcitration 
against it was idle, and refutation of it impossible. He maintained it after full 
discussion and, with some modifications, to the end of his career : and nearly 
all Political Economists of position and repute have accepted his doctrine as a 
fundamental and established axiom of the science [par. 481]. 

374. Malthus never endeavoured to shirk the full scope and severity of his proposition. 
In an article on " Population," which he contributed to the 8th Edition of the 
" Encyclopaedia Britannica," and which I believe was the latest of his writings 
upon the subject, he reproduces it in the most uncompromising terms. 

375. Mr. Greg's book has passed through many editions since 1879, but the whole 
Neo-Malthusian movement with its annihilating successes arose since that date, and Mr. 
Greg's refutation of Malthus' doctrines, such as it was, offered no more resistance than a 
leaf to the wind. Quos Deus vult perdere prius dementat ! 

376. With such surroundings it cannot be wondered at that Mr. Greg's own faith in 
Divine purpose was feeble and doubting. But he declares that which has been in this 
Report repeatedly pointed out : the central idea in English Political Economy, in contrast 
to the National Economy of Friedrich List and Gustav Schmoller, is the restriction of 
child-bearing in married life by some method or other. Let us repeat Mr. Greg's words : 
"Nearly all Political Economists of position and repute have accepted Malthus' doctrine 
as a fundamental and established axiom of the science." If you take away the axiom 
you take away the science, and the sooner the better, for it must carry what nothing can 
long survive the eternal curse. The precise antithesis is the axiom of SPINOZA, " Homini 
nihil utilius homine," there is nothing more advantageous to mankind than man. The 
latter should be a broad and safe base for national economy. 

MANCHESTERISM AND "MONOGAMIC PROSTITUTION." 

The Italian demographer, FRANCESCO NITTI (op. cit.) thus sums up the conse- 
quences of distortion of the natural functions as recommended by the English Political 
Economists. 

377. Objective study clearly shows that if civilisation spontaneously tends to 
restrict the birth-rate within given limits without hindering the development of 
the race, voluntary prevention simply leads to the degeneration of the senses and 
the decadence of the race. When pleasure is wished for, and sought for its own 
sake, without the responsibility and. consequence of having children, matrimony 
loses its entire purpose and becomes nothing else than a form of monogamic 
prostitution. 

In the countries which suffer from sterility, the quota of marriages decreases, 
the proportion of illegitimate births increases, and the family idea decays. 

The degenerations of the carnal instinct only serve to kill the family ideal, the 
sentiment of social duty ; to shake the very foundations of civilisation and progress. 

The nations which artificially limit their fecundity arrive at such bestial cor- 
ruptions as would not only alarm Malthus, but any tolerant spirit. 

378. But the argument which ruins the whole Malthusian structure which made 
poverty simply dependent upon excess of population and not upon the economic 
order is the fact that the severest poverty has almost always occurred in countries 
and at times when the means of subsistence sufficed for the population and far 
exceeded it. Stuart Mill recognises that between 1818 and 1848 the increase in 
wealth of England far surpassed the increase of population. 



379. Still, every day of our lives, public men and politicians boast of the " gigantic 
figures of English wealth " and of its ceaseless growth. Every year pauperism also 
relentlessly grows, and ever the statement is repeated by prominent orators be it exact 
or exaggerated that one-fourth of the inhabitants are on the verge of starvation. Yet 
England is the birth-place of the prophet and his disciples the Mecca of Malthusianism. 

TWO KINDS OP LIGHT. 

Professor NITTI, in summing up his work, concludes a chapter thus : 

380. Economic research is always dangerous and difficult ; so much the more difficult 
is an objective study of the laws of population. Nevertheless the light gained 
from what we have so far said will help to make clearer, less arduous and less 
perilous the path of which we may say : 

Quale per incertam lunam sub luce maligna 
Est iter in silvis. 

(Like a woodland path in the treacherous light 
of the inconstant moon.) 

381. That is both accurate and poetical. So long as married couples guide their 
conduct in the sacred matters of motherhood, preservation of decency and of child-life, 
by " economic." that is to say, cash considerations, they will not know shadows from 
pitfalls, nor see the way ahead. France is far advanced in the " agnostic " socialism 
to which Nitti himself would trust so much, but her decline and decay show not for that 
the least retardation. Quite the opposite. 

382. The ancient Hebrew perception was clear, and though transcendent is within 
the comprehension of a child : 

How excellent is Thy loving kindness, O God ! 

Therefore the children of men put their trust under the shadow 

of Thy wings. 

For with Thee is the fountain of life : 
In Thy light shall we see light ! 

UTILITIES, VIEWED BY THE ASCENDANT AND DECADENT SCHOOLS. 

383. The Utilitarian philosophy of the Manchester School is actually in conflict with 
the dicta of Jeremy Bentham himself. Let us, however, contrast it with that of Spinoza 
when dealing with what the latter calls utilities, taking only a few paragraphs and bearing 
in mind that profit, advantage, utility, are all represented by the word utilitas. 

ETHIC, Fourth Part, Appendix upon the True Method of Life. (Spinoza's 
Ethic, translated from the Latin by W. H. White, London, Truebner.) 
Par. IV. 

It is most profitable to us in life to make perfect the intellect or reason as far as possible, and in 
this one thing consists the higher happiness or blessedness ; for blessedness is nothing but the peace 
of mind which springs from the intuitive knowledge of God, and to perfect the intellect is nothing 
but to understand God, together with the attributes and actions of God which flow from the necessity 
of His nature. The final aim, therefore, of a man who is guided by reason, that is to say, the chief 
desire by which he strives to govern all his other desires, is that by which he is led adequately to 
conceive himself, and all things which can be conceived by his intelligence. 
Par. XL 

Minds are not conquered by arms, but by love and generosity. 
Par. XII. 

Above all things it is profitable to men to form communities and to unite themselves to one another 
by bonds which may make all of them as one man ; and absolutely, it is profitable for them to do 
whatever may tend to strengthen their friendships. 
Par. XV. 

The things which beget concord are those which are related to justice, integrity and honour ; for 
besides that which is unjust and injurious, men take ill also anything which is esteemed base. But 
in order to win love, those things are chiefly necessary which have relation to religion and piety. 



70 

Par. XVI. 

Concord, moreover, is often produced by fear, but it is without good faith. It is to be observed, 
too, that fear arises from impotence of mind, and therefore is of no service to reason ; nor is pity, 
although it seem to present an appearance of piety. 

Par. XVII. 

Men also are conquered by liberality, especially those who have not the means wherewith to 
procure what is necessary for the support of life. But to assist everyone who is needy far surpasses 
the strength or profit of a private person, for the wealth of a private person is altogether insufficient 
to supply such wants. Besides, the power of any one man is too limited for him to be able to unite 
everyone with himself in friendship. The care, therefore, of the poor is incumbent on the whole of 
society and concerns only the general profit. 

Par. XIX. 

The love of a harlot, that is to say, the love of sexual intercourse which arises from mere external 
form ; and absolutely all love which recognises any other cause than freedom of the mind, easily passes 
into hatred, unless, which is worse, it becomes a species of delirium and thereby discord is cherished 
rather than concord. 

Par. XX. 

With regard to marriage, it is plain that it is in accordance with reason, if the desire of the con- 
nection is engendered not merely by external form, but by a love of begetting children and wisely 
educating them ; and if, in addition, the love both of the husband and wife has for its cause not external 
form merely, but chiefly liberty of mind. 

From the Fifth Part Prop. XXII. Of the Power of the Intellect. 

In God, nevertheless, there necessarily exists an idea which expresses the essence of this or that 
human body under the form of eternity. 

Demonstration. God is not only the cause of this or that human body, but also of its essence 
(Prop. 25, part I.) which therefore must necessarily be conceived through the essence of God itself 
(Axiom 4, part I) and by a certain eternal necessity (Prop. 16, part I). This conception, moreover, 
must necessarily exist in God (Prop. 3, part 2). Q.E.D. 
Proposition XXIII. 

The human mind cannot be absolutely destroyed with the body, but something of it remains 
which is eternal. 

Demonstration. In God there necessarily exists a conception or idea which expresses the essence 
of the human body (Prop. 22). This conceptional idea is therefore necessarily something which 
pertains to the essence of the human mind (Prop. 13, part 2) which can be limited by time, unless in 
so far as it expresses the actual existence of the body which is explained through duration and which 
can be limited by time, that is to say (Corol. Prop. 8, part 2), we cannot ascribe duration to the mind 
while the body exists. 

But, nevertheless, since this something is that which is conceived by a certain eternal necessity 
through the existence itself of God (Prop. 22, part 5) this something which pertains to the essence 
of the mind will necessarily be eternal. Q.E.D. 

384. We can hardly find stronger contrast than between the inspired grandeur of 
Baruch de Spinoza, insignis per honestum, and the unspiritual debasement of Mill, 
Bradlaugh and their unsexed associates, notabiles dedecore. On the one hand, the 
clear, exacting Hebrew intellect directing man to the contemplation of his glorious and 
eternal essence. On the other hand, the apostles of a godless and mammonistic hedonism 
turning man's thoughts and his natural functions to distorted sensuality, whilst ob- 
literating his chivalry to the unborn. 

385. On the one side a brave savant seeks by mathematical demonstration to set forth 
man's true origin, aim and end : from God, through God, to God. On the other, pseudo- 
philosophers introduce a subtle instillation which robs him of his liberty of mind, of hope 
in the hereafter, of faith in the perpetuity of his race and nation. 



AN ENGLISH EXPOSE OF THE CARCINOMA. 

" Neo-Malthusianism, an inquiry into that system with regard to its economy 
and morality," by the Rev. RICHAKD USSHER. Methuen & Co., London, 1897. 
386. Although the remark of the editor of " The Lancet " is strictly correct that 
the English literature upon the subject of racial decline is scanty, and that our people 
have little idea as to the extent to which their fertility has ceased, there is a large range 



71 

of writings with the avowed object of causing the cessation. The word chosen by the 
distinguished physician is accurate. He does not say " declined," but " ceased," 
because when women individually refuse maternity their fertility ceases. 

387. Further, there are occasional works which show a fairly broad study of the 
question of population from the stand-point of the Christian or Judaic doctrine. Either 
name suffices, because the teaching is founded upon " natural philosophy " in the simplest 
etymological sense of these two words. One of such books the most comprehensive 
in English is the work whose name is at the head of this chapter. Apparently the 
same gentleman gave evidence before the Joint Committee (Rep. 1005 et seq.). The 
author sets forth the origin of the apostate gospel with much clearness and precision, 
and also the methods, the time and circumstances, of its promulgation in Anglo-Saxondom. 
Unfortunately the book enjoys little of the celebrity which ought to attach to it. It 
was only as my present work was approaching completion that I became aware of its 
existence, in spite of anxious inquiries of curators of great libraries and of many people 
in the book-selling trade. But the fact is that there is no money in the preservation 
of decency and racial hygiene, although there are heaps of profits in the purveying of 
infamies, as also in the teaching and subservience of sexual immoralities. More especially 
when the latter can be worked in under the appearance of respectability. Precisely, 
therefore, for the reason that all the argumentation is directed to justify, and even by 
Mrs. Annie Besant to sanctify, the act of Onan as the one indivisible, inseparable and 
central idea of the neo-Malthusian gospel, no matter what its variations, the hope of 
reform becomes distant indeed. Cure there is none, modification is impossible ; here 
only remains return to Nature and Reason, fealty to the Creator and the Logos, obedience 
to the law of God and of the ages, submission to the rule of the Universal or whatever 
you like to call the categorical imperative. Of that reversion there is no sign whatever, 
for our legislators in Anglo-Saxondom, who should make the Law a terror to evil-doers, 
show inclination, not to say determination, to leave the field open to the play of com- 
mercial criminality wherever racial hygiene is involved. 

388. The medical journalists, quoted herein over and over again, point out in accord 
with their absolute duty, as having full knowledge and eyes wide open, the national 
cancer. But they not only receive no echo, no support from the " lay " journals in this 
respect, their warnings are unheeded by all. There is also a cancerous breaking down 
of tissue in the very bodies of the people which demands every year, with inexorable 
advance, a larger proportion of the deaths. It is far more revolting and terrible than 
death by the advance of the car of Juggernaut, but our legislatures are supine, and the 
cry is always for " more pleasure in life." Panem et circerises, now as in decadent Rome. 

389. They tell us, these priests of humanity as you will find in their " heart to 
heart talks " to one another, printed in the medical journals and handed herein to those 
in the outer world who choose to read that there is also a carcinoma in society advancing 
with sure and penetrating growth towards our utter destruction. But as you also read 
herein, from themselves, their voice is not heard. Yet the demand of Nature is insistent, 
and though stifled for a while is in the end inevitable. Truth claims and will get his own. 

He shall not cry, nor lift up, 

Nor cause his voice to be heard in the street. 

A bruised reed shall he not break, 

The dimly-burning wick shall he not quench : 

He shall bring forth judgment unto truth. 

He shall not fail nor be discouraged, 

Till he have set judgment in the earth, 

And the Isles shall wait for his Law. 

390. That which is true was always true, and will so remain until in course of the 
age of ages the Himalayas shall be level with the plains of Hindustan. Not like the 



72 

theory of Malthus, centre and core of our British Political Economy. Malthus himself 
admitted that he had " bent the bow too much one way, because it had been bent too 
much the other." Hence his bow is not the weapon of truth, but that of policy and 
pseudo-economy. On the other hand the poet and seer, whose voice comes to us from 
afar and will talk to the souls of men when our Empire shall be barely remembered by 
name, continues thus his lofty theme : 

The Lord shall go forth as a mighty man, 

He shall stir up zeal like a man of war : 

He shall cry, yea He shall shout aloud, 

He shall prevail against his enemies 

Who among you will give ear to this ? 

Who will hearken and hear for the time to come ? 

Who gave Jacob for a spoil ? 

And Israel to the robbers ? 

Did not the Lord, 

He against Whom we have sinned ? 

For they would not walk in His Ways 

Neither were they obedient unto His Law. 

391. Lest there may linger in the minds of any persons doubts as to the origin and 
nature of the carcinoma of Anglo-Saxondom, I reprint here several pages of the book, 
with a strong recommendation to all to procure it, if possible, and to study it. Out 
of the mouths of many witnesses shall the truth be established. 



NEO-MALTHUSIANISM ; An Inquiry into that system with regard to its economy 

and morality, 

By the Rev. R. USSHER. Methuen & Co., London, 1897. 
1 



392. The subject which we are to consider in the following pages is that which is generally known 
by the name of Malthusianism. This term, inaccurate as it is, in simple words means the prevention, 
by artificial checks, of the procreation of children ; in scientific, the control of fertilization by men 
and women. Its advocates declare that it is to be the greatest power of the future, one which will 
remove all poverty and misery, and that modern society is adopting the practice so largely, that this 
most desirable object is being attained much more rapidly than they could have imagined. It is not 
quite a new idea in England. It was alluded to in certain newspapers so long ago as the year 1827. 
About the same time anonymous handbills advising the adoption of the practice were widely dis- 
tributed throughout the North of England. A little later on we find that lectures on the matter were 
given in Leeds and elsewhere, which were attended by very many of both sexes. Soon afterwards 
there appeared Carlile's " Every Woman's Book," warmly advocating the system, and minutely 
describing the various means by which it could be carried into effect. The literature of the subject 
did not largely increase during the middle of the century. 

393. The elder Mill advocated the system in his article " Colony," in the "Encyclopaedia Britannica," 
8th edition ; also in his " Elements of Political Economy," " Care taken that children, beyond a certain 
number, shall not be the fruit," see pages 34 and 44. John Stuart Mill, as many are no doubt aware, 
following his father's example, was an enthusiastic advocate of the system, and wrote of it in his 
" Political Economy," which now meets with but doubtful approval, to say the least. Caiman describes 
it as a "collection of old essays produced from a drawer, and published without alteration." 

394. It was not until the " Fruits of Philosophy" was published between 1870 and 1880 that the 
more modern treatment of the subject was reached. This publication was soon followed by Mrs. 
Besant's well-known book, " The Law of Population, its Consequences, and its Bearing upon Human 
Conduct and Morals." 

395. Then followed in rapid succession a large number of books, pamphlets and treatises, 
dealing with the subject, such as "Notes on the Population Question; The Physiology of 



Marriage ; Poverty : its Cause and Cure ; Moral Physiology ; Individual, Family, 
and National Poverty ; Elements of Social Science ; The Population Question ; The 
Wife's Handbook ; Artificial checks to Population, is the teaching of them Infamous ? ; 
English and French Morality ; The Duties of Parents ; The Strike of a Sex; The 
prosperity of the French Peasant : The Malthusian Magazine," founded as the organ 
of the Malthusian League. The first number appeared on February 1st, 1872. In addition to these 
works on the subject, there is an immense mass of anonymous literature now flooding the country 
in all directions, treating of the same. Magazine articles and letters, for or against the system, have 
appeared in " The Economic Review," " The Christian World," " The National and Church Reformers," 
" The North American Review," " The Humanitarian," " The Free Review," etc.. etc. Some of 
these will be referred to in the course of the following pages. There have also appeared certain other 
articles in various magazines bearing on sexual relationship, which will be referred to also, but which 
do not deal directly with the matter in hand. I think the above list comprehends most of the chief 
literature of the subject. The most distinguished writers on the subject are Mill, Ward, Owen, 
Gaskell, Besant, Greg, Matthew Arnold, Drysdale, and Clapperton. The matter is alluded to in 
The Evolution of Sex," in " The Church and the World," and in LEA'S " Christian Marriage." 
Numerous foreign writings on the subject will also be touched upon in the course of the argument. 
Of all the works enumerated above the one which undoubtedly caused the greatest interest and 
sensation was " The Fruits of Philosophy," by Dr. CHAELES RNOWLTON, of Boston, U.S.A., which 
found its way into the possession of the publishers of the " National Reformer," which publication 
was then, 1878, under the joint control of Mr. Bradlaugh and Mrs. Besant. 

396. Dr. Knowlton's book had been known in England for some years previous to this, having been 
published in America in the year 1835, and had been sold in Bristol by a man named Cook, who, 
however, had used it for obscene purposes, which was not the object for which the writer had 
published it. The publisher of " The National Reformer " was prosecuted for exposing it for sale. 
He pleaded guilty, but Mr. Bradlaugh and Mrs. Besant then took the case out of his hands, and 
defended themselves in the Courts. All the legal proceedings which followed only caused the book 
to have much more publicity than it would otherwise have had. Opposition and persecution, as 
they always do, only drew more general attention to the matter, which might otherwise have been left 
in obscurity. The Neo-Malthusian practices advocated in the pages of the book were new to the 
general public, and because of this it was eagerly read, and obtained a very large circulation in a 
comparatively short space of time. The ill effects of that abortive persecution bear their fruits 
Btill ; if it had not taken place very many would never have been initiated into this nefarious system, 
which I hope to show in the following pages is a disastrous one both for the individual and the nation 
to adopt. Ever since the year 1878, in which these two events occurred, the birth-rate of the United 
Kingdom has fallen. It commenced to do so in that year, and has steadily continued doing so ever 
since that time. Tt has never reached what it was previous to the Bradlaugh trial. We are now 
becoming quite accustomed to the ever-recurring remark in the Registrar-General's returns, " This 
is the lowest birth-rate ever recorded." 

Page 4 

397 It penetrates into hundreds of thousands of households, which now for the first time 

became acquainted with a system and teaching which had previous to this been only whispered about 
by a comparatively few unimportant persons. " This campaign did not create the situation, but it 
gave it a great incentive, because it openly advocated a custom which had previously been only carried 
out in secret." (Mille in the "Revue des Deux Mondes," December 18th, 1891.) 

Page 5 

398 It is somewhat difficult, after having studied Stephen's "Criminal Digest," to under- 
stand why some of these pamphlets, now poured out in multitudes, are not inhibited. They merely 
suggest and advocate the practice of Neo-Malthusianism to young men and women as a means by 
which they can gratify sexual desire without having to fear the birth of children. It seems to me that 
the whole matter, repugnant as it may be, will sooner or later have to be inquired into, and legally 
decided one way or the other. It seems monstrous that young women, hi no matter what degrees 
of life, should be the free recipients, by post, of these pamphlets, as so many thousands are now. How 
far the advocacy and publication of some of these systems can go without coming under the law of 
procuring abortion is a nice legal point, and it certainly will have to be considered sooner or later. 
Some of these pamphlets merely treat of the most efficacious means of procuring early miscarriage. 
When the point of law was decided in Mr. Bradlaugh's and Mrs. Besant's favour the " Fruits of 
Philosophy " was withdrawn, and Mrs. Besant substituted her own book on the subject for it, that 
well-known one, ' The Law of Population: its Consequences and Bearing on Human Conduct and 
Morals." It had an immense circulation and sale, until she withdrew it on becoming a Theosophist 
in April, 1891. "It was translated into every language and read by millions of persons." (Mille). 

Page 6 

399 Mille comments on the lightness of heart with which Mrs. Besant withdrew her book, 

and the frightful responsibility which she had incurred by writing it. 

" Declarer qu'avoir preche de gaiet6 de cceur la sterilite du mariage est une ceuvre tout simple- 



74 

ment monstrueuse." [To announce that one has preached, with a light heart, sterility in marriage, 
is simply a monstrous act.] 

Page 7 

400 Writing in "The Humanitarian " for November, 1896, Dr. S. A. K. Strahan says, 

" The question has, however, developed so remarkably of late that I think the time has come when 
all false shame and make-belief should be thrown aside, and the question and its effects be straightly 
put before the people. Women guilty of such offences against morality and nature as those we hint 
at can hardly accuse us of debasing their minds ; others need not peruse our lines. ' ' The latter portion 
of this quotation can equally well apply to what follows in this book. 

401. Everything can be improved by light and knowledge, and this subject is certainly one of those 
which especially need the fullest consideration. " The prejudices against the discussion do nothing 
but obscure appreciation of the merits or demerits of the doctrine." (" Evolution of Sex.") 
Page 8 

402 Large meetings were held in Manchester, Bradford, and elsewhere in similar large cities. 

Resolutions were carried by overwhelming majorities in assemblages of both sexes, declaring in favour 
of Neo-Malthusianism. These meetings were principally spoken to on the subject by Mrs. Besant. 
The interest taken in the matter caused the rise of the Malthusian League, with Dr. C. R. Drysdale 
as its President. 

Page 9 

403 Many are aware of the numbers of tracts and pamphlets advocating this system, which are 

sent to householders hi every class of life. What numbers of advertisements appear in the newspapers ! 
I have one before me now which contains no less than six such. If one of these advertisements be 
answered, there comes a pamphlet in reply telling of Neo-Malthusianism, and giving the price of the 
articles required ; hence the profit. Not merely in these pamphlets, but in catalogues of articles 
Bold in certain shops, these recommendations occur. Every one of them teaches the so-called ad- 
vantages of a limited number of children, and plainly shows how sexual intercourse need not be 
followed by fertilization. 

404. " One of those silly-season controversies, which have of late become so dear to the hsarts of 
the big editors, has in the early autumn being going on in one of the leading London dailies. The 
subject is Early Marriages. As might be expected, many of the correspondents have been women, all 
with a certain modicum of education ; and it is positively disgusting to note how these women speak 
of the voluntary limitation of the family. One, referring to her own case, says, " We have one child 
which we can bring up well ; we dare not run the risk of any more ! " Another advising her married 
sisters, remarks : ' Keep your family well within your means.' And so they run on. The question 
is What state of things does this indicate ? " (Strahan). 

405. In maternity hospitals, " Scientific Meliorism " tells us, visiting ladies leave large quantities 
of these tracts, and we are told with marked success. "The women are so glad to receive them," 
"the instructions are so eagerly acted upon." I know of a good old squire hi East Anglia who 
regularly distributes these tracts throughout his neighbourhood. We find them everywhere; in 
railway carriages, in public rooms, wherever publicity can be obtained. 

406. Mrs. Besant tells us in her autobiography what a large number of letters she received from 
grateful women, amongst them clergymen's wives, for having been the means of bringing such 
valuable information to their knowledge and use. It has been acted Upon. 

Page 10 

407 This wide distribution of modern literature advocating Neo-Malthusianism has brought 

about a very serious condition of things. What was merely hinted at twenty years ago is now openly 
talked about as the most proper and useful course to adopt. Is it any wonder, then, that the birth- 
rate decreases ? All classes seem to be smitten by the Neo-Malthusian craze, now rapidly spreading, 
fondly imagining that it will remove all human woes and totally eradicate poverty and wretchedness. 
The matter will soon have to be grappled with in a very vigorous way, for those who think at all must 
see that to voluntarily cause the population of a civilised country to decline is of the most vital interest 
to everybody concerned. The nations of civilised countries need to be shown how utterly mistaken 
they are if they should persist in following the Neo-Malthusian practice. That it is immoral is not 
the least doubtful, and as regards the destruction of the prosperity of the nation that adopts it there 
can be no doubt whatever. 

408 "In later times our sense of decency has been shocked by the outspoken denunciation, not 

of marriage, but of its consequences, and the bold inculcation of means whereby the gratification of 
natural inclinations may be joined with the violation of Nature's laws and the frustration of Nature's 
ends." (Bourne). 

409. I cite the following testimony I could cite a great deal more just to show how the doctrines 
of Neo-Malthusianism are rapidly spreading in England. So long ago as the Manchester Church 



75 

Congress of 1838, Professor Symes said, " I have the strongest reason to know that the subject is 
engaging the attention of an immense number of people of all classes in England and elsewhere." 
Another speaker at the same Congress said, " The awful heresy which is prevailing throughout the 
country as to restraining the growth of population by artificial means." What will be said now 
when the system is increasing by leaps and bounds ? 

410. At the present time a more modem school of thought on the same subject has arisen. It is 

composed chiefly of women, who declare that the duties of maternity are becoming increasingly irksome 
to all classes of women, especially to the more highly educated, and that maternity is utterly repugnant 
to a proper woman's feelings. It is an entire revolt against what has hitherto been believed to be 
the moral duties of woman. Women who write upon this subject declare maternity to be a degradation 
to them, and they refuse to undergo it in the future. We have arrived at this state of things in England. 

Page 14 

411. Professor FLINT says that the so-called wise regulation of the birth-rate advocated in such books 
as " Scientific Procreation " what the members of the Malthusian League mean by it would lead 
to the most shocking demoralisation of all classes. He truly observes, " Malthus would have disowned 
with horror the Malthusian League." 

Page 26 

412. " The Malthusian theory still has its advocates ; but we imagine they are few in number. The 
theory has been effectually smashed by political economists of the heaviest metal, and we fondly 
thought that it was dead, but it appears not. But whatever there was to be said hi favour of this 
theory from the standpoint of the economist or sociologist and, to give its originator his due, he 
never advocated the limitation of the family from any other standpoint there is absolutely nothing 
to be said in its favour as at present practised. The good of the State or of society does not enter 
into the question at all in the present day. The whole thing has its root and origin in pure and un- 
adulterated selfishness, in undenying self-gratification, and so never comes within the purview of either 
economist or sociologist." (Strahan.) 

Page 33 

413. The Nec-Malthusians unhesitatingly affirm that their system would remove all hindrances to 
marriage, and would, moreover, cure all our social troubles. They point with delight to the wonderful 
increase of its practice, which proves that they have supplied a want, and that a still further and 
gigantic increase is looming in the immediate future. They declare that it is a cruel and a hard lot 
" to force upon others what is now forced upon them, viz.. ' to resist and forego, habitually and 
generally, sometimes altogether, always during the craving period of life, those imperious longings 
of the heart, which, combined, constitute the most urgent necessity of our nature, and which the 
Creator must have made thus urgent for wise and righteous purposes.' " (Greg). 

413A. The statement is freely made that in consequence of marriage being out of the question for 
very many, a certain form of abominable vice is becoming adopted far more than it used to be. This, 
whatever may be the cause, is, I believe, correct in the main. It is also declared that postponement 
of marriage until the physical powers are failing will inevitably bring about a serious deterioration 
of the race. This the Neo-Malthusians declare is actually taking place before our eyes. That the 
universal practice of Neo-Malthusianism would remove all these adverse influences so detrimental 
to social welfare and human happiness. 

Page 39 v 

414 The fact is that no matter what numbers of people practised Neo-Malthusianism, poverty 

would remain just as urgent and severe, as long as the economic conditions remained adverse. 

415. " Suppose that a hundred, a thousand, or a hundred thousand men followed the Neo-Malthusian 
precept, this condition would not be altered in the least, because the general conditions would 
remain unchanged. But let us suppose, for the sake of argument, that this abstention were possible 
in an entire nation, the foundations of capitalist economy would remain the same, and the causes of 
poverty would remain the same. The argument which rums the whole Neo-Malthusian structure, 
which makes poverty simply dependent upon excess of population and not upon the economic order, 
is the fact that the severest poverty has always occurred hi countries and at times when the means 
of subsistence sufficed for the population and far exceeded it. In contemporary France food far 
exceeds the population, yet the persistence of the most squalid poverty, the frequency of crises, the 
continual agitation of the unemployed, are standing proofs that poverty is not the result of an excess 
of men over the means of subsistence, but of a vitiated distribution of food." (Nitti). 

Page 40 

416. . . . - " The supposition that excess of population is the cause of all poverty is completely 
erroneous, not merely in its practical conclusions, but also in its very essence." (Nitti). 



76 

Page 41 

417. HEBBBBT SPBNCBB comments on the sins of legislators in interfering with the beneficent operations 
of the pitiless discipline which kills off the unsuccessful members of society ; but he himself is criticised 
pretty freely by well-known writers. " Mr. Herbert Spencer's tiny knot of disciples who follow their 

master to the bitter end of individualist anarchism." " Herbert Spencer, whose unchallenged 

eminence is only equalled by his eccentricity, represents the theories of doctrinaire individualism in 
England ; " and Com* has charmingly remarked that hia voice is aa the voice of one crying in the 
wilderness. 

Page 43 

418. "With the doctrine of Malthus will die an older and still more pernicious belief that God has 
ordained the poor man's lot, with its attendant hopelessness and misery. The dawn of a brighter 
day seems breaking, when hi time it will be perceived that poverty, and well nigh all the ills of life, 
arise from man's ignorance and selfishness, and are curable as he grows." (Minton). 

419. Even moderately youthful marriages are not the rule in France. Mr. LYTTKLTON aaya : 
" Marriages in France are later than in England, whether you take the ages of men or women." 
Dr. Drysdale, the President of the Malthusian League, incidentally remarked that " marriage IB 
later in France than in England, and there is far more prostitution,." 

Page 53 

420 That prostitution will exist as long as the world lasts is, I suppose, to be admitted. 

Foreign Governments say that this great evil should be supervised, and placed under rigid control ; 
that no woman need follow the vocation unless she pleases, and that if she does, in spite of every 
warning, she ought to deprive herself of personal liberty. Also, that the moral condition of their 
streets is far superior to English ones, where vice is horribly rampant, and open scandals and temptations 
are visible to the young of both sexes. 

421. Writing on prostitution as it is carried on in London. Dr. RICHELOT, says : " La prostitution y 
maxche sans entraves, sans controle, sans lois moderatrices, la tete levee, en plein soleil." 

The French authorities say that it is utterly wrong that this great evil should be allowed to 
flaunt itself in public, and that if people are so depraved aa to wish for it they should go in search 
of it, not have it brought prominently before them. 

Page 100 

422 In " The Woman Who Did," GRANT ALLBN says : " Every good woman is by nature a 

mother, and finds best in maternity her social and moral salvation. She shall be saved by the child- 
bearing. Herminia was far removed from that blatant and decadent sect of ' advanced women' 
who talk as though motherhood were a disgrace and a burden, instead of being, as it is, the full 
realisation of woman's faculties, the natural outlet for woman's wealth of emotion. She knew that 
to be a mother is the best privilege of her sex, a privilege of which unholy man-made institutions 
now conspire to deprive half the finest and noblest women in our civilised communities." 

423. Lady HBNKY SOMERSET deals with the question in "The Arena" for March, 1895, under an 
article termed " The Welcome Child." In it she enlarges upon the disadvantages of the unwelcome 
child, and that the millennium will only set in when every child is welcome. By a child's being wel- 
come, she means, of course, only welcome to the mother ; the father's wishes on the subject are not 
to be considered as of any account. She says : " Let us remember the number of children that are 
at this moment awakening into this world whose mothers greet them with a sijjh, and hold out their 
arms to take them with a sob instead of a kiss, wishing that the little baby face turned up to theirs 
had never seen the light ; yet they crowd in, these little unwelcome strangers, upon the weary workers 
of the world ; the women who bend over their tasks until they lie down under the great agony of 
maternity, and know that when it is over, weak and wan, they must take up their labour again, with 
another mouth to feed, and lees strength to gain the wherewithal. Through those dreary months 
before the final tragedy, the child has been environed with the consciousness that it was not wanted ; 
gloomy anticipation has robbed the little one of joy and hope, and so once more a being comes into 
existence with a life blighted, a nature narrowed and cramped, affections chilled, before it has seen 
the sun hi the heavens or drawn the breath of life. And this happens not only in the garret and cellar, 
but hi homes of opulence and ease. The unwritten tragedy of woman's life is there." 

Page 130 

424. HBNRY GBOBOB said : " The increase of man involves the increase of his food. Formerly, 
in the United States there were only a few hundred thousand, now forty- five millions, but there is 
no difficulty in providing the food, which did not bring the men, but the men it. The substances which 
form man's food have the power to reproduce themselves some billion folds more than m^n himself 
has." 

425. With regard to the space on the earth's surface for containing population, some curious and 
interesting calculations have been made. For instance, taking the world's population at present 






77 

to amount to about 1,450,000,000, one calculator writes as follows: "If all these persons were in 
England and Wales, they would each have a space of about one hundred and fifty square yards. If 
spread over the whole of the United Kingdom, they would each have a space of rather more than 
three hundred square yards. If collected in a city built in the ordinary way, their houses, streets, 
gardens, parks, etc., would occupy a space of some twenty millions of acres, say one half of England 
and Wales. But if formed into a crowd, they would find abundant standing room in the county of 
Rutland. If the United Kingdom were all as densly populated as England it would possess about 
(50,000,000 inhabitants. If Europe were r all as densely populated as England, it would possess about 
2,100,000,000, more than six times as many as it now has. If the whole world were as densely 
populated as England, its population would be about 28,000,000,000, or more than twenty times 
what it is at present." 

Page 151 

426. Jules Simon : " Our families are dwindling away ; our country is dwindling with them ; our 
race is doomed. But to be sure, we shall be able to afford a luxurious burial." 

Page 154 

427. Unfortunately the practice of Neo-Malthusianism seems to be rapidly increasing in England. 
I mentioned previously that we would, under the heading of population, examine into some of the 
evidence which seems to be accumulating on this point. 

428. One of the most distinguished medical authorities in England, one most competent to give an 
opinion, writes to me, in answer to a question I ventured to put to him, as follows : " I have no doubt 
that prevention of conception is greatly increasing in England amongst the better classes. I think it is 
the exception to find families which are unlimited among those classes, and in most cases this is due 
to prevention of conception. Morbid fear of pregnancy is very common." Dr. Strahan writes: 
" I can remember the time, and that not so very many years ago, when no respectable woman would 
have dared to have ventured such matters to her medical attendant. Now it is the everyday practice 
to ask the family doctor's advice as to the varying efficacy of the various means commonly in use, 
and to make unblushing inquiries as to better and more modern weapons. In fact, the state of things 
is fast becoming as bad in this country as it has been for some years past in either France or America. 
Ask any medical man in practice among the middle and upper classes, and he will tell you that the 
married woman among frs patients who is not fully alive to these practices is the rara avis. Some 
women have too high a sense of morality to sink to the level of their sisters in this respect ; but assuredly 
these are in the minority, and in a minority which is decreasing daily." He quotes the figures from the 
Registrar-General's Report, and says they speak for themselves : 



Year. 


Persons Married 


Births 




per 1000 living. 


per 1000. 


1864 


17.2 


. . 35.4 


1874 


17.0 


. . 36.0 


1884 


15.1 


. . 33.6 


1894 


15.1 


. . 29.6 



429. Although the marriage- rates in 1884 and 1894 were identical, yet the birth rate has actually 
fallen 4. " From a dispassionate survey of the foregoing facts, it would appear that within a limited 
number of years England Trill find herself in the unenviable position which France occupies to-day. 
The evils to which I refer have been growing for years past, their nature causing them to be winked at 
rather than dragged into public view for condemnation ; and, as a consequence from familiarity, 
society has come by degrees to tolerate, and even to look upon with favour, conduct which aforetime 
it would have scouted with abhorrence." 

Page 163 

430. I am quite well aware that close observers of what is taking place hi America with regard to the 
declension of the birth-rate ascribe it more to the general practice of abortion, which is very prevalent 
there, than to Neo-Malthusianism. Indeed, Dr. F. Napheys writes as follows : " The detestable crime 
of abortion is appallingly rife in our day ; it is abroad in our land to an extent which would have shocked 
the dissolute women of pagan Rome. The crime is common ; it is fearfully prevalent. Hundreds 
of persons are devoted to its perpetration ; it is their trade. In nearly every village its ministers stretch 
out their bloody hands to lead the weak women to suffering, remorse and death. Those who submit 
to this treatment are not generally unmarried women who have lost their virtue, but the mothers of 
families, respectable Christian matrons, members of churches, and walking in the better classes of 
of society. Testimony from all quarters, especially from New England, has accumulated within the last 
few years to sap our faith in the morality and religion of American women. Both Bishop Coxe and 
the Roman Catholic Archbishop Spaulding have issued Pastorals upon this great crime." Well, 
whichever vice is the most prevalent, the effect on the moral nature of the women and the nations is 
the same. 

D 



78 

Page 180 

431. ...... The more active the brain and nervous system is, the less is the physical power of 

the body. This in women especially prevents the proper development of generating power, con- 
sequently women of genius are always infertile. This fact, as women become more and more highly 
educated, will tell largely on population. Women will be able to choose which they will indulge in, 
books or babies. Thousands of years experience has unquestionably proved that women are de- 
signed more for activity of heart and emotions than for intellectual capacity. Whatever certain 
women may say, marriage is a woman's natural profession, and any other is exceptional and un- 
natural. A married woman's life is far healthier than a spinster's. The former has in her children 
the natural outlet for her emotions : the latter seeks something to love. She is driven to it by her 
nature, and finds in pete like cats, dogs, and monkeys, miserable substitutes for joyous children. The 
same in the cases of childless married women. 

Page 181 

432 Dr. Cyrus Edson writes : " Expressed in the fewest words, the evil is that an increasingly 

large proportion of the women of the American race are unable to perform their functions as mothers, 
and these women include the mentally-best we have among us. The gravity of the evil confronting 
us lies in this, that we seem to be able to bring the women up to a certain point in mental development, 
and then they cease to be able to be mothers." Alluding more particularly to the practice of Neo- 
Malthusianism in America, he says : "I once heard a married woman say women were growing 
very scientific in these days. It is a fact that a very large number of American women now refuse 
to bear children. Ideas have changed. The religious sentiment, which forbids efforts to prevent 
the accomplishment of the natural function of their sex, has been greatly lessened in force for many 
of them. To no class in the community is the realisation of what is going on so vivid as to physicians, 
because to them the sufferers, from the results of their own acts, must come for relief. It is almost 
useless to point out the terrible consequences of this interference with nature, or to say that pain 
during a short period is avoided, and pain during life secured. So far as the act is a result of a dislike 
to be deprived of the pleasures of society by the care of children, it is damnably wrong. So far as it 
results from the dread of pain of child-birth, it is folly so absolute that it may not be expressed in 
words. But when it is the result of an innate feeling that there is not stamina enough to stand the 
strain, what then ? If the system of education prevents American women having children, and if 
the influence of those women is strong enough to put a stop to any change in that system, or if those 
women refuse to be mothers, American men will, so far as they can, marry girls of other races. In 
time there would gradually permeate through the minds of men the understanding that health was 
requisite in the women they would make their wives. Healthy girls, girls with stamina, would then 
have the same advantage over their less fortunate sisters that is now possessed by the pretty girls 
over those that are ugly." 

Page 182 

433 Compare the Celtic wife, Scotch or Irish, on her native hill-side magnificent in physique, 

with flowing tresses, the mother of six or eight healthy children, splendid in proportion, limbs per- 
fectly modelled, smiling and happy in the enjoyment of perfect health with the unmarried woman, 
the product of civilisation pale, nervous, hair scanty and short, spectacled, a book in her hand ; 
and then say which product, that one of nature or that one of civilisation, ought to be the type of woman 
which should prevail in the future. 

434. Those of us who are interested in women's questions, and, wanting to know what women are 
thinking and saying about them, attend socialistic meetings at home and abroad which are addressed 
by women, must be very struck with the mental power of the women of all nationalities who speak 
at them. Their physical appearance, however, is disastrous. Keen, vigorous in mind, ready and 
perfectly competent to give replies to most able questions, they exhibit very remarkable intellectual 
powers. But judging from the sparkling eyes blazing with light, the quivering figure, the nervous 
tension, the short hair, the spectacles, they certainly present about the very last specimens which one 
should be likely to choose to be mothers. In accordance with their natures, such women loathe the 
idea of maternity, and are unquestionably right in refraining from it. 

Page 195 

435. On the other hand, Roman writers condemned the practice of abortion, although they state it 
was very common, and that the patrician women practised it to preserve their figures, which we are 
told is tbe same object for which Frenchwomen now practice Neo-Malthusianisni. 



79 
"POPULATION AND THE SOCIAL SYSTEM." 

By FRANCESCO S. NITTI, Professor at the University of Naples. London, 

Swan, Sonnenschein & Co., 1894. 
Page 19 

436. The whole Malthusian theory is impregnated with so thorough a pessimism 

that it is difficult to say who, before the time of Malthus, had unfolded with great 
skill the theses which were afterwards largely developed in the works of Schopen- 
hauer, Rolph and Hartmann. 

Page 22 

437. But these were but isolated opinions ; Malthus was really the great precursor 
of modern pessimism. 

438. In the Malthusian theory the irrestrainable generative instinct, causing a 
disproportion between man and the means of subsistence, condemns them to pay 
a penalty, which is a part of nature itself ; hence pleasure appears as a negative 
fact, and simply originates pain. So far, and not as in Schopenhauer and 
Hartmann, pain appeared to Malthus, not the eternal irremediable condition of 
beings, the penalty only to be escaped by self-annihilation, but it was the fatal 
counterpart of every being, condemned to a perpetual conflict between two 
equally profound needs, love and hunger 

439. Perhaps no English Economist of the last or present century has ever had 
the rapid and immense success which befel Malthus, notwithstanding that there 
have been others much more sympathetic and profound. 

Upon what did his success depend ? To what unknown cause must it be 
attributed ? 

440. A deep study of the history of economic theories has made me quite certain 
on this point. None of the English Economists before Malthus, nor any of his 
contemporaries, or of those who lived for a short time after him, was more strictly 
individualist than he ; no one lent himself more to the justification of the abuses, 
the indifference, the privileges of the dominant classes. If the orthodox English 
school assumed so severely individualist and anti-democratic a character, it was 
simply by reason of Malthus. 

Page 24 

441. Even N. W. SENIOR, the most vehement adversary of factory legislation, the 
Economist, who in the interests of capital invented the terrible expression starvation 
wage, has frequently noble ideas, as when he maintains against the then prevalent 
opinion, that high wages do not in any way diminish the production. 

442. England has had but one truly, absolutely and strictly individualist Economist, 
and this was Malthus, who was led by an inflexible logic to the most extreme and 
odious consequences of his social system. 

443. The success of Malthus' short treatise was therefore and necessarily enormous. 
Naturally such, both on account of the cause he defended, as well as on account 
of the novelty and attractiveness of the theories which it exposed. 

Page 26 

444. The theory of human perfectibility, exaggerated and ridiculed, still found 
supporters, but they did not appear till a late and remote period. Notwithstanding 
his Utopias of a pacific anarchy, after the successes of his youth, GODWIN was 
compelled to lead a poor life ; and the misunderstood prophet of the greatest 
reforms died in poverty and neglect in 1836. His refutation of Malthus was read 
by only a few ; disordered, confused, and uncertain, it was practically nothing 



80 

else than a defence of social help. In his old age he was obliged to find a livelihood 
in writing little books for the use of schools, which he sold at a shop in London, 
and which passed under the nom-de-plume of Baldwin. 

27 

445. In the Malthusian theory lies the chief source of modern sociology. 

Page 30 

446. Like Godwin's optimism, the fatalism of Malthus knew no limits. To Malthus 
it appeared a miserable ambition to wish to snatch the rod from the hand of 
Nature, and the man who has begotten children without being able to maintain 
them, must submit to the terrible action of the laws of Nature, which are the 
laws of God, and have condemned himself and his family to suffering. Whoever 
generates beyond the limits of his economic capacity acts against the will of God. 

447. The teaching of Malthus was therefore not simply a biological and economic 
theory, but it was a political one also, and this assured its success. According 
to Malthus, society should abhor every kind of legal assistance ; those who have 
violated the law of Nature must live a painful life, paying the penalty of its violation. 
Malthus even goes so far as to call for a law which would deny parish help to the 
children born in wedlock contracted within a year afterwards, and to illegitimate 
children born two years after the promulgation of the law itself 

Page 31 

448. The general enthusiasm for Malthus was so intense that no one dared to entirely 
controvert the new theory of population. Ingram says that the favour which 
the richer classes displayed towards the Malthusian theory is to be ascribed to the 
pleasure which they felt in being thus exonerated from blame, because Malthus 
asserted that the poor and not the rich were to be blamed for the evil state of the 
poor. 



34 

449. A very great number of economic theories, to anyone who wishes to penetrate 
them deeply, appear to be nothing else but a continual effort to legitimise interests 
or to defend abuses. 

And it is still more wonderful that theories have always changed with the 
change of phenomena ; far from overcoming them, they have been overcome by 
them ; far from anticipating them, they have done nothing else but follow them. 

Page 42 

450. The proposals of the English Neo-Malthusians, tending to check the birth-rate, 
have hence necessarily found a large acceptance notwithstanding their distasteful 
character, which would have caused their repudiation by a nation imbued with 
ideality and the Christian spirit. 

Page 43 

451. But against all the efforts of the Neo-Malthusian school, there has been formed 
and is still forming a strong current of opposition ; doctors and demographists 
daily protest against a school, the principles of which if carried into effect would 
change matrimony into a monogamic prostitution, and would gradually lead to 
the weakening of social relations and to the degradation of the moral sentiments. 

Page 50 

452. And as a remedy to the Uebervolkerung not only have the majority of German 
Economists gone so far as to counsel the Malthusian moral restraint, that is to 
say abstention ; but even abortion has been legitimated ; nay, even profound 
thinkers have wished that matrimony should become a real privilege of the richer 



81 

classes ; and they have had recourse to more immoral and degrading advice. Not 
long since WEINHOLD, a Counsellor of the King of Saxony, seriously proposed the 
annual castration of a certain number of children of the popular classes. 

Page 60 

453. By preaching moral restraint and the adoption of preventive means, the 
English Economists ended with creating and authorising the immoral movement 
of the so-called Neo-Maltlmsian school. 

Page 61 

454. Until 1878, the annual increase of the population of Great Britain was un- 
equalled and unsurpassed throughout Europe, with the exception of Germany, 
and some of the small states but slightly advanced in progress. 

But it is well to repeat here the number of births which in 1878 was 35.5 for 
1000 inhabitants, decreased to 34.2 in 1880, to 33.3 in 1884, and to 30.5 in 1889 : 
during the same ten years the Irish and Scotch birth-rates also diminished ; thus 
the total number of births in the United Kingdom decreased in ten years from 
33.3 to 29.6. 

[But it has since diminished to 26, with certitude of further fall.] 

455. This singular phenomenon, which contradicts all the dictates of classic Economy 
with regard to population, found a strange coincidence in the campaign opened 
in 1877 by the so-called School of Neo-Malthusianism. 

456. It was exactly in the year 1877, that is at the time when the birth-rate was 
greatest, that the famous atheist, Charles Bradlaugh, and Mrs. Annie Besant, began 
their campaign in favour of Malthusian practices, a campaign which found a great 
echo, since it raised to the rank of a principle what had begun to be secretly practised^ 

457. Until then Malthusian practices and moral restraint had been recommended 
by the upper classes only, and in the interests of a conservative party ; hence, 
they met with a no very great acceptance. But Bradlaugh was an atheist and a 
Radical : Mrs. Besant was a socialist and an atheist. The acceptance of her theory, 
she told her followers when speaking of Malthusianism, was absolutely essential 
to the success of Socialism. It is quite intelligible why the Neo-Malthusian cam- 
paign, when promoted by such advanced persons, should have found in England 
generally and among the middle classes in particular a greater favour and wider 
results than the involved hypothesis and counsels of Stuart Mill and Derby, and 
the numerous followers of the Malthusian school. 

458. The campaign in favour of Malthusian practices was opened by Mrs. Besant 
and Bradlaugh with a little work the " Fruits of Philosophy," a work which, 
being held immoral and condemned, was precisely on this account sold in hundreds 
of thousands of copies. The " Fruits of Philosophy," notwithstanding its full and 
pompous title, contains nothing but advice to young married people. After a noisy 
process, which only served to diffuse the incriminated theory, Mrs. Besant with- 
drew her book from sale, and published another book on the law of population 
much larger and endowed with a more scientific appearance. But not even does 
this mediocre book contain nothing notable for the impartial searcher : Mrs. 
Besant, accepting the two famous progressions as an indisputable fact, builds upon 
them a vain structure of hypotheses and conjectures. 

459. Anyhow, issued in 200,000 copies, reproduced in the newspapers, defended 
with ardour, the new publication did not delay in producing its effects, more especially 
among persons who had already begun to secretly practice what the Malthusians 
publicly advocated 



82 

160. So arose the Malthusian League, which, presided over by Doctor Drysdale, 

himself author of a brochure on population and of several popular works, at once 
undertook the publication of a monthly review, "The Malthusian," in order to 
spread the teaching of Malthus, the divine protestant. Several little treatises for 
a few pence each were also published. Adopting the methods of the religious 
societies, they went so far as to distribute in the streets "The Duties of Parents " 
by Drysdale, a treatise on "The Prosperity of the French Peasants," and innumer- 
able little works containing extracts from the writings of Mill, and of other authors 
in praise of a limited family. 

461. This campaign, carried on with such ardour, naturally produced results within 
a very short time. Neo-Malthusianism did not appeal to elevated instincts or noble 
feelings ; it was neither more nor less than a brutal affirmation of individual egoism. 
Well-conditioned working-men, seeing in the absence or scarcity of children a 
means of putting an end to the difference between them and the lower middle class ; 
and these knowing that they had to rely upon a small income, feared that a large 
family might reduce them to the condition of the working men ; people who were 
independent, desirous of maintaining their social position ; all accepted it enthu- 
siastically. 

462. These results did not delay in showing themselves. The birth-rate, which 
until 1877, had always been on the increase, began, as I have said, to decrease from 
1878 downwards ; marriages became fewer, and there occurred a demographic 
phenomenon, which had appeared altogether unlikely, owing to the traditional 
fecundity of the people of Great Britain. 

463. Then the very apostles of the Neo-Malthusian practices appeared to be dismayed 
by the effects which their propaganda had produced, and some of them even wished 
to withdraw. Mrs. Annie Besant honestly declared that the experience of Neo- 
Malthusianism had convinced her that the practices suggested by the Malthusian 
League were contrary to the interests of the nation as well as to those of morality, 
that, while on the one hand they hindered every development of the more elevated 
feelings, on the other hand they weakened and unfitted the people of Great Britain 
for the struggle of life. 

Page 76. 

464. Even the physicians have attacked moral restraint, with a violence perhaps 
unequalled elsewhere. Bergeret condemns every dishonesty in the generative 
action as an infanticide fatal to morality and civilisation. AMELIN adds in a spirit 
of indignation : La castration vaut mieux, a tout prendre, qu'une prudence voisine 
de la pratique de 1'avortement. 

Page 116. 

465. Notwithstanding all the persecutions and troubles which it has been condemned 
to suffer for centuries, the little Jewish people has maintained itself, and has increased 
simply because it has always considered marriage as the first duty of mankind, 
and because it has maintained and still maintains the family ideal. 

Page 142. 

466. "In certain communes," says a French writer, " the names brother and sister 
are hardly any longer in use ; the primogeniture, abolished in 1789, has been re- 
placed by unigeniture." And GTJYATJ, who was the angelical doctor of the new 
philosophy, recognised that French sterility is much rather an economic than 
a physiological phenomenon. 

Page 181. 

467. But when the population voluntarily, and through a spirit of egotism, obeys 
the Malthusian precept and tends to check its fecundity, even individuation must 



decrease, since, with the failure of moral ties, the change of marriage into monogamic 
prostitution, the weakening of social solidarity, even the individual ends sooner 
or later by feeling the effect of the degradation of his surroundings. 



THE EDUCATED CLASSES ALMOST ALWAYS WRONG. 

BENJAMIN KIDD, " Social Evolution," page 237 : 

468. It has to be confessed that in England during the nineteenth century the 

educated classes, in almost all the great political changes that have been effected, 
have taken the side of the party afterwards admitted to have been in the wrong 
they have almost invariably opposed at the time the measures they have subse- 
quently come to defend and justify. The educated classes have even, it must be 
confessed, opposed measures which have tended to secure religious freedom and 
to abolish slavery. The motive force behind the long list of progressive measures 
carried during this period has in scarcely any appreciable measure come from 
the educated classes, it has come almost exclusively from the middle and lower 
classes, who have in turn acted, not under the stimulus of intellectual motives, 
but under the influence of their altruistic feelings. 

Against that, the fact must be remembered, amongst others, that it was the 
Tories who fought for mercy to children, in face of much obloquy. 



"LAISSEZ FAD3E, LAISSEZ PASSER," THE FORMULA CLAIMED BY 
POLITICAL ECONOMISTS. 

YVES GUYOT, " Principles of Political Economy." London, Swan, Sonnenscheu\ 
1892: 

Page 13. 

46y. M. CLAUDE (of the Vosges) has not hesitated to make this solemn declaration : 

"In Political Economy there are no principles, but only interests." M. THIEBS' 

sarcasms on " this tedious literature " were inexhaustible. 

Page 18. 

470. The masters of Political Economy, those who have the decisive influence which 
DE TOCQUEVILLE and HERBERT SPENCER exert, are not Rothschilds ; it is a surgeon 
like QUESNAY, a solitary professor like ADAM SMITH, a journalist like J. B. SAY and 
CHARLES DUNOYER, or a man who has sacrificed his own to the public interests, 
like COBDEN, who ruined himself twice over, and was only saved by public subscrip- 
tions of 70,000 and 40,000. BENTHAM himself, who has exercised so immense 
an influence on the England of the nineteenth century, had no place on the 
Treasury bench. 

Page 19. 

471. When Quesnay, following DE GOTJRNAY, repeated the formula " laissez faire, 
laissez passer," it meant " Respect natural law. Do nothing to disturb the natural 
order of the production and distribution of wealth." It is the first formula of 
an art, which, renouncing a priori reasoning, has learnt to confine itself to the 
application of existing laws. 



84 

472. Those names now scarcely suffice to conjure with, some of them profoundly 
tainted with the advocacy of child-restriction. COBDEN is more particularly associated 
with the advocacy of child-slavery of cruel and remorseless type, little less than that of 
the Egyptian kings who purposely worked children to death in their gold mines. Even 
the name of " Bentham himself " could be uttered anywhere in Anglo-Saxondom without 
rousing enthusiasm or extracting a tear from the tenderest. 

473. But for Professor HELD, of Bonn, for Professor GUSTAV SCHMOLLER of Berlin, 
HILDEBRAND of Jena, KNIES of Heidelberg, DE LAVELAYE of Liege, M. Guyot has much 
scorn. The profound genius of FRIEDRICH LIST, who reasserted the principles of National 
Economy, those principles which have now all but universal acceptance, he treats with 
contemptuous silence. He does not mention him once. But M. YVES GUYOT, ex-Vice- 
President of the Malthusian League (according to Molinari and Gamier, par 135) 
can carry contempt still higher. 

474. Of the names above mentioned (except poor List), together with others of like 
calibre, WAGNER, SCHAFFLE, even Prince BISMARCK, he writes (page 9), 

They seem to resemble in some respects M. de METZ-NOBLAT, Professor of 
the faculty of law at Nancy, who has placed as a motto at the head of his Cours 
d'Economie Politique (2nd edition, 1880), this text from St. Matthew, "Seek 
first the Kingdom of God and His justice, and all other things shall be added unto 
you." Such absurdities discredit only their authors, they prove nothing against 
economic science. 

475. Some of us will say that no more splendid and appropriate motto could be placed 
at the head of any policy, any jurisprudence, or any economy. Its Divine Author has 
had, with the great Mr. BENTHAM, an " immense influence on the nineteenth century," 
upon eighteen other centuries, and will have even more influence we may devoutly 
pray upon all centuries to come, even so long as " empires are built upon babies." It 
is a matter of free choice for all this justice of God, which means the sense of " fas," 
of " fairness " innate in the human soul ; or laissez faire, laissez passer ; the law of 
grab ; NIETZSCHE'S " carnivorous voluptuary roaming free." Political Economy, its 
professedly atheistic expounders, chose the latter alternative with their insistent incul- 
cation of the act of ONAN, FRANCIS PLACE, JAMES and JOHN MILL, AUSTIN and GEO. 
JACOB HOLYOAKE, CHARLES BRADLAUGH, Dr. CHAS. R. DRYSDALE, and many other 
utilitarians, male and female. But the National Economists sought first the attribute 
of justice, and sure enough other good things were added unto them. 

476. Political Economists have wrought inconceivable mischief with the minds, 
morals, bodies and procreation of civilised men. They have done more than all else 
to uproot the idea of " chivalry to the unborn " and have been, all along, the eager 
jackals of those aggregations of wealth which threaten the persistence of the social state 
as we know it. M. GUYOT is amongst the most fervent in his admiration of these ac- 
cumulations, as will be seen on pages 176, 177, and on many others. Having quoted 
his conclusion, which he printed in italics, we may part with him. 

477. Man is a form of fixed capital, subject to the law which defines the relative 
values of fixed and circulating capital. 

The value of man is in proportion to the power of his implements. His value 
augments in proportion to the abundance of circulating capital and the form of 
fixed capital. 

The relation of the price of food to the rate of wages is in inverse ratio to the 
industrial development of the country. 

478. Now the primordial " value " is the child-bearing woman, even if she do nothing 
else than rear the man who is " a form of fixed capital. " Yet in all this tangled com- 
plexity where does the nursing mother, and her babe, come in ? Well, she conies in for 
repression, and the wages of that sin is death. 



85 

POLITICAL ECONOMY, 

MALTHUS AS ITS CENTRE. " THE CUESE OF FECUNDITY.*' 

From an article in the " Journal des Economistes," editor G. de MOLINAEI, 15th 
May, 1895. 

(TRANSLATION). 

479. It suffices for us to cite MARLO (Winkelblech), who declares without mincing 
matters that " the question of population is the most important of all economic 
questions," and praises Malthus for having dared to enlighten the human mind 
upon the most bitter of all truths, namely the curse inherent to fecundity. 

480. In his " History of Political Economy and Socialism " (1871) EUGEN DUHRING 
treats the doctrine of Malthus as "an error old as the world " and Malthus himself 
as " an odious type of character that is radically inhuman." KAUTSKY, who 
has only a mediocre opinion of the person and scientific value of Malthus, recognises 
the serious character of the problem in his book upon " The Influence exercised 
by the Increase of Population upon the Progress of Society." 

481. If we pass from the Socialist camp to the camp of Political Economy among 
University professors, we find an almost unanimous adhesion to the ideas of Malthus. 
[The author cites proofs from the works of German Political Economists]. " If 
the statistical and psychological foundations of the theory of Malthus are vulner- 
able in places, they are on the whole unassailable and of an evidence which imposes 
itself upon the mind." Finally WAGNER, who may be called the coryphaeus of 
contemporary Political Economy in Germany, devotes in his " Grundlegung der 
Politischen Oekonomie," a chapter of 200 pages to examine the problem in all 
its sides, and concludes thus, " Robert Malthus behalt somit in allem Wesentlichen 
Recht." [Robert Malthus is therefore right in all essentials]. 



ENGLAND IN A GERMAN LIGHT. 

GREATER BRITAIN. 

" ENGLAND IN DEUTSCHER BELEUCHTUNG." 

Heft 10, Seite 56. Grosserbritannien, von Dr. TH. LENSCHAU. 

Dealing with the trade conditions and the prospects of Australia, and always 
with a patriotic regard for the interests of his own country, Dr. Lenschau remarks : 

(TRANSLATION). 

482. A large part of the country of Australia that is now used for sheep-runs permits 

of profitable agriculture, and in particular Queensland proves itself in a con- 
spicuous degree suitable for the production of tropical crops as well as for yielding 
wheat. The fact is nowhere disputed. But there exists at the same time a 
difficulty in obtaining the necessary labour, and this much is certain, that the 
natural increase of population in the colonies will not be in a position to supply 
it, inasmuch as the number of births, principally as a consequence of the wide- 
spread practice of prevention of conception in sexual relations, shows a thoroughly 
terrifying decline, whose effect upon the actual increase in population is only 
counterbalanced by the uncommonly low mortality. 



483. From 1866-70 to 1901-2 the births in Australia and New Zealand have fallen 
from 40.9 per 1000 of the average population down to 26.7, a rate that is surpassed 
by all European nations excepting France (21.8), and by some in a very high degree. 

484. Still more serious is the proportion of births to the number of women hi the 
conceptive age. Whilst in the year 1901 there were in Germany 141.9, in Italy 
135.7, in England 110.9 births for every 1000 women aged from 15 to 50. there 
were in Australia only 110, in New Zealand only 104, and here also, amongst all 
the great nations there was only France which showed a still lower figure, 85.6. 

This fact is assuming a menacing character for the future of Australia. 

485. This series of monographs upon our national life in its several departments, which 
I purchased as they came out, at bookstalls in many parts of Germany, is the work 
of acknowledged experts. Each deals critically with the portion allotted to him for con- 
sideration, since Germans criticise everything, including themselves. Our politics, 
principles, finance, government, defence, army, navy, movement of population, all come 
under review. We are well watched all round, so that what we choose to ignore is often 
the very subject that most interests outsiders. Our leavings may be their expectations. 



THROUGH GERMAN SPECTACLES. 

AUSTRALIA COMPARED WITH DECADENT GREECE AND ROME. 
"SYSTEM DER POLITISCHEN OEKONOMIE." 

PBOF. DR. GUSTAV KUHLAND, Chair of Political Economy in the University of Freiburg, 

Switzerland. 

(TRANSLATION). 

Pathologic Symptoms in the present National Life. 
Page 182. 

486. P. J. MOEBIUS says somewhat impolitely but quite accurately in his book 
(published in 1905, and now in the seventh edition) upon the " Physiologic Weakness 
of Women," " The modern fools (Narrinnen) are bad child bearers and bad mothers. 
In proportion as civilisation grows, the fruitfulness of women sinks. The better 
the girls' schools become, so much the worse become the confinements, so much 
the less the secretion of milk which is indispensable to the rearing of a lusty gener- 
ation. The modern woman cannot bear many children and moreover does not 
want to. The progeny of ' brainy ' women are not distinguished by strength, 
for there is lack of mother's milk." As a matter of fact ADELE GERHARD and 
HELENE SIMON in 1901 counted in Berlin 420 ladies occupied with mental work, 
of whom 156 were unmarried, 57 were married but childless, and of 207 mothers 
only 147 were found with more than one child able to live. In North America 
the proportion of childless marriages is very much higher. 

487. Not only the marriages of the educated middle class, but also the modern 
artisan marriages show a most serious recession of births, or, as EUGEN DUHRING 
has expressed it, " the proletariat are losing their proles." Workers' families 
are nowadays constantly on the move. When travelling, as also when lodging 
in tenement barracks, many children are a hindrance that become costly. So, too. 



S7 

the filthy advertisements in most newspapers, together with modern "enlighten- 
ment " have very much furthered the entry of Neo-Malthusian practices amongst 
the mass of workers. The number of births in the proletarian city of Berlin has 
receded thus : 

For every 1000 married women there were births yearly : 

1870 1875 1880 1885 1890 1895 1900 1905 
222.2 237.9 205.6 179.4 163.7 138.5 127 109.7 

From Berlin the tendency to a lessening of births appears to have spread through 
the neighbouring towns of Schoneberg, Charlottenburg and Potsdam. According 
to the Statistical Year Book of the German cities in 1904 the number of births 
in these towns varied between 20 and 25 per 1000 of the average population, whilst 
in the Roman Catholic manufacturing centres of the Rhine district, such as Dort- 
mund, Bochum, Duisburg, Essen, as well as in the south German cities Niirnberg 
and Mannheim, the births during the same time were as high as 40 to 45 per 1000 
upon the average of the population. 

488. The author proceeds to show that capital cities like Paris and Berlin draw people 
continuously from the surrounding country, whilst their racial productiveness forthwith 
diminishes. He proves by liberal citation of figures the retarding effect thus exercised 
upon the nation as a whole. He quotes the eminent statistician, GEOEG VON MAYB, 
as having remarked : 

489. Until recently there was in France alone anxiety about decline of population. 
But for two decennia almost all civilised states show a considerable diminution 
of births. In Australia, England and the United States the very high rate of increase 
has come to a stop. For Germany this question is of decisive importance for her 
future position in the world." President Roosevelt reproached the American 
people with race-suicide, and he added that when such words "can with justice 
be cast in the teeth of a nation, then that nation must be rotten to its innermost 
core ! ' ' 

490. For every 1000 women in the whole Union between 15 and 49 years of age 
there were children under five years : 

1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 

634 572 559 485 474 

Reckoned by groups of States there were : 

1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 

North Atlantic States 507 518 459 423 373 390 

North Central States 717 717 636 566 495 457 

Western States .. 621 767 667 575 473 439 

South Atlantic States 675 662 599 657 557 560 

South Central States 725 706 645 710 612 596 

The number of children is still high in both Dakotas with their exclusively 
agricultural population, and in Utah, Idaho and New Mexico. The next in order 
are Montana, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. 

491. What the author does not remark is that Wisconsin almost entirely, and the 
others in a large degree, are settled by Germans and other non-Anglo-Saxon peoples. 
Of Wisconsin the population is half as large again as that of Utah, Idaho, New Mexico, 
North Dakota and South Dakota added together. Figures, which are unfortunately not 
so comprehensive as could be desired, indicate that racial decline affects all the time and 
in the most marked degree our Anglo-Saxon race. 



88 

492. A constant reduction in child- wealth since 1850 is manifest where the quickest 
spread of industry was the most observable, as in Michigan, with a drop of 227, 
Ohio minus 227, Illinois minus 309, Indiana minus 340. Just in like manner the 
New England States, New Hampshire, Maine and Vermont have few children, 
as also the neighbouring States New York and Massachusetts, notwithstanding 
that in the former group agriculture preponderates. But these States were the 
first settled. Luxury found general entry there and in like manner the higher 
education of girls, with feminism. 

493. The author might here have added that a constant influx of French Canadians at 
least partially fills the gaps thus caused. Their different views of life and duty cause the 
figures to exhibit a tendency to recovery, whence it follows that the dying race is being 
replaced by the more vigorous. Unless, indeed, the descendants of the Normans should 
throw off the constraints of their religion and the restraints of their morality, to follow 
the same declining course. In the next paragraph Professor Ruhland continues : 



MOVEMENT OF POPULATION IN AUSTRALIA. 

The author, who is a Katheder-Sozialist, visited Australia upon his travels 
and made his own inquiries and observations. 

494. We extract from WOLF'S " Journal of Social Science " (Zeitschrift fiir 
Sozialwissenschaft), 1902, in a paper by EMIL JUNG, the following statements : 
" The abnormal cessation of growth in the Australian population is one of the most 
serious, and for the future of Australia one of the most threatening, facts. By no 
means a long while ago the increase of population was remarkably high. In the 
meantime for every one thousand women the births have fallen in numbers, reckoned 
from 1861 to 1898 : 

New South Wales from 306.1 to 201.2 

Victoria 285.4 193.0 

Queensland (since 1881) 288.0 208.0 

New Zealand 281.5 214.2 

There is nothing to justify the conclusion that this falling away will come to 
a stop. It is doubtful whether Australia will in fifty years count 8,000,000 inhabi- 
tants. Thus those civilised people upon the other side of the ocean, ruled by the 
greed of gold like others upon this side, are condemned to extinction, as in their day 
the nations of Rome and Greece were condemned for the same sin. 

495. Ten years have elapsed since the date of the quoted figures, and the Professor's 
gloomy forecast that the decline would not cease has been more than fulfilled. Still more 
menacing retrogression is herein set forth by our own statistics. And again, " there is 
nothing to justify the conclusion that this falling away will come to a stop." On the 
contrary, a further breaking down of the national tissues is assured. 



89 

AUSTRALIA AS SEEN BY AN AMERICAN MALTHUSIAN. 

496. A lady writer, elsewhere quoted, who is a strong advocate for child-restriction, 
in discussing the argument of some of her countrymen that immigration is an immediate 
cause of racial decline, says : 

497. In that case the United States, which has been almost alone in receiving a 
tremendous immigration in the last eighty years, would be the only nation to 
show a declining birth-rate. The facts are quite otherwise, Australia, where the 
immigration has been slight, and akin to the native white population in blood, 
is lamenting her declining birth-rate. Canada has had a race-suicide problem 
for years in districts where foreigners are practically unknown. Knowledge of 
preventive checks, except among the French Canadians, is almost as widespread 
there as in the United States. 

498. In 1902 a Commission was appointed by the New South Wales Government 
to inquire into the cause of the declining birth-rate in that country. Its report 
stated that in the last thirty years Australia has lost a natural increase of 25,000. 

This a fair sample of the careless writing of the Neo-Malthusians. The Com- 
mission showed that a loss had occurred of one million lives up to 1903. 

499. In 1889 the decline first became marked, being 2.23 per thousand. In 1902 
it was over 10 per thousand. 

There are still worse misquotations, but her conclusion is what interests us, 
and the truth of it we can only admit. 

500. The decrease was artificially created, many witnesses admitting deliberate 
restriction of family. The remedy suggested by the Commission was to bring new 
blood into the country by immigration. Thus, while many Americans regard the 
immigrant as the cause of our declining birth-rate, Australians are looking to him 
to restore their birth-rate, which is similarly declining. 

501 The italics are the lady's own. We did not recommend any such " remedy,'* 
and immigration was only incidentally mentioned. It could not in any sense be a remedy, 
it is only an alternative, and moreover that which is certain to establish itself whether 
by pacific or hostile invasion. 

502. In relation to her remark about Canadian race-suicide by preventive checks 
conjugal frauds she adds : 

I know this to be true from a wide and long acquaintance with British Cana- 
dians. The present BISHOP OF HURON, residing in London, Ontario, preaches so 
frequently against Canadian race-suicide that he is almost as thoroughly identified 
with the question in Canada as is President Roosevelt in this country. Canada, 
like Australia, is encouraging immigration to make up for her small natural increase. 
The French Canadians alone, being devoted Roman Catholics, primitive and simple- 
minded, and given to agricultural pursuits, are extremely prolific. 



THE SCHOOL OF MANCHESTER STILL PREACHES LIMITATION OF FAMILIES. 
"Malthus' Theory is as true as ever." 

503. In a lengthy and typical leading article, the " Westminster Gazette " of 26th 
August, 1908, pronounces as follows. It is apropos of the French natality figures and 



90 

is too long to quote in full. It opens with a unilateral review of the historical aspect, in 
which Free-trade and Protection appear like King Charles' head. We shall once 
again deal with that hallucination. 

604. Fifty years or more elapse, and the thing which all the sages of the previous 

generations had declared to be desirable but impossible begins to come to pass. The 
rate of increase slackens, and in one country at least ceases altogether and gives 
place to decline. Then opinion veers round, and all the world declares simul- 
taneously that this is a most ominous sign. The human instinct asserts itself, and 
life and more life is declared to be the one test of a standing or falling nation. 
That we thoroughly believe to be on the whole a healthy and sound instinct, but 
it needs to be qualified by some olwous common-sense considerations. It is not 
to be supposed that, as limited areas fill up, the rate of increase in their population 
can go on indefinitely as in the early stages. Moreover, civilised men think not 
merely of quantity but of the quality of life. Malthus' theory is as true as ever, 
and his famous word "subsistence " has got a new meaning. Men and women 
are not content with a bare escape from starvation ; the subsistence they demand 
is a comfortable subsistence and the standard of comfort is every year a little higher. 
As they rise from the poverty line they become anxious about their children, 
anxious lest they should be thrown on the world uneducated and unprovided for, 
lest they should fall back into a lower social class. There is for most people only 
one way of securing the children against these risks, and that is to limit their number. 
We see the result most clearly in France, where the standard of comfort and the 
instinct for refinement are, on the whole, at then* highest, where provision for the 
children is a constant object of solicitude to the parents, and where the law of 
inheritance offers a positive inducement not to multiply the numbers among 
whom the French property is divided. It is precisely the characteristic French 
virtues which lead to this result, and France herself suffers for the things in which 
she is an example to the world. 

505. For she does suffer, and there can be no doubt about it. The mere fact that 

universal service makes military power dependent on numbers must weaken her 
position relatively to her neighbours. She may remain first among nations in the 
art of living, but her place among nations must decline if her numbers fall off while 
theirs increase. History warns us, moreover, that the cult of comfort and freedom 
from care defeats itself and weakens the fibre of the country if it becomes the 
main preoccupation of a country. In this perverse world men are undone by their 
virtues as well as by then* vices. A civilisation has somehow to find the compromise 
between recklessness and thrift, poverty and mere comfort, if it is to endure. There 
is no rule to be laid down for any nation, but it is plainly useless for nations possess- 
ing laws which must limit population to complain overmuch because that result 
follows. The sacrifice, which, for instance, France makes through high protection 
to keep her peasant cultivators on the soil may, from her point of view, be worth 
making, but it must limit her popula ion and make life a harder s ruggle for the 
mass of her people. Whether that is a wise choice or an unwise choice, it leads 
inevitably to this conclusion. So it would be with ourselves if we were led to follow 
her example. We have an immensely larger population per square mile, and so 
long as supplies come freely from over-sea, we are far from the limits of possible 
population in this country. But here, as elsewhere, the growth will more and more 
depend on increasing wealth pari passu with the rise in the standard of comfort. 
There is no other formula which will avail anything when the mass of people get 
the idea of comfort into their heads and demand comfortable life for their children 
as well as themselves. 

The insular superiority is again very conspicuous in the foregoing. So are the 
contradictions. 



91 

505 A. " In France the standard of comfort and the instinct for refinement are, on 
the whole, at their highest," yet " high protection. . . . must limit her population 
and make life a harder struggle for the mass of the people." But we are told in the same 
penful of ink, that comfort and freedom from care proceed from limitation of families, 
" the characteristic French virtue." 

606, " In this perverse world men are undone by their virtues as well as by their 
vices." Where the perversity resides is quite plain. It is not of the Universe, nor of its 
Maker, but it is the essence of Malthusian sophistry, exactly now as 100 years ago. 

507. "It is not to be supposed that, as limited areas fill up, the rate of increase in 
their population can go on indefinitely as in the early stages." That is the daring casuistry 
of the Malthus-Manchester School, which obtains acceptance and ensures progressive 
decay, The Malthusian League considered, years ago, that the decline in Anglo-Saxon 
reproduction was so great that it " left little to be desired." But the " Westminster 
Gazette," as representative apologist of the cult, says " Malthus' theory is as true as ever, 
and his famous word ' subsistence ' has got a new meaning." 

508. The " limited areas " of Ireland, Scotland and England are not filling up, any 
more than the " campagnes " of France. In all four countries they are being depopulated. 
In all four they pass out of cultivation, but more especially in the United Kingdom. Yet 
Germany every year subdues more of her own soil. France has unlimited areas in her 
colonial possessions, but the French do not people them. And in that big slice of " this 
perverse world " they are not one bit " undone by their virtues." It is by their vices. 
In the Malthusian apostasy, however, vice and virtue are completely transposed. The 
act of Onan is virtue, the parents of a large family are criminal, and ought to be jailed 
for their vice ! 

509. It was the large families in the former days of Anglo-Saxon prolificacy, who 
populated, very thinly, a fringe of the unlimited areas of the British Empire. Here in 
Australia we average about four persons to three square miles, yet with us Anglo-Saxons 
in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa, " Malthus' theory is as true as 
ever and his famous word ' subsistence ' has got a new meaning !" "Men and women 
are not content with a bare escape from starvation ; the subsistence they demand is a 
comfortable subsistence and the standard of comfort is every year a little higher." Just 
so : therefore the children are shut out from the banquet of life by the methods recom- 
mended of the neo -Malthusian School. Undoubtedly there is a big interim cash saving. 
Of the married Malthusian citizens some have one or two children, whilst an enlarging 
number have none at all, the young ladies making the latter a pre-nuptial stipulation. 
The total " saving " for France, " a characteristic French virtue " is 48,000,000 a year, 
according to their own estimate, as compared with Germany. It is admitted, however, 
that there are sufferings as against the savings. 

510. The Reverend Mr. Malthus and Mrs. Annie Besant, both use the old illustration 
of Scylla and Charybdis. Another, a peculiarly Malthusian figure of speech, is " to stem 
the devastating torrent of babies." Let us keep to the former figure, and say that in 
avoiding by vicious practices the shoals and reefs of " falling into a lower social class." 
the inescapable alternative is to be engulfed in disease and death, physical and 
national. The straight, middle course, is the course of Nature. 

The " Lancet," May, 1906, page 1339, said : 

511. The birth-rate in the Australasian colonies and amongst British-Canadians is 
little higher than that of France, and unless the British become more fertile it is 
doubtful whether the British Empire will long remain British in anything but name. 

And the Paris " Figaro " wrote : 

512. If an increase in the birth-rate does not begin soon in England, she will, in 
sixty years from now, be in as terrible a position as we are. 



92 

613. It will not take sixty years, nor sixteen, for England to arrive at that position, 
thanks to the Neo-Malthusian inculcation, such as that we are now considering. The 
rate has fallen from 38 to 26 and it is an easier fall from 26 to 20, the line of actual 
dissolution. Nor is 20 the limit, as the French will certainly proceed to show. In this 
they are indeed " an example to the world." Here it should be said, and the point is 
of infinite import : the Malthusians never come down to arithmetic in order to state 
what is the limit of their aspirations. 

514. Amongst much that is regrettable, it is to be regretted that Economists now 
attribute the decline in child-life to Protection, in the sense of preferential Customs duties. 
England has a Free-trade policy, and it would be folly to attribute her decline in pro- 
creation to it. We have already proved that persons of both fiscal beliefs practise pre- 
vention. The actual facts of the case are embraced in the following findings of the New 
South Wales Royal Commission, unanimously signed by commissioners who were known 
to have different fiscal opinions. 

Par. 83. The witnesses say that these are : 
i. An unwillingness to submit to the strain and worry of children. 

ii. A dislike of the interference with pleasure and comfort involved in child- 
bearing and child-rearing ; 

iii. A desire to avoid the actual physical discomfort of gestation, parturition 
and lactation ; and 

iv. A love of luxury and social pleasures, which is increasing. 

Par. 84. It will be seen that the reasons given for resorting to limitation have 
one element in common, namely, selfishness. . . . 

Those factors will persist, and time will soon show which is to conquer : Malthus 
and Manchester, or, Nature and Nemesis. 



DIVISION II. 



THE EXAMPLE OF FRANCE 



THE EXAMPLE OF FRANCE. 



515. Later on the reader will see in graphic form under the heading " The Progress 
of Decay," the remarkable relation between the two peoples in respect of their common 
decline. The fluctuations, year by year for a decade together, are parallel, save that 
there is a constant inclination on the part of England to overtake France in the downward 
path. The separating distance between the two is now small indeed. 

516. The curious may investigate the causes of this singular parallelism, for which 
we have not here the space. It would seem an idle research, for the causes of the decline 
itself in each case are herein fully set forth. France affords us a mirror in which to see 
our present position, and thus supplies a prognosis of our disease. Hence the reader is 
invited to an elaborate, almost an exhaustive, study of our neighbour's case, which I 
have compiled at heavy cost of time, trouble and travel. 



LA QUESTION DE LA POPULATION ET LA CIVILISATION DEMOCRATIQUE. 

517. An article in the " Revue des Deux Mondes," by PAUL LEROY-BEATTLIEF, of 
the French Academy of Moral Sciences, 15th October, 1897. 

Eleven years ago ! A long time when it is a matter of depopulation, but a 
very short time in the upward development of a nation. The word of a true savant 
is well worth the attention of statesmen and of all who can favourably influence society, 
as against the sciolists of a past generation who have been so rashly accepted as seers 
and prophets. 

(TRANSLATION). 

518. Never was there a time when so much has been written upon the grave problem 
of the increase or decrease of population the most important for humanity in 
general, and for each nation in particular as during the last few years, and even 
the last few months. Besides the grand work of M. LEVASSEUR, the most extensive 
and the most detailed that has appeared upon this subject since the celebrated 
treatise of MALTHUS, that is to say for a century, we have under our eyes various 
French and foreign books, some comprehensive and some succinct, in which the 
question of population has been studied with a sort of passion. Let us mention : 
" Population and the Social System," by Signer FRANCESCO NITTI, professor at 
the University of Naples, an able, erudite and systematic writer, not devoid of 
partiality towards the men and the doctrines which represent the socialising 
Economists. And " Viriculture, " by M. G. de Molinari, the ingenious and subtle 
Economist whom we know so well and who is so satisfied in his belief that pure 

, Political Economy suffices for everything ; that it dominates by itself the whole 
world ; that it has no need of any auxiliary ; that all the moral sciences are de- 
pendent upon it ; and that the " law of supply and demand," if only allowed freely 
to operate, carries with it a prompt and infallible solution for every social difficulty. 

519. The article is much too long to quote, or even because of its laborious citation 
of figures, facts and progressions to summarise. But the perception and the foresight 



96 

of the author are most remarkable. A few paragraphs must suffice. We shall see 
when we remember that he deals with figures of quite 14 years ago, how hopeless the notion 
would be of disguising from the world to-day the certitude of our own racial declension 
and national danger. 

520. After reviewing the position of England for three centuries, her rural life, her 
small towns, her slight manufacture, he relates her marvellous expansion during the 
former half of the nineteenth century after the Napoleonic wars and the conquests of 
that time. He tells of her abundant growth in population, the foundation of her immense 
manufacturing industry ; how the latter attracted a continuous concourse of people 
into towns and into centres that are destined to become in their turn towns and cities. 

521 . He treats of the economic revolution and the pauperisation which was permitted 
to and which did accompany it. 

There was a good deal of discussion about the causes of human miseries. 
Most of the writers of the time made government and society responsible for the 
troubles, and of these writers, one in particular, GODWIN, was well appreciated, 
but he owes chiefly to his celebrated adversary (Malthus) the little notoriety which 
remains to him. Wealth was badly divided they said, the government did not 
take up as it ought the defence of the poorer classes. Then appeared Malthus, 
who in a most sensational book, his "Essay upon the Principle of Population," 
of which the first edition was in the form of a pamphlet of moderate size, but 
written with an audacious and provocative candour, substituted for the thesis of 
Godwin an entirely new theory. This humble country parson, aged 32 years, 
announced with a vigour of expression which has never been surpassed, that the 
great culprit, the essential cause of misery, was human prolificacy. 

522. Had it been presented in simple and colourless terms, this proposition would 
only have had a trifling effect, but it was launched upon the world with an explosion 
and in a sort of fury. It possessed a brutality of imagery and also an array of rigid 
and precise formulae which could not leave the reader unaffected. And it was 
done in such fashion that everybody had to declare for or against the author's 
theory. We all know his two famous progressions : subsistences tending to 
augment in arithmetical progression and population in geometrical ; how the 
equilibrium is ceaselessly interrupted ; and how it can only approximately re- 
establish itself by the action of repressive or of destructive checks, that is to say 
of poverty or of premature death. To have it otherwise, the population must 
consent to use preventive checks, which are of two natures, moral restraint or vicious 
practices. Malthus energetically recommends the former and condemns with 
equal vigour the latter. 

523. These two progressions, and these two categories of checks, made the success 
of Malthus' book, very much more than the calculations borrowed from Petty, 
Franklin, Euler, and Price, or the meagre and insufficient statistics which 
he added to them. One passage of the first edition also contributed to the 
prodigious reverberation made by this Essay : [liere is quoted the Christian 
clergyman's pronouncement about the " banquet of life " as arranged by the 
Creator. Vide pars. 101-2]. % 

524. The success was immediate and resounding. Political parties in England 
seized upon this theory of Malthus, Conservatives and Liberals, whilst anti-socialists 
or anti-reformists also appropriated it. Once for all, according to him, the cause 
of poverty was found out ; laws were impotent to do any tiling against it ; it was 
the brutal sexual passion to which the people abandoned themselves that was 
solely responsible for the sufferings of the lower classes. There was nothing 
more to do than to preach " moral restraint." 



97 

525. The author finds fault with Signer Nitti for accusing Malthus of " Conservatism," 
and with the Soc alists for denouncing him and all others who do not adopt their doctrines. 
Nitti speaks of Malthus' gospel as " a fragile political edifice set up by the audacious 
parson of Haileybury." He relegates this powerful work to the class of writings which 
are only a " constant effort to legitimise certain interests and to defend certain abuses." 

526. M. Leroy-Beaulieu displaj^s by figures, which are herein supplied from official 
sources in clear and concise form, the gradual decline in French natality down to actual 
diminution of population, during the whole quinquennium 1890 to 1894. 

527. This position of the population of France, at the very least stationary, if not 
actually diminishing, would have thoroughly astonished Malthus, because he just 
exactly relied upon our country to establish his thesis. 

528. In a curious passage of his book Malthus depicts a France which, from the 
demographic point of view, forms a complete contrast with the France of our days. 
" At all times in France," he writes, " the number of men at the military age has 
been small in proportion to the population." At the present moment, on the 
contrary, they form in our case a much greater proportion than elsewhere of the 
number of inhabitants. And he adds a remark curious in the extreme, because 
it is in flat contradiction to actual observation. Malthus says : " There have 
always been in France a great number of small farms and little landholders. This 
state of things is not very favourable to increase of net products or the available 
national wealth ; but sometimes it increases the gross product, and it has always 
a strong tendency to encourage population." Assuredly, prolonged experience 
has belied this conclusion of Malthus. Very far indeed from the multiplicity of 
small farms and of little landholders developing human prolificacy, in recent years 
it has assuredly restricted it. 

529. M. Leroy-Beaulieu then draws attention to a pamphlet written by himself in 
1887 in which he pointed out that : 

The example of France and of that part of the United States called New 
England, appears to indicate that, given a certain degree of wealth under the in- 
spiration of democratic sentiments, the tendency of population to increase becomes 
excessively feeble. It is nowhere shown that the other countries of the world 
will not one day approach the position of France, and have like her a stationary 
population. Since then, attentive observation of contemporary demographic 
phenomena in the various civilised countries, has repeatedly led us to confirm 
our doctrine ; and we may consider as demonstrable and demonstrated : that 
democratic civilisation is opposed to prolificacy ; that gradually all civilised 
peoples, in proportion as the democratic idea shall penetrate their lower ranks, 
will witness their births diminish towards the rate of France. Already this 
tendency to proportional reduction of births is much accentuated in England, 
in Switzerland, in Belgium, in Scandinavia, and in the United States of America. 
The most cautious and most exact observers, M. EMILB LEVASSEUE in France, 
Mr. MARSHALL in England, Signer NITTI in Italy, Mr. ROBERT B. PORTER, super- 
intendent of the census of 1890 in the United States, without actually separating 
with exactitude the grand depressive influence upon natality, namely the democratic 
sentiment, agree in declaring that the case of France is not isolated ; that our 
country has probably merely outstripped the others ; and that many nations are 
marching along the same road. The comparative examination of the movements 
of population in the principal countries, will furnish evident proof. 

530. He then shows by figures how natality has diminished in some of the nations of 
Western Europe. The reader will remember that the date is 1897. 

The greatest and most striking change France being left to one side is 
offered by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The country which 



93 

experienced such an enormous increase since the beginning of this century is now 
in the way of manifest decrease of natality. True, the rate is still pretty satis- 
factory, especially if we compare it with that of France, but it is strikingly lower 
not only than the rate at the commencement of the century, but even than that 
of 20 to 25 years ago. 

531. He shows how the rate has fallen from 36.4 in England, year 1876, to 29.6 per 
1000 of population. It is now 26.2 and constantly weakening, with certitude of further 
fall. He says that although the rate of 29.6 compares well with 22.5 that of France 
the fact of a considerable and continuous decrease in British natality for a quarter of a 
century is undeniable. 

532. That which masks this phenomenon in the eyes of very many people, is that 
the absolute number of births in Great Britain has not yet diminished, and that 
up to the present hour it is only the rate of natality which is reduced. That is 
why births still remain every year more numerous than deaths. When we say 
that the absolute number of births in the United Kingdom has not fallen away, 
we are not completely exact. If we consult the tables of the " Statistical Abstract " 
for the years 1881 to 1895, we find that in the first five years of this period the total 
number of births in the United Kingdom was 5,697,930, and that in the five latest 
years, 1891 to 1895, they were only 5,697,664, being thus a trifle lower. Of course 
we don't deny that the difference is slight, and from the absolute point of view, 
insignificant ; but from the relative point of view it has, on the contrary, a most 
precise significance, because in the former period the mean population of the United 
Kingdom was only 35,446,000 souls, and in the latter it was raised to 38,450,000. 

533. If the author had taken the figures for England and Wales alone, he would have 
shown for the former period 4,464,398 and for the latter period 4,425,840 births, a falling 
off of 38,558 lives. Although true it is not very illustrative. 

534. In spite of the 3,000,000 more inhabitants, the actual number of births was 
considerably reduced. This direction being given to the movement of population 
in England, it is infinitely probable [which means nothing else than dead certainty] 
that it will be accentuated, and we must expect to see the actual figure of births 
gradually reduced in the near future. 

535. The whole Anglo-Saxon race is in the same plight ; it is through an old 
preconceived notion that we regard this race as very prolific. It was once, but 
it has ceased to be so. 

536. M. Leroy-Beaulieu then cites Signer BODIO, the Italian Government statis- 
tician often quoted in this Report, and his figures, in relation to Anglo-Saxon decline 
in the New England States, remarking that these figures are the only ones available. I 
have preferred, however, to study and to quote directly from the United States authorities. 
He shows how the natality was only 24, 25, 26, 27 in these States, and adds " concerning 
Massachusetts the low birth-rate is so much the more striking because it relates to a manu- 
facturing country, where French-Canadians abound, who, we know well, are very prolific 
in their own country but take on other morals in the United States." 

537. Now that is a hazardous conclusion if without positive information, which it 
does not seem from the context that the author possessed. President ROOSEVELT was 
good enough to converse with me freely upon the subject of our race in New England, and 
I also made in Massachusetts inquiries from well-informed sources. Besides, we have 
literature from close observers in America and elsewhere upon this very point, and the 
sum of the information is not enough to justify the above-stated conclusion. We are 
rather driven by the very carefully collated figures quoted in Vol. 1, and by general in- 
formation, to conclude that our Anglo-Saxon race is dying faster in New England than 
anywhere else, not even excepting parts of Ontario, New Zealand, South Australia, 
Victoria, or parts of Lancashire and Yorkshire. 



99 

538. That is not to say that the rate of decline in portions of England, of Canada, 
or of Australasia is not as rapid as in New England, but only that our race in the last 
named is in a more advanced stage of decay. We have the figures to show that in part 
of New England there are five burials to four births of the native-born, and of these the 
greater part will be Anglo-Saxon. As elsewhere remarked the fecundity of the Canadian- 
French part of the population not only prevents the birth-rate falling still lower in New 
England, but apparently is the cause of actual improvement in recent years. But, 
notwithstanding that, as the general rate there is so low, we have only too much reason to 
suspect that the Gospel of Malthus according to Dr. KNOWLTON, and according to ROBERT 
DALE OWEN, firstly printed in America to spread the good tidings of Neo-Malthusianism, 
has such vogue that its devotees are well advanced to extinction. Doctor STIRLING 
POMEROY of Boston, author of the admirable book " Ethics of Marriage " assured 
me that a prominent Christian Church, by their official newspaper, editorially recommended 
the artificial restriction of families and further that within his actual personal knowledge 
clergymen practised, to their own family ruin, artificial methods of prevention of con- 
ception. (Par. 1818). Nothing is more obvious than that their wives would be ardent 
disseminators of the " gospel," and of that also we are assured by parallel evidence. 
Success of the teaching is synonymous with racial decline, but there is besides the moral, 
mental and physical decay from which it is hard to imagine recovery. Where the mother 
of a " family " impresses her daughter with the duty and sanctity of child-suppression, 
how much probability is there of the daughter having a child at all ? It is therefore 
only too easy to understand how very fine couples, products of centuries of heredity 
amongst clean-living and natural people, should have no children, though to external 
appearance they are healthy and normal persons. Meeting them, or merely seeing them, 
it is difficult to repress regret that they are perpetrating a very real form of suicide, 
exactly as did the handsome Roman women of whom history tells us. And these modern 
women who flatter themselves that they " know what to do," are in their ignorance 
unaware that the most popu'ar preventives which they buy in dozens from their chemists 
are almost identical with what the Roman women bought from their chemists. But 
regret is meaningless, and we see the successful replacing of the race going on before our 
eyes. When President Roosevelt said to me " Do you know that there are fewer 
descendants of the revolutionary forefathers living now than there were fifty years ago ? " 
I replied " I'm sorry to hear that, Mr. President, they were surely the back-bone of the 
country." " What ! " he exclaimed, indignantly, " you call them the back-bone of 
the country and that's the sort of thing they do ! " 

639. The very newest British societies, situated at the antipodes, do not offer at the 

present moment any greater fecundity (than the Americans). They have known 
a time when their population proved itself prolific, but those days are over. For 
the seven colonies of this group, New Zealand included, the births relatively to 
the whole population attained the high rate of 38 per 1000 in 1871 ; they were no 
more than 36 in 1881, and they fell further to 34 in 1891. Finally, for the six 
principal colonies (figures are wanting for the smallest, Western Australia), the 
total number of births was only 121,228 for a population of 4,180,000 souls. Say 
a birth-rate of 28.6 per 1000, materially lower than that of the mother country. 
The great characteristic trait is the feeble natality of New Zealand, the most democratic 
country of the entire world, where feminism flourishes, and where socialistic ex- 
periments are multiplied. From 46 per 1000 in 1871, natality fell to 38 in 1881, 
then to 29 in 1891, and to 27 in 1895, although New Zealand escaped the financial 
crisis which raged three or four years ago all over Australia, properly so called. 

540. Dealing with a long list of causes, some of which are more accurately called 
factors of infecundity, he considers that the diversification of amusements, " especially 
in Anglo-Saxon countries, is certainly a material cause of decline in natality ; and that 
which is called feminism (woman's rights movement) shows itself now, and will show 
itself more and more, to be a formidable adversary of fecundity." 



100 

541. The great causes of the decline in natality [why is it not called straight oat 
racial decline ?] are for the one part the weakening of religions beliefs, and for the 
other the new democratic conception of society and of the family. The most 
prolific French provinces are those which have preserved the closest fidelity to 
ancient beliefs : Brittany, and the Flemish cantons of our department of the Nord. 
Even so determined a free-thinker as Signor Nitti recognises the action of religious 
sentiment upon natality. The influence of religion upon the birth-rate is very 
evident, and enters into the large and complex category of psychic and moral 
influences. " The object of all religions is to direct souls towards a distant end, 
that of individual salvation. . . . Religion leads, moreover, to belief in 
Providential intervention, and impels races to fecundity." . . . 

542. It is true that Signor Nitti makes some reserves in this subject on account 
of the favour shown by Catholic doctrine to ecclesiastical or monastic celibacy. 
But these reserves are of little importance. As a matter of fact, the peoples who 
have remained profoundly faithful to the Roman Catholic religion, both Italian 
and Spanish peasants, have a natality which is almost equal to that of the Germans, 
and which surpasses by a long way that of the Anglo-Saxons, Scandinavians, 
and Swiss. The Catholic religion, more even than any of the others, teaches man 
resignation to his lot, condemns selfishness, and dissuades from ambition, even 
when legitimate. In other words, it exalts the sentiment which tends to render 
families numerous, and it reproves those which tend to lessen the number of children. 
Finally it shows inexorable severity towards all fraudulent practices which tend to 
diminish the fecundity of marriages. If religious precepts were observed in marriage, 
French natality, in place of being restricted to 850,000 or 880,000 births a year, 
would instantly rise to 1,200,000 at least. 

>43. Eleven years ago ! A long time, be it again said, during the period of decay. 
Not only is nothing done to preserve, or to restore that which makes for justice and for the 
actual vitality of the French nation, but nothing is done to check the further depravation 
of morals. The carcinoma is spreading fast, neo-Malthusian literature is multiplied, 
our English inventions for the prevention of conception are manufactured in France 
or imported on a larger scale than ever ; manoeuvres of abortion are increasingly practised. 
The revised gospel which bears the name of the parson of Haileybury proceeds from success 
to success. The Roman form of Christian faith is subjected in France to ever-increasing 
repression, whilst the preservative influence ascribed to it by actual opponents, as well 
as by those who merely reject it Nitti, Bertilion, Ars^ne Dumont, de Molinari, Gamier 
and many others is more and more counteracted. The patient refuses and derides the 
only medicine so far discoverable, namely, some form of Christian faith. And his own 
doctors declare that his dissolution is at hand. M. Leroy-Beaulieu now knows that in 
the interval of eleven years, short in ascension, long in decay, there are 100,000 fewer 
new lives per annum in France. Instead of 880,000 there were only 770,000 in the year 
1907. He knows that each year, in an inevitably accelerating ratio, there are fewer 
possible mothers, because the average age of the female population is rising all the time. 

So in England and Wales there were : 

year 1876 . . population 24,370,000 . . births 888,000 
year 1906 . . population 34,547,000 . .births 935,000 
At the birthrate of year 1876 there would have been 1,258,000 

544. That is to say, an increase of 10,000,000 people was accompanied by an increase 
of only 47,000 children. Comparing the rate of production of 1906 with that of 30 years 
before, there is a falling off of 323,000 lives in one year. 

Stating France in the same way : 

year 1876 . . population 36,830,000 . . births 976,000 
year 1906 . . population 39,260,000 . . births 807,000 
At the birthrate of year 1876 there would have been 1,031,000 



101 

545. Comparing the rate of 1906 with that of 30 years before, there is a falling off 
of 224,000 lives. 

546. Thus we see that there is rapid decay in both nations, whilst that of England ia 
the more accelerated. The piling up of old lives in both does not help either. It disguises 
the decline to unreflecting people, for the death-rate has practically nothing to do with 
the calculation. Die, all must. You cannot, in downright reality, reduce deaths by 
even a unit. But births are reduced by the hundred thousand. To suppose that 
England can " afford " compared with her manner of life only one generation ago, to 
lose every year three hundred thousand lives that could have been born, is sheer sanguine 
stupidity. And when these are lost, a nation cannot change opinions and practices 
so as to pick up the children later. Not only are they gone for ever, but the progeny 
that would have been gained from them later is also lost, whilst the mean age of the 
population is seriously raised. In addition, the quality of the accidental or of the per- 
mitted progeny is profoundly lowered, according to authorities. 

547. At present, all the nations which surround us and which are impregnated 
with the democratic ideal, are on the road to the same infecundity. The very 
heavy reduction in the birth-rate in England supplies the proof. This fall in 
British fertility, as we have seen above, is incontestable ; all serious writers agree 
upon that. The drop in the British birth-rate from 35 or 36 per 1000 inhabitants 
a quarter of a century ago, to less than 30 per 1000 to-day [in eleven years it has 
further fallen to 26 and under], is attributed by Signer Nitti to the public preaching 
in England by a number of pretended philanthropists. They call themselves 
Malthusians, or neo-Malthusians, although they counsel practices which Malthus 
rejected with horror. These propagandists of conjugal sterility were, in the 
first place, Mr. Charles Bradiaugh and Mrs. Annie Besant, who since are 
said to have returned to different sentiments. They counselled more or less 
directly and completely the manosuvres which we are bound to say it are used 
in those very countries where conjugal fertility, taken all round, is feeble. Certain 
theorists who improperly hide themselves behind the virtuous Malthus, friend of 
chastity only have written regular treatises upon this subject. 

548. Here, in a note, M. Leroy-Beaulieu mentions by name a book written by " a 
doctor of medicine " issued anonymously, but openly stated to be from the hand of an 
English physician who was a prominent officer of the Malthusian League founded by 
Bradiaugh and Besant. It extols, in florid eloquence, open and ordinary street prostitution 
as the highest virtue, and claims for abandoned women that adoration and veneration 
which has hitherto been accorded to saintly persons whose works of charity and sacrifice 
proceeded from self-denial and devotion to divine impulse. Those other acts which the 
consensus of civilised mankind has regarded for thousands of years as filthy and de- 
structive vices, sometimes under the penalty of death, are praised and recommended to 
general practice. The man's name and the book will not be mentioned, but it received 
all furtherance from the Malthusian League and its officers, as set forth in part I. of 
this report, and it was issued under the League's auspices, as they themselves claim. 
[t is only one of a series, destructive in the extreme to national and family life. With 
other licentious literature, described to the Joint Committee of 1908, presided over by 
LORD BEAUCHAMP (par. 232), as enjoying an " enormous sale," the morals of the British 
nation generally, and especially of young married women, are being subjected to more 
comprehensive corrosion than of any people at any time in history. The effect aimed 
at by the Malthusians and their literary collaborators is that which is being rapidly 
attained, namely, collapse of national reproduction. It wilFtake something more than 
"fines not exceeding forty shillings " to stop that literature and to counteract its too 
successful inculcation. Of that something, of any national awakening to our extreme 
danger, there is as yet not the faintest glimmer. The whole evidence of the Parliamentary 



102 

Commission just alluded to shows that demoralisation proceeds upon a scale to which 
the worst phase of pagan Rome that of its most rapid decay could not present a com- 
parison. 

649. There was no organisation in Rome to see that women generally were informed 
where to buy cheap sensual stories and treatises upon conjugal frauds. There was no 
development of the " inevitable law of supply and demand " whereby married women 
who did bear children were supplied with pamphlets "on an enormous scale " warning 
them from bearing any more children and offering cheap means of prevention and abortion. 
It is fortunate that we have the evidence of high officers of public departments chiefs 
of police, of the postal department, and others as to the wickedness, else it would be 
incredible. I had obtained evidence as to the extent of the criminality, besides that set 
forth in Vol. I., of these crimes in detail against the national life, but was loth to present 
it for that very reason its incredibility. Even now its deep significance will scarcely 
be perceived by British people, but a very few more years will inscribe it with an iron 
pen and lead in the rock, for ever. 

Leroy-Beaulieu continues : 

550. We do not believe that these exhortations, the books and the public conferences 
of Mr. Bradlaugh and Mrs. Besant could alone have had so profound an action 
upon the English population. But a social grouping of singular importance 
contributed and every day contributes still more by its general spirit and its 
propaganda to reduce British fecundity : and that is the Trades-Unions. The 
democratic ideal that they set up for themselves, which consists in the raising 
of wages, the reduction in the number of apprentices, the ascension of the working- 
class to the position of the middle-class (bourgeoisie) is in opposition to fecundity. 
A very perspicacious contemporary English economist, Mr. MARSHALL, after 
admitting that the census of 1891 shows " a great falling-off in the rate of increase 
of population in England," finds the causes of it in the new state of mind of the 
British artisans, analogous to that of the United States ; the skilled English 
workman makes it a point to keep aloof from the burden of a large family. The 
Trades Unions contribute more and more to spread that state of mind. 

551. If that statement be true, there is no evidence supplied by M. Leroy-Beaulieu, 
nor in the writings of any of the demographers, that I am able to discover. No mention 
appears to be made by Levasseur in his monumental work. Certainly no consideration 
is given to it therein, for no heading is supplied even in the smallest subdivision. And 
yet Levasseur is indefatigable, and his breadth of view in human affairs knows no limits. 

552. British Trades-Unions have been abundantly accused of Socialism, and as large 
minorities that sometimes became majorities have claimed the word as defining their 
political position, and as the Socialist writers are the only political school who have 
specifically refused the alleged facts and denounced the teachings of the Malthusians, 
we cannot recognise the fairness of Leroy-Beaulieu's conclusion. But his sincerity need 
not be doubted. It must be always remembered that Malthusian politics, as such, 
child-restriction as a necessity of civilisation, conjugal checks as a political cult, are of 
English origin and inculcation, so that by universal consent they bear amongst civilised 
nations an English name only, " Malthusian " or " Neo-Malthusian." Similar practices 
by obliterated or by savage nations are not here dealt with, for they were considered by 
the Malthusian prophets themselves in their books, and used as supporting arguments. 
The writings of one or other of the HOLYOAKES are quoted by Gamier and Molinari as 
advocating conjugal checks, but their or other individual opinions cannot weigh as against 
the denunciations by Socialists generally. If representative statements in favour of 
these frauds have ever been made by trade unions, it is highly remarkable that they have 
not been seized upon by friends or foes and published. 



103 

553. We have seen how the newspaper of the Railway Employees' Union in England 
advertised some years ago instruments and means of sensuality, as severely denounced 
by the medical journals. This year (1908) a prominent pressman, on one of the great 
London dailies, drew my attention to the very same newspaper. I told him that the 
"British Medical Journal " had exposed this villany in burning terms of reproach, 
lamenting that so fine a body of people, the very strength of the nation, should be so 
exposed for the sake of commercial gain to corruption and decay. He had not heard of 
that expose, but assured me that the latest copies contained the same infamy. In that, 
unfortunately, the trade-union paper does not differ from " society " magazines, also 
under the control of, and being the property of, politicians. 

554. What M. Leroy-Beaulieu may have confused with trades-unionism is the vitality 
figures of mutual associations such as the " Hearts of Oak " and the " Royal Standard " 
benefit societies. There we find that the number of children born has fallen away in 
spite of provision made for mothers, in the course of a few years by one-half. Amongst 
twelve hundred thousand British people, in one society, the cloud of annihilation has 
advanced more than half-way to racial extinction, as shown by Mr. Sidney Webb from 
the Society's statistics. The involution of decay ensures further involution as a mere 
arithmetical calculation. Individual members of trades-unions have accepted the 
Malthusian " gospel." it cannot be denied, but the latter is still short of their official 
recognition and it is incredible that any trade-union would grant it, or even listen to the 
proposal. The mischief is ruinous enough, but such a calamity would put hope out of 
doors. 



DEPOPULATION FROM THE SOCIALIST-COMMUNIST STANDPOINT. 
LA DEPOPULATION DE LA FRANCE. 

By DR. PAX SALVAT, Pharmacologist and Pathologist at the Faculty of Medicine, 
Lyon, France, 155 pp., 8vo., Paris, 1903. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

555. In all times, legislators, moralists, philosophers, economists and hygienists have interested them- 
selves in the exciting problem of population, and have exercised their sagacity in searching out its 
factors. For the last fifteen years, especially since the cry of alarm uttered by orthodox economists 
upon the alleged depopulation of France, a whole luxuriant efflorescence tf publications has emerged 
which would fill by themselves a vast library . . . Some persons may perhaps raise the objection, 
with a semblance of reason, that in the course of our work we have appeared too often to forget to 
sustain a thesis of social hygiene. This forge tfulness is onlv apparent. Putting aside all prepossessions 
let the reader grant us patience . . . and after having entirely studied our work, he will recognise that 
the authoi has never lost sight of the noble social role that his medical studies have called upon him 
to fulfil. We could not, without decapitating our work, confine ourselves to the research and the 
discussion of factors relating to hygiene ; this narrow exclusiveness is incompatible with the profound 
study of social phenomena. In order that these problems should receive a solution, it is indispensable 
to face all the factors at once, to co-ordinate them and to c^asp the importance o* their several r?lat ; OMs. 
Hence the absolute necessity of our frequent incursions into the other branches of science biology, 
sociology; political economy, and philosophy. 

556. In exercising thus our activity upon subjects which appear at first sight foreign to the medical 
art, we have obeyed the dicta of honoured masters. These few lines of Senator PAUL STRAUSS (pars. 
890-1) would suffice to justify us, "Poverty, alcoholism, sweating, enfeebled resistance, prepare 
the soil for disease : the conditions of life, of lodging, of work, create predispositions and detennino 
a receptivity which itself is avoidable. That is to say, to speak properly and without megalomania, 
the competence of the hygienist extends itself beyond bis particular domain, and he has a word to 
say, an opinion to formulate, upon economic data which seems most remote from the customary object 
of his studies." (Paul Strauss, " La Croisade Sanitaire." 1902). 



i04 

657. We shall add to this that no one more than the medical man has the right and the duty to occupy 
himself with what is to become of humanity. " We may hope," says Professor AUGAONBUB of Lyons 
(Discourse at the 25th Anniversary of the Faculty of Medicine of Lyons, 1902) " that in constituting 
a better, stronger and sweeter society we may cause to disappear almost entirely those sufferings which 
result from social inequality and injustice. But there will always remain a mass of pain and suffering 
resulting from the conflict of the human organism with natural forces or with other human beings ; 
so much so, that if the role of the sociologist could one day be fulfilled and have no longer anything 
more than historical importance, the role of the physician would be eternal, because to suffer from 
disease is one of the fatalities of human nature." 

558. In presenting this work we have assuredly no pretension to solve the problei i of depopulation. 
We desire solely to say at what angle of vision we view the question, to find out all the factors, negative 
and positive, and to study their mode of action. 

559. Some will reproach us for not furnishing any immediate solution applicable to our present society. 
You might as well find fault with a child because he could not walk at his birth. Others will smile 
at the hoped-for solution and exclaim " Utopia '" We shall reply, with ANATOLE FRANCE, that 
" it is Utopia which has caused societies to progress " and that " if there bad never been any Utopians 
we should still be livin? in caves." To-day's Utopia becomes to-morrow's reality. Finally, others 
will find reason to be wounded in their convictions or their faith. We shall regret that, but shall 
continue in the road thus freely chosen, preferring to be amongst those who " taking little account 
of paltry profit, proceed disinterestedly to the conquest of the era now approaching, in which Justice, 
Liberty, Equality and Fraternity shall pass from words into facts and shall substitute themselves 
for the cruelties of social strife." 

560. The above words are selected because of the claim of and for the physician. 
It cannot be too often repeated that infinite credit, an inextinguishable debt of gratitude, 
is due by all those who long to preserve the sound part of our race, to the representative 
authorities of the healing professions. They in chief out of those who could claim to be 
qualified, have warned the French and English peoples of their imminent perils. There 
can be no mistake about their diagnosis nor of the one cure that is recommended. I claim 
to have made penetrating research, and nothing else is claimed beyond that, excepting 
faithful presentation of the results. The centre and sum of the whole recipe of these men 
is return to Nature and to moral principle. When all is done with quackery, in the last 
resort the sufferer from mortal disease either goes to the healer in his hospital or gets him 
to the home. It has been the duty of the healer-physician, surgeon, alienist, hygienist, 
pathologist to study like troubles in advance, and to warn and guide and help. It is 
their earned and deserved prerogative to do as much for the nation, and, accordingly, 
they have done it for France, as they are doing it for England and the declining Anglo- 
Saxon race. They tell us what we are doing, they tell us whither we are going, they tell 
us what to do. Their own principles and practices as a profession, apart from individual 
defects and lapses, are not only the soundest tissue in our society, but are the closest ap- 
proximation to the example and precept of the Divine Exemplar. Undeniably there are 
faithless and corrupt men, who are also clever, amongst them, but assuredly the corruption 
is not from the core. If it were, the gloom would be impenetrable. 

561. * We have it straight from the lips of the appointed French authorities to-day 
that France is in her agony, she cannot be saved it is " Finis Galliae." These are their 
own physicians' words, and no doubt their English friends regret it. But regret is a purely 
negative quality, and the Englishman, the Anglo-Saxon everywhere, has to look straight 
at the fact that his natality is at the point now, this very day and year, where the French 
race was when DR. BERGERET poured out his honest soul in pleadings with his countrymen. 
They did not heed him then, they do not heed now that thirty years have passed, and 
the French nation sinks to its inevitable end. They have fewer young lives and more old 
lives, fewer strong and more weak, fewer sane and more insane, fewer infants and more 
invalids. They have fewer women who can bear children, fewer who do bear children, 
fewer who will bear children. They have a less proportion of males, consequently more 
females who cannot have husbands. Now all favoritism to the males, bad in itself for a 
nation, cannot prevent the heavier toll that death demands from the male population 
at all ages of life. 



105 

562. "It is death by chloroform, but death all the same" (Par. 781). And our 
race and nation follows in their track, step by step, without omitting one, only that our 
place in the descent is half as fast again. Moreover, we produced and promulgated the 
antichristian gospel, ours were the first preachers and teachers, we put them in Parliament 
and erected statues to them. We formed associations to teach methods of child-prevention 
to men and women, and they claim to have established successful branches amongst 
foreign nations for the same " culture." We allow factories to exist in England and 
Australia to prepare spermatocidal suppositories which are freely displayed and sold 
throughout our own territories. Those articles have no other use and are well known 
to have no other use, and no pretext for their manufacture, sale, and use, than the preven- 
tion of human progeny. We allow books, pamphlets and circulars, with detailed illus- 
trations and descriptions of the sexual organs and of the generative functions, to be freely 
advertised and sold. They are carried by the Postal Department. I have supplied to 
Parliament, in Vol. I., photographic reproductions of advertisements of the things together 
with advertisements of notoriously filthy and obscene literature. These are printed in 
our ordinary political newspapers and they go into our homes. We are sowing seed 
to the flesh all the time as a nation, for our laws allow these things, and as a nation we 
are reaping, and must continue to reap, corruption. 

563. As in all works upon demography and especially upon depopulation, MALTHTJS 
comes in for the most prominent place. So Dr. Salvat reviews the Malthusian doctrine 
originally as propounded, and derivatively as expanded and taught by his disciples. It 
would be mere repetition to follow him at length. 

Dr. Salvat proceeds : 

564. To remedy the excess of population and to abolish poverty, Malthus proposes to retard pro- 
creation in marriages, which he calls " moral restraint." [That was when Great Britain had less 
than 10 million people.] 

The Malthusian doctrine, integral or partial, had an immense reverberation in England, in 
Germany, in Italy and in France ; Eicardo, J. Stuart Mill, Darwin himself, admit it. fin one place 
Charles Darwin plainly states objections to the practice of Malthusianism, but I cannot recall anything 
to justify Dr. Salvat's statement]. 

565. We shall not count as emigrants the 70,000 French established in Canada in 1760 and who to-day 
number 2,500,000, as many in the Dominion as in the United States. Their augmentation is derived, 
as the Abbe Tanguay has proved, from their intrinsic growth ; they have multiplied themselves thirty- 

' two times by doubling themselves every quarter of a century, thanks to economic conditions. 

French emigration does not surpass 25,000 persons annually, and this figure is very largely 
compensated by immigration ; we may neglect it in the reckoning of population. 

566. Dr. Salvat's theory as to " economic conditions " is not supported by facts, 
because the Anglo-Saxons of Canada, whose reproduction is only one half that of their 
fellow citizens of French descent, are under the same economic conditions exactly. So 
they are in Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts, where the French have pro- 
proportionately nearly three times as many children as the citizens of English descent. 
Again, we know how we ourselves are in Australia. . 

567. NATALITY, (page 24). The most stricken of all is England, which loses annually close upon 
200,000 births. Her population augments, because she is able to save, thanks to measures of social 
hygiene, about 200.000 deaths a year. A proved fact still more important for us is that this diminution 
of natality in Europe follows a course much more rapidly descending in England than in France. True, 
their population still increases, but much less quickly than 30 years ago. But we have no reason to 
rejoice over that, because we occupy the lowest rank in the tables of natality, with 23 births (now 
less than 20) per 1000 inhabitants, whilst the average of Europe is 38.2. 

568. Here is the brutal fact : emigration and nuptiality have been put out of the case as to the depopu- 
lation of France. Henceforward before having even studied the mortality, we are in a position to 
affirm that the principal factor of the depopulation is our feeble natality ; as it has been jocularly 
remarked, " The baby is out of it " (L'enfant ne va plus !) 

669. MOBTALITY (page 29). England, with a relatively feeble natality, augments her population, 
whilst ours is almost stationary. It is because England, seeing the impossibility of actually elevating 
her natality, concentrated all her efforts upon lowering her mortality. Why should not we attempt 



106 

that in which she has so well succeeded ? These figures prove without possibility of dispute that 
suitable measures of hygiene may play an important role in the problem of population. We seem thug 
to be affirming an axiom and to insist too much upon this subject, but it is absolutely necessary. We 
shall see in fact, later on, when we shall speak of the means proposed to combat the depopulation, 
that certain demographers, M. JACQUES BERTILLON amongst others, have gone BO far as to deny the 
influence of hygienic measures. . . . 

570. Dr. Salvat quotes (page 73) from the speech of M. WALDECK-ROUSSEAU to 
the Commission upon Depopulation. 

It could not be better said. There are not enough people born in France, and too many people 
die ; we shall set about proving it. Since hi the state of our present society we cannot raise the births 
without a profound modification of the economic conditions, it seems that by endeavouring to diminish 
mortality alone to the level of average European mortality, we shall diminish by that much the de- 
population. 

571. Now the question is not quite so simple, since savants like MESSRS. BERTILLON, DB. JAVAL 
and PROFESSOR BARD deny the possibility of combating depopulation by lowering the figures of deaths. 
It is true that other voices no less authoritative are of a contrary opinion. MESSIEURS LEVASSBUH, 
CHEYSSON, CACHEUX, PROFESSOR LACASSAGNE, PROFESSOR CHARLES RICHET, DR CHERVIN MONOD, 
LEROY BEATJLTEU and others, recognising their powerlessness to raise the growth of the population, 
agree to concentrate their efforts to reduce mortality. 

572. " It would be an illusion," says Professor Bard, " to think that the lowering of mortality could 
permit France to recover her rank. The improvement of French mortality would be a great boon, but 
it could do nothing more than retard our proportional decrease." 

But Bertillon goes very much further : " The doctors," he says, " have all agreed, as though 
they disposed of human life as they thought fit. However, it is not the case ; it very rarely happens, 
even with the cleverest amongst them, to snatch that man from death who has been marked with 
his seal. It is very difficult to prevent a man dying ; the very wisest doctors do not get that far, whilst 
it is very easy to cause a man to be born. The latter is within reach o the simplest political manoeuvres." 
(Pars. 765 e.s.). 

573. Then follows a long citation from Bertillon's writings, which Dr. Salvat considers 
he has disproved, but the discussion is hardly of such weight as to warrant reproduction 
here. The views of Bertillon will be dealt with separately. The essential that the latter 
insists upon is plain enough, namely, the inflow of new lives, the replanting of the forest. 
Assume that it is very nice and desirable to prolong the lives of human beings or of the 
trees, die they both must, therefore the mere individual prolongation in no way secures 
the perpetuation of the species apart from actual and adequate replanting. That is the 
idea that Bertillon wants to make plain, though perhaps his emphasis involves some 
unimportant inaccuracy. But Dr. Salvat confuses that which should be kept very clear, 
by adducing the question of the eight-hour working day and some other equally incongruous 
matter as aids to reduce mortality. 

574. Bertillon's anxiety to keep extraneous subjects to one side is explained by the 
controversy itself. Yet there is one element in all these suggestions of amelioration 
which is not incongruous, which alone might justify his citation, and which alone is our 
guide in this Inquiry from beginning to end. That sense of justice which would insist 
upon eight hours as a normal day's work ; upon seeing that due care and consideration 
are shown to pregnant women (as in Germany) ; upon limiting the age and the hours of 
child workers ; upon prohibiting the sale of secret poisonous drugs for children or adults ; 
or the sale of any secret drugs ; upon prohibition of sale of abortifacients, preventives and 
foul literature this principle of justice that elevates a nation, is the only hope and the 
only appeal. It makes all else that is just, congruous. And if it cannot be applied to 
the preservation of our race and empire, then they will go the rest of the way down the 
slope to perdition. 

575. It will not suffice to " apply tentative measures," it will demand both justice 
and severity. It will require the strength of giants and it will reverse the experience 
of history, if the decline can be arrested even further down the slope, for it is impossible 
to stop where we are. As before insisted, the amelioration in hygiene, the prophylaxis 



107 

against septic diseases, the progress of the healing arts, are not due to the nation itself 
but to the healing professions, here and elsewhere, who enjoy most inadequate protection 
themselves and are hampered by unreasonable legislative difficulties of which they do 
not cease to complain. And the margin between national life and death narrows every 
year. But the gospel of Malthus progresses. 

576. MORTINATALITY (the dead-born) page 108. We ought to say a few words upon mortinatality 
and abortions. 

First of all we find the progressive increase in the number of the still born : 

From 1841 to 1845, mortinatality 3.2 per 100 births. 

1857 1862 4.3 

1885 1888 4.5 

In 1900 (39,246 stillborn) . . 4.78 

1901 (40,746 ) .. 4.99 

As shown by the following table of mortinatality in Europe for 1888 we have nearly double 
the number of stillborn of Sweden and Denmark : 



Holland 

France 

Belgium 

Denmark 

Sweden 



4.9 per 100 births. 

4.5 

4.6 

2.9 
2.7 



577. In Anglo-Saxon countries no account of the still-born is taken. There is no 
other apparent reason than that it is not considered worth the trouble and expense. It 
has been repeatedly urged by surgeons and accoucheurs. (Vide N. S. Wales Roy. Com. 
Report, pars. 159 e.s.). But like other racial matters it has not had even tertiary con- 
sideration. 

578. Whence comes this increase of mortinatality ? In a communication to the Society of Anthro- 
pology, MONSIEUR MACQUART presents statistics showing it, and draws the following conclusions : 
" Our generative force is declining ; I do not say that the figures I have just cited give the proof of 
it. but I consider that they are plainly in favour of this hypothesis, a grave presumption " (session 
of 31st October, 1901). 

The diminution of natality in France has not only for its cause, he says in substance, a voluntary 

restriction, but there is beyond that a diminution in the generative force. If in fact people desire 

to limit the number of conceptions they at least do not desire to have stillborn children. The increase 

of mortinatality does not depend upon a conscious desire, and can only proceed from a weakening 

of the organs of gestation. 

579. In the same session MM. PAPILLAUT, ZABOROWSKI and PAUL ROBIN, explain the increase in 
the stillborn by the fact of provoked abortions and disguised infanticides. The manoeuvres may very 
easily not produce the expected effect immediately, the foetus being at first only wounded or poisoned 
and its death occurring, sooner or later, before or at the birth. 

580. M. LONIER (Note a 1'Academie de Medecine, 3rd February, 1885) estimates at 7,000 to 8,000 
the number of disguised infanticides and of preventive abortions which enlarge the figure of mortina- 
tality. 

581. DR. MALBEC (" Tribune Medicale," 30th July, 1902) in summarising a conference that he had 
held at the Medical Society of the Bureau of Relief, thunders against depopulation and gives two 
causes for it : vaginal injections and abortions. He estimates at 50,000 the abortions annually 
practised in Paris. 

582. According to the evidence collected by the N. S. Wales Royal Commission upon 
decline in births and child mortality, 1902-3, the latter figure is much more probable than 
the former. The figure of 7,000 to 8,000 homicides annually might more easily fit Mel- 
bourne or Sydney, whilst that of London would be inconceivable. As elsewhere related, 
when purchasing from chemists in Australian cities, pills of ergot and savin, out of dozens 
of shops only two refused to sell these pills when demanded specifically for the purpose of 
abortion. One man, who sold cheaply, took them from a tin containing thousands of 
pills, and he guaranteed them under the name and label of the vast American manufacturing 
concern which produces them, ships them, and sells them through its own agents in Aus- 
tralia. However, it is a large and lucrative trade, so they are also made in Australia 



108 

itself and packed by our own Australian girls as reported to me officially by a trustworthy 
State Government officer. The statement was subsequently verified by Commonwealth 
Government officers (par. 2.). 

583. As to instrumental and other abortions apart from the casual reports so familiar 
to us in our daily papers of the young adult lives daily thrown away I have shown 
in Volume I. how single practitioners can and do claim to have carried out thousands of 
these homicides. The conductor and part proprietor of an important and very widely 
read Australian journal informed me that he knows of a person in one of the suburbs 
of Melbourne who claims to procure twelve hundred abortions every year for the uniform 
fee of 1 each. She has no further trouble, but the victims trail away, all injured, some 
to die such lingering deaths that, if described, they would chill the reader's blood with 
horror (par. 1184). All are blighted in the soul with the blackest of crimes, that of having 
deliberately murdered their own offspring. There is perhaps little or nothing in the faces 
or bearing to show the criminality. The " fashionable criminologists " may have devised 
no " type of degeneracy " to fit these crimes. The cruel " mothers " (par. 1185) can resume 
their places in society, proceed to church as usual, and partake of the symbolic blood 
of our Lord, Who lived and died to set forth that element of sacrifice without which there 
is no family life, nor national life, worth living. And when it must be admitted to our- 
selves that because of " trouble and expense," no serious legislative effort has been made 
or proposed to stop these undermining iniquities, we have to ask ourselves whether we 
do not deserve our own decay ? 

584. " If they persist in this way," says PROFESSOR PORAK, " women who see that they cannot bring 
up their child, have it aborted. Criminal abortion is an odious ulcer of pur present society. It is prac- 
tised with a frequency of which an adequate idea could only be formed with difficulty. We have in our 
medical services, every single day, (vide pars. 1183) proof of the frequency of abortion and of the 
impotence of justice to follow it up. If by chance an unfortunate is brought before the courts, they 
find the circumstances of the crime so extenuating that the judge derides not to punish. And to be 
enthusiastic upon the question of breast feeding with the object of lessening infantile mortality, we 
should have gained nothing, the infants would die all the same, but they would die in another manner." 
(Professor Porak, Rapport a 1' Academic de Medecine, 30th December, 1902). 

685. 1. Firstly, pecuniary succour, medical and pharmaceutical assistance, gratuitously supplied 
when claimed in advance, for women whether married or not, during the last months of pregnancy 
and the six weeks following the accouchement. 

586. 2. Abolition of the article of the Civil Code interdicting the research of paternity ; it is an 
anomaly which is exclusive to France and contrary to the Declaration of the rights of man. The 
rights of the natural child and the duties of the father ought to be proclaimed. The forbidding of the 
research of paternity is a cynical encouragement to debauchery ; it is that which drives a great number 
of unfortunate women to abortion, infanticide, sxiicide or prostitution. What should be done for the 
girl mother is a pecuniary indemnity enabling her to bring up her child, rather than a father in spite 
of himself, for the child. 

These measures would be favourable to a large proportion of children and girl mothers. In 
1901 we had 782,000 legitimate births and 75,000 illegitimate births. We reckon in France 1,500,000 
natural children of whom barely 100,000 are acknowledged by the father. 

587. The following remarks by Dr. Sal vat (page 141) throw a thick shadow of doubt 
upon the assumption of Malthus and the Manchester school that paucity of births is the 
one radical cure for the miseries of adults. In France births are so scarce that the number 
of inhabitants per square kilometre in the Provinces lessens every year. The British 
and French Malthusians agree (pars. 138) that there is " very little left to be desired." 
We are told that France saves annually 48,000,000 by non-born babies, which the Germans 
spend upon their babies that are born. It is due of course to the lack of proper education 
among the Germans. They have not imbibed the true principle of Political Economy, 
and of private economy, as inculcated by Adam Smith, Thomas Robert Malthus, John 
Stuart Mill, and other disciples of the faith. It would seem, however, that their old- 
fashioned notions to which the Germans cling with pedagogic obstinacy, for Germany 
has always been " the schoolmaster of Europe," not only provide plenty of soldiers, very 



109 

strong and well-fed soldiers, very well equipped soldiers, but also very healthy soldiers. 
Let the facts speak from the mouth of the medico (page 141) : 

688. There is a great deal to say about the morbidity and the mortality of our army. A recent 

article in the Cologne Gazette upon the serious mortality of the French army has produced a great 
stir in our country. By disease alone the French metropolitan army has lost 99,000 men since 1871, 
whilst the German army has only had 13,000 deaths. In the Senate, when the Minister for War was 
interrogated, he was obliged to declare that as a matter of fact two diseases are very murderous in 
France, typhoid fever and tuberculosis. In 1900 the French army lost 600 men by typhoid, against 
87 in the German army. And 1415 men by tuberculosis against 129. 

589. Summarily, the French army shows twice as many sick and five times as many deaths as the 
German army. 

590. Dr. Sal vat's conclusions are upon page 147. 

1. France (1902) is not being depopulated, she only shows a low increase of population. 

The same phenomenon is produced in England, in the United States and Germany, where the 
natality falls proportionately more quickly than in our country ; this movement of decline in births 
is general in Europe. 

2. The causes of our low natality are multiple, and are various in their effects, but the prime 
cause is of the economic order ; it is the present unequal distribution of wealth. Capital acts differ- 
ently upon the classes of society in sterilising them ; all limit the number of their children. 

(a) The wealthy classes, so as not to divide fortune and property ; 

(b) The small trades-people, the little shopkeeper, the little peasant landowner, so as 
to sustain the struggle against the big department store, the big agricultural property, children 
being no longer auxiliaries for them but only causes of expense and weakness ; 

(c) In the proletarian classes the gravest consequences of individual appropriation 
leading to the reduction of natality are : first of all too much machinery, which after having 
hunted men from work so as to drive women and children to it, augments idleness ; and then 
the antagonism between the field workers and the town workers brings on agricultural crises 
and augments the industrial crisis. The woman, having become a producer of merchandise, 
has no longer the time nor the possibility to remain a producer of men. Pregnancy and maternity 
preventing her from earning her living, put her in a position of inferiority in the struggle for 
existence. 

591. 3. The true remedy for depopulation is, like the cause, of the economic order : it consists of 
a profound modification of society in the Socialist-communist direction. 

4. In the present state of society, none of the remedies invoked could be powerful enough to 
enable our country to retake amongst the nations the rank which it has lost. In the presence of the 
impossibility of increasing the natality, we must diminish the mortality by the severe application 
of social hygiene : 

(a) Protection of the gravid woman before and after pregnancy, strict application 
of the work -laws for women and children, as also the law upon accidents at work ; 

(b) Limitation for all persons of the working day to eight hours with minimum rate 
of wages ; 

(c) To fight infantile mortality and the social maladies, as also tuberculosis, alcoholism, 
syphilis, prostitution. 

5. By taking as a basis the results obtained in England from the application of measures of 
social hygiene, particularly against unhealthy lodgings, we may hope to save annually in France 
more than 250,000 existences. 

592. That is the list in full and in detail of Dr. Salvat's very inconclusive conclusions. 
They neither stand examination, comparison nor experiment. That we be not misled, 
let us take them very shortly in their order. 

593. 1. France is being depopulated. Only one-fourth of the departments contain 
as many inhabitants as they did ten years, or twenty years, ago. The number of the 
departments suffering decline in people is always being added to. France does not show 
any longer a low increase, she shows a low decrease with the absolute certainty of further 
and heavier decline. This certainly is not prophecy, it rests upon figures and is a mere 
matter of commercial calculation. 

594. 2. The prime cause is not of the economic, but of the moral order. Dr. Sal vat 
does not mention, or in any way allude to, the sin of selfishness. Nor does he mention 



110 

the rejection of the moral inculcation which formerly withheld men and women from 
the destruction of the human spermatozoon, of the human foetus and of the baby. The 
blame is thrown upon the past with its so-called " social order." But the past produced 
the French nation, whilst the present inculcates child-restriction and destroys the life 
principle. There are other countries in Europe and elsewhere in which wealth has been 
unequally divided during two thousand years and more, yet those nations are not corrupted 
with race-suicide. No country at all is under the " socialist- communist " regime proposed 
by Dr. Salvat as the sole remedy. Even if we leave out of account the physical, moral 
and spiritual wreck of women it is impossible to see how they could be persuaded to pro- 
duce children as brood-mares produce foals to hand them over to the Administration. 
If they care not enough for the future of the nation now to produce children, however 
rich and secure in their wealth ; there is nothing to show that they would produce any 
at all for the " collectivity." The word possesses neither magic nor attraction. 
What evidence have we to-day that women volitionally produce children for the preserva- 
tion of the nation, especially in these days of emigrating ? 

595. Literally to breed for the collectivity would imply that the imaginary volition, 
which is not in evidence at all, should act with such stupendous force as to reverse the 
most determined racial decline, that of England, witnessed for nineteen hundred years. 
More than that, it must first upset the moral principles which have strength enough to 
persist against ever-increasing antagonism, and which cause those who hold them in 
profoundest reverence to still produce children and to regard the latter as the most precious 
gifts of their God and the greatest boon to their nation. If it were not for that section 
of the people who call themselves Jews and Christians and who with all their imperfections 
act upon the most primary of their duties, France would not now have 20 births per 1000 
of population per annum and England would not have 26, though both figures are sure 
to fall away. Besides, it would take a much longer time to introduce a communistic 
State in France than will be required to bring French natality further down the scale. 
It must always be borne in mind that vast blocks of young lives are not there, who could 
have borne children. The vast blocks of old lives, prolonged somewhat by hygiene, cannot 
reproduce if they so desired. But they do not desire it. And they teach the remaining 
young not to do so either. That is the case in France, but it is so in a higher degree in 
Anglo-Saxondom, with a quicker rate of national declension for a consequence. 

596. 3. Manifestly the hope of a Communistic State is for us the flimsiest anchor 
in this matter of national existence. It is quite possibly a laudable national aim and 
may be attended with all the successes that have been ascribed to it in anticipation, may, 
in short, be the realisation of abstract justice. But it is not for us as Anglo-Saxons. 
It is unthinkable that we could induce the French in Canada, or the other races in the United 
States, to adopt Communism as a nostrum for racial decline. An all-sufficient answer 
would be, " Give up your unnatural practices and your race will not decline." To which 
we might reply, " Our people are demoralised by debasing quack literature and by the 
sale of anticonceptional and abortifacient drugs on a national scale. We want a Com- 
munist State to stop it." The retort might be, " We do not think it would stop it. But 
you can have the laws you pretend to desire, by simply demanding them. We will assist 
you." 

597. 4. All the proposals to protect and favour pregnant women, to protect children, 
to fight disease, are admirable, and they do not go nearly far enough. It is merely attending 
to the fruit of the tree, entirely proper and necessary work, whilst abandoning the heart, 
the sap, and the roots to its enemies. " Make the tree good and the fruit will be good," 
is the divine-human wisdom of the Christ rejected by the Socialist-Communist School. 

598. 5. To take England as a model in hygiene is all right in so far as those who 
introduced the reforms the healing professions are concerned. And in that way the 
nations do mutually reflect the knowledge and wisdom gained in its practice. But the 
mass of poverty in England, the ceaseless annual increase of pauperism, the insufficient 



Ill 

clothing, the starvation, the wretched lodgings of the poor in the cities, unite in forming 
an awful indictment of the doctrines of Thomas Robert Malthus, of James Mill, John 
Stuart Mill, and of the " Economist " School who adopted them. England is short by 
three hundred thousand babies each year, yet in each year poverty becomes a greater 
plague and puzzle. 

599. The cure is not in policies or politics of any sort. " A good man out of the good 
treasure of the heart, brings forth good things ; and an evil man, out of the evil treasure, 
brings forth evil things." Our politics match ourselves with precision, for the tree is 
known by its fruit. 



MALTHUSIANISM AND THE FRENCH BIRTH RATE. 
LA NATALITE EN FRANCE. 

1900, par GEORGES MERAN. Paris, E. Bernard, Rue de Me"dicis, 1906. 

600. As before said, the literature of the Decadence is copious. Much of it is mere 
repetition, for although the causes of it may be " multiple, profound and hidden " the 
course of it is plainly revealed by simple enumeration : it must finally come down to arith- 
metic. Then we know where we are. The causes are in the moral sphere, the factors 
are in the daily practices. It is well to keep this distinction in mind. 

601. The aberrations of the day, the increasing pursuit of pleasure, the spreading 
nervosity, the ever-augmenting number of the mentally insane, are quite well-known. 
But some of the writers and would-be exponents of the causes become verbal volcanoes, 
burdening the landscape with showers of stony and wholly unfruitful technicalities. These 
will be here avoided as much as possible. They consist only of very strained Greek and 
serve to obscure rather than to illuminate. 

602. In contradistinction, the author above quoted states his views with clearness. 
A tone of despairing alarm appears throughout the work, and whatever may be the com- 
pulsion to pessimism, it is well for that French nation, with whom alone we British can 
now compare in respect of racial decline, to look facts in the face and prepare for the worst. 
It may be, it is in a high degree probable, that no move will be made by the governing 
powers of either people to face the difficulty ; still less to take indicated measures to 
remove or even to lessen it. Beyond that, there remains one great duty to perform, 
namely to inform the whole people by five-year instead of ten-year enumerations, of 
the national position ; and by the authoritative and authenticated opinions of the 
healing professions. The latter have, of course, no monopoly in demographic matters, 
nor even in public health, but it must be allowed that they are the chief observers in 
matters of birth, of physical and psychical hygiene, and of death. 

In his first chapter M. Meran says : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

603. I have desired to mark, very exactly, our position in 1900, without seeking 
to know what the future may have in store for us. . . . The attempt has often 
been made to attract the attention of the Government to that which is pronounced 
a peril for France, but the Government has never stopped to consider the matter 
and there is no certainty that it would be in its power to bring in an efficacious remedy. 
It is to morals that we must attribute the principles of the malady ; is the legislator 
capable of reforming morals ? " When once customs are established and prejudices 



112 

rooted, it is a vain and dangerous enterprise to want to reform them. The people 
cannot even endure that a hand be laid upon their ills to remove them, like those 
stupid and cowardly patients who shudder at the sight of the doctor." (J. J. 
ROUSSEAU). 

604. The answer to his all-important question is, Yes ! It is in the power of legislators 
to raise or lower morals in a hundred ways. They can establish or abolish slavery ; see 
that sailors get sound food or leave them to the mercy of the selfish ; permit or forbid 
false weights ; protect or neglect childhood ; punish seduction or set up State houses 
of ill-fame ; prohibit secret and fraudulent " cures " or take (as in England) a share 
in the infamous proceeds ; allow as " perfectly legitimate " (par. 5) or prohibit the 
manufacture and sale of Malthusian drugs and contrivances ; permit or punish filthy 
advertising ; teach morals in their State schools or leave them untaught, and generally 
to legislate morally or immorally. These things are done and the list can be indefinitely 
extended. Yet a dictum which denies the most palpable facts of existence can form a 
very good axiom for Political Economists. 

605. The morals of legislation may sooner or later become the morals of the nation 
as a whole, and it must rise or fall thereby. It is also untrue that the legislature cannot 
be superior to the people who elect it. Even a society of rogues would choose an honest 
man to mind their money. Even a profligate father will send his daughter to a worthy 
school. And they who are placed in power to do good, can do good, if they will. The 
whole hope of the nation depends upon the view of duty taken by those to whom its vital 
interests are absolutely committed. Losses by war and devastation are as nothing to the 
creep of decay, which in our case is subtle, swift and sure. 

606. To speak truly, the government of the Second Empire adapted itself to the 
morals and the aspirations of the country : all the vices which we could accuse 
it of inculcating to the nation, have grown and progressed with regularity since the 
advent of the Republic. Money has become the sole force, permitting the rich 
to seize power and to satisfy all their passions. Wants have only multiplied, in- 
spiring the people with ideas of " reforms," and creating social questions . . . 

607. For several years the daily newspapers, the special reviews, demographers 
and hygienists have uttered a cry of alarm when proving that natality was falling 
away in France. The fact is not deniable. If it has excited the attention of 
writers and philosophers, we must recognise that it has produced no stir whatever 
in the country ; the people have remained indifferent 

608. In this grave question, whilst applauding the efforts which tend to elevate 
France, we may ask if it would not be more advisable to study firstly the causes 
which have led to this decline of natality and to inquire if it would be even possible 
to combat them or to suppress them. If we succeed in that direction we can only 
rejoice over it ; but it is permissible to doubt it, for the indifference is complete 
and general. 

609. Upon this subject, which so lends itself to jocularity, the wittiest people in the 
world are quick to find the finest jokes and the most delicate witticisms. They 
compose songs about it to excite laughter. That is the whole effect which will be 
accomplished. CHATEAUBRIAND was right when he wrote : " Infecund are the 
flanks of a decomposing society." 

610. To the teachings of Malthus and his celebrated thesis of geometrical progression 
is devoted a whole chapter. The name of Malthus is as well-known as that of MOSES 
to recent French literature and much more quoted. It is easier to destroy a nation than 
to build one up, and the poisonous doctrines of the English philosopher are in flattest 
contradiction to the " crescite et multiplicamini " of the immortal leader of men. Neither 
jocularity nor arrogance can upset the Law preached 3000 years ago, and which has held 
good all along the ages, for it is the Law of Life. A nation must either grow or decay, 



113 

prosper or perish, live or die. There is no third place in it. Quo vergit natura, eo ducen- 
dum, whither Nature turns, thither we should be led. 

611. Malthus advises to restrict progeny by using privative obstacles. It is this 
part of the doctrines of Malthus which triumphed and still triumphs in France. 
This vice has established itself in our manners ; it will be more difficult to destroy 
than that of alcoholism ; it is the grand cause of the decline of births in France. 

612. The number of marriages has not at all diminished in our country ; it has 
only submitted to very slight fluctuations, for over long periods of examination 
there is revealed neither increase nor decrease in nuptiality. The number of 
marriages per 1000 inhabitants is almost invariably 7.4. Hence the situation in 
this respect remains normal. Only, the marriages are infecund. Very many 
women, because of the bother of maternity, from apprehension of the pains of 
parturition, or from fear of death, refuse to have children. From this reasoning 
a great number of couples practise the Malthusian doctrine. They will accept one 
child, but they dread the second, and only rarely surpass that number. 

613. M. Meran, like all others, enlarges at length upon this phase of the subject and 
concludes page 54 the chapter as follows : 

Thus Malthus triumphs, and the conditions of life at present wish it so. Social 
evolution in this sense is done, for we cannot stem a current like that. 

614. How curious a comparison ! The English Economic School specifically declares, 
" We cannot stem the devastating torrent of babies." Cowardly and cruel phrase, for 
which Nemesis is striking us with sterility. 

615. In our streets are distributed pamphlets (of the Malthusian League) which 
preach the extinction of pauperism and misery by the application of the Malthusian 
laws and which terminate by supplying the addresses of so-called "Hygienic 
Institutes," where are furnished (for financial considerations, no doubt) all necessary 
instructions for suppressing procreation. 

616. In the shop-windows of dealers in surgical materials are displayed what they 
denominate "preventives of conception," and all the perfumers and chemists sell 
, called "Parisian." 

617. There remain further the manoeuvres of abortion, which, thanks to science, 
have become more technical .... These are the public morals, the habits 
that are called " Malthusian ' ' and which explain, better than all reasonings and 
all dissertations, the reductions of births in our country. Where is the remedy ? 

618. At the moment when the barbarians invaded the Roman Empire, it was 
falling into putridity ; the birth-rate had dropped in appalling proportions : 
the country districts were depopulated, and the unbounded prostitution which reigned 
at that epoch was by no means without influence upon this depression (par 1746). 
Prostitution with us has not only increased all the time, but it has done more, it 
has entered into our manners and our habits, it no longer shocks us, it is acclimatised 
and has taken civil rights. 

619. Do we not see in the daily papers, where financial support is provided by the 
highest aristocracy of the new regime, the addresses of gay women and of houses 
of debauchery published on the fourth page ? These journals count amongst their 
collaborators the first writers, whose great talents should have alone sufficed to 
assure them a numerous clientele. 

620. It seems that no such criticism upon the part of the public reaches them : why 
then blame them since such are our morals ? By inserting these announcements 
they earn money and attract more readers a double profit. This example is an 
unmistakable symptom 



114 

621. France is not being depopulated (Page 153 et seq.). If the increase of popu- 
lation in our country has not followed that of our neighbours, it is none the lean a 
fact that the total of its inhabitants has increased. We can count 37 or 38 millions, 
so that France is not being depopulated. 

622. We have indicated the reason of this proved fact : in the period of ten years 
it is calculated that the excess of births over deaths amounted yearly to about 
35,000, in which case the population would have increased by 350,000. Well, 
the augmentation has been very much more it amounted to 1,500,000. Whence 
comes this surplus of 1,150,000 ? It occurs through the immigration of foreigners 
who have come to settle in France ; who occupy situations, purchase lands, and 
become naturalised, for the law has been modified to give all facilities. Hence, 
evidently, the infiltration of exotic blood into our race, but all idea of depopulation 
must be put to one side. 

623. It is precisely this phenomen of pacific invasion, disquieting for us, natural 
for the others, which is largely induced by the reduction in births. Moreover it 
must be admitted that minds are very little preoccupied by it, and everything makes 
us presume that nobody will be able to awaken the public from its torpor. It is 
however certain that this ethnographic fact will exert its influence in the long run, 
but as there exists no means of inducing the married to multiply, we are bound to 
submit. 

624. Germany in 1899 showed an excess of births over deaths amounting to 800,000 
and this figure ought to make us reflect. [It now exceeds 900,000 annually and 
will very shortly amount to one million]. GENERAL VON DEB GOLTZ recently 
published an article entitled "Naval Power and Continental War," whence we 
take the following lines : 

625. " It must not be forgotten that nowadays Germany cannot live by her resources 
alone, with the products only of her own soil. During the decade 1888 to 1897 
she could only supply alimentation, especially in cereals, for 43 millions of the 
inhabitants of the Emipre. The remaining 9 millions lived solely upon importations. 
Now since that time the population has made a new bound of three millions, passing 
to about 55 millions. 

626. In other terms, the whole of the subjects of the Empire at the present time 
are obliged to demand their subsistence from the foreigner during 88 days of the 
year. The result is that even if we draw the greater part from the national soil 
we cannot henceforward produce sufficient for our consumption during a time 
of war. Now this impossibility goes on increasing every day, seeing that the popu- 
lation augments rapidly. 

627. It will attain the figure of 60 millions towards 1910, of 70 millions towards 
1920 and will not be far off 90 millions towards 1950 !" [The actual figure in this 
year of 1908 is announced as being over 63 millions, say 65 millions in 1910]. 

628. Now, what conclusion does the General draw from these figures ? " We 
must increase our armies and possess a fleet strong enough to shelter our ports from 
the insults of the enemy, and from a Continental blockade." 

629. There would be occasion here, perhaps, to comment upon the theory of Darwin 
and to deduce consequences from it. It may, however, suffice to recall how Julius 
Caesar explained the causes of invasions : propter hominum multitudinem agrique 
inopiam. [Because of hordes of men and need of land.]. 

630. It is hard to preserve any illusion : the lowering of natality leads fatally to 
the weakening of nations, and, either by brutal invasion, or by pacific infiltration, 
our neighbours will occupy our soil, or they will mix with our race and absorb it. 



115 

The book closes thus (page 163) : 

631. We make efforts to protect children, women and men against overwork which 
is a progress but nobody dreams of sheltering them from the vices which lead 
to their degeneration. Which of our legislators and who amongst the majority 
of our citizens, troubles himself about alcoholism or the causes which lead to the 
weakening of the generation ? 

632. These are secondary questions which cannot arrest the attention of our governors ! 
Other questions, graver, more important, more serious, absorb their thoughts. 
What does it matter that France no longer produces enough citizens ? What does 
it matter that the present population, struck with sterility, is disappearing without 
leaving successors ? Shall WE assist at the spectacle ? Before long we shall have 
disappeared ourselves. We must think of the present, and not lose time worrying 
our minds about future and speculative chimeras. Thus everybody thinks, or 
assuredly the majority of French citizens think. Now the majority is bound to im- 
pose its vvilL 



SOCIALISM AND THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION. 
PRINCIPE DE POPULATION ET SOCIALISME. 

(Histoire des Doctrines de la Population depuis le Principe de Population de MALTHTJS, 

jusqu'a nos jours) par VICTOR SONOLET, Doctor of Law. Paris, Librairie 

Nouvelle de Droit et de Jurisprudence, Arthur Rousseau, 

Editeur. 1907. 

In the Introduction the author says : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

633. Two grave preoccupations demand our attention at present, and in opposite 
directions. Concerning France in particular, the labouring classes complain 
that the number of workers, and the necessity that compels them to work in order 
to live, keeps them under the tyranny of a grasping capital which is always prompt 
to misuse competition in order to reduce the rate of wages to a strict minimum. 
In like manner to the proletariat, the members of the well-to-do classes, fixed 
in situations for the most part unproductive, are surprised at not finding a gold- 
mine which shall be indefinitely exploitable, and lament the over-crowding of 
liberal careers. So much so, that the lamentations of both parties, everlastingly 
renewed, might make anyone think that France can only expect from the results 
of a war, or an epidemic, some means of breathing at ease. 

634. This book of 300 pages is chiefly devoted to a temperate review of the REVEREND 
T. R. MALTHUS' " Essay upon the Principle of Population." It disposes for the hundredth 
time of that clergyman's impossible dogmas, which have nevertheless been accepted 
as axioms by a whole successful school of English philosophers and statesmen. It has 
been abundantly shown, what should not need showing, both a priori and a posteriori, 
that population does not " tend to increase in geometric ratio " nor does subsistence tend 
to increase only in arithmetical ratio. As the whole question of the prevention and 
destruction of the human foetus, and the whole atrocious traffic in abortifacients and 
like proprietary preparations under cognizance of law and administration throughout 
the British Empire, is wrapped up with these Malthusian doctrines, some extracts from 
other works will be supplied. The plain words " Malthusian preparations " are to be 



116 

seen in hundreds of newspapers, and the man in official position would be but a sorry 
hypocrite who would pretend not to know the meaning. The meaning in shortest state- 
ment is child-prevention and child-destruction, and there is no other meaning. It has 
been shown upon authorities by the N. S. Wales Commission, from whose Report copious 
extracts have been already given in the first volume of this present Report, that Nemesis 
awaits nations who commit these raids upon reproduction. 

635. Malthus, dans une formule qui a eu une prodigeuse celebrite, avait affirme 
que la population tendait a s'accroitre suivant une progression geometrique, tandis 
que les moyens de subsistance ne pouvaient s'accroitre que suivant une progression 
arithmetique. (Manuel d'Economie Politique de M. GIDE, edition 1903, p. 568). 

636. One illustration out of many chosen by M. Sonolet contrasts population and 
depopulation. 

What a spectacle is offered to us by the countries o* South America since their discovery by 
Europeans ' GODWIN in a long description shows how Peru was living literally in the golden ase 
" at the disastrous epoch when the first European landed upon its shores," from which moment " de- 
population became so rapid that even the imagination cannot follow its progress." According to 
LAS CASAS, South America " teemed with people as an anthill swarms with ants." MONTESQUIBU 
and MONTAIGNE estimated this population at the very lowest as being four hundred millions of souls. 
The island of San Domingo according to Las Casas contained in 1492 three million inhabitants. This 
figure in 1542, half a century later, was reduced to 200 persons. 

637. The Abbe RAYNU,, speaking of the Republic of Paraguay, founded by the Jesuits upon the banks 
of the river de la Plata, made exhaustive but vain efforts to explain by what catastrophe or scourge 
the population had remained almost stationary in a country where " no one was idle and no one was 

overworked where everybody married by choice without interest, and where a crowd of 

children was a consolation without possibility of being a burden,'" where all the conditions, in short, 
were united in favour of increase. 

688. To the perplexities of the Abbe Raynal there is only one reply and from the depopulation of San 
Domingo and of all South America but one conclusion, namely, that a population which obeys the 
procreative faculties of the human species can still very contentedly remain stationary, and that it is 
depopulation which knows no bounds when the deplorable influence of our oppressive civilisation makes 
itself felt. 

639. Dr. Sonolet, in summarising the attack made by Godwin upon the Malthusian 
philosophy, quotes Godwin as saying : 

' It is surely demanded that a system shall rest upon irresistible and irrefragable proof if we are 
to accept it when the most precious benefits that it offers to us are vice and misery." 

According to Godwin, the Malthusian makes of vice a necessity. Seizing this idea he ventures 
to affirm for it is impossible to employ the word prove that not only, are vicious practices by no 
means necessary, but that in fact the practice of virtue is much more general than Malthusianism 
admit*. 

In rendering justice to both these authors it must not be assumed that Dr. 
Sonolet accepts the general conclusions of either the one or the other. 

640. Malthus declared that poverty was the inevitable result of a natural law. To desire to suppress 
it otherwise than by the difficult practice of an austere virtue would have been to compromise still more 
an ideal of social happiness that Providence itself had limited. According to Godwin, Socialism 
had replied that poverty only resulted from human institutions and that an effort of altruism could 
make it disappear never to return. 

641. Must we be optimist with the one or rigorist with the other ? The question thus posed ought 
to impassion, and did impassion, the minds of men in the course of the 19th century, and the list 
would be long of the writers who have tackled the subject. Recognising the impossibility of passing 
in detailed review controversies which long remained without appreciable result, let us content our- 
selves by remarking that from violent views, the most absolute and the most opposed, men come 
little by little to mutual concessions, and that, in this road, the longest steps have been taken by the 
partisans of Malthusianism. 

642. At the start, some Malthusians, exaggerating as usual their master's theory, or to speak more 
correctly, that which was false in his theory, imagined all sorts of revolting and bizarre means of pre- 
venting the ever-threatenine overflow of popu'ation. An English philanthropist of high celebrity 
quoted by M. Rossi, proposed to submit the newly-born to painhss asphyxia : a German, Herr 



117 

WITHHOLD, a Councillor of the Kingdom of Saxony, gave preference to mntilation of infante (De 
MOLINARI, " Introduction to the Principle of Population.") These " philanthropists " were numerous, 
to believe- Godwin, who say*. 'I am sure that never in the ages of crassest ignorance did false prophet 
draw alter him so many blindly believing disciples as does Mr. Malthas in this century of enlightenment. ' ' 

643. Perhaps JOSEPH GARNTBR, who annotated the French translation of Malthus' essay, alone kept 
an absolute faith in the doctrine of the master and remained convinced that "population has an 
organic and virtual tendency to increase more rapidly than the means of existence," and he said that, 
when the same objections (Godwin's) are reproduced, competent people ought to limit themselves to 
replying, " Bead Malthus." " We have read him." " Read him again, you have not understood 
him." In Garnier's " Principle of Population " which appeared in 1885, he did not change his opinion. 
He declares that " It depends upon man whether the increase of population shall bring about progress 
or poverty," and amongst other conclusions gives th'- following: -'The non-limitation of the number 
of children is contrary to the interest of families and societies, consequently to morals." 

644. A statement of the views of Joseph Gamier are elsewhere supplied. (Div. I.) 
His book beyond doubt contributed greatly to the conspicuous success that 
the anti-Christian and anti-Judaic doctrine of Malthus has attained in France. The 
delay of its success in England was not at all the fault of the English schools of philosophy 
and of economy, both of which have so highly elevated our national pride, but although 
delayed for a while by conservative resistance, its progress has of late years been much 
accelerated, as shown in statistical and graphic form herein. Its continued success 
is certain, for the quarterly figures from Somerset House of the movement of population 
show it. It is even more brilliantly displayed by the advertisement columns of Anglo- 
Saxon newspapers and by shop-windows in all our cities. 

Continuing, in the next paragraph, Dr. Sonolet says : 

645. But it is to be remarked that the idea adopted and sustained by the Liberal school in the course 
of the 19th century approaches rather that of Adam Smith than that of Malthus : " In civilised 
societies," said Adam Smith, " it is only amongst the inferior ranks of the people that the scantiness 
of subsistence can set bounds to the propagation of the human species, and that can only happen in 
one manner by destroying a large proportion of the children that the fecund marriages of these classes 
produce." (Bichesse des Nations. I., chap. 8). It appears indeed that it is of this idea, rather 
than of the law of Malthus properly so called, that the following made themselves defenders : DESTUTT 
DE TBACY (" Traite d'Economie Politique," 1823), JAMES MTT.T. (" Principles of Political Economy," 
1824), MAcCuLLOCH (" Principles of Political Economy," 1825), J. B. SAY (" Coura Oomplementaire 
d'Economie Politique," 1829), and, the same year, DTTCHATEL in his " Traite de la Charite " ; then 
later CHALMERS, DUXOYER, Bossi, THORNTON, JOHN STUART MILL and du PTTYNODB. 

646. Whatever it was, Malthusianism has never ceased to capture all the attention which has been 
turned to the subject of population. And all opinions issued from the Liberal point of view joined 
themselves to it without distinction, as the waters of mountain streams mix with the waters of the river 
into which they are thrown. 

647. Dr. Sonolet, himself not a Socialist, adduces numberless proofs that the doctrinaire 
Socialists have rejected the teachings of the celebrated Anglican clergyman of Haileybury 
from the first and all along. 

648. The opinion, for example, of Bossi and of John Stuart Mill that the question of population only 
concerns the poorer classes became in the eyes of Socialism a concession to their views. If the law 
of Malthus does not apply to the well-to-do classes of society, it is not then a natural law, but a social 
law derived from the capitalist organisations. 

649. The points of view are most diverse in this great question, and the flood of argu- 
ment is vast beyond comprehension. The authorities of the Manchester School so called, 
show a curious consensus of opinion of which endless instances can be supplied, that 
" over-population " is the great cause of poverty and that the cure is artificial checks. 
Limitation of the number of children to be born is a constant phrase, but no one is found 
to state the limits of the limitation. The conclusions in the same school of thought 
are often quite opposed and the facts adduced point in opposite directions. " Laws " 
of many kinds are promulgated by the various economic writers. Nothing of all this 
would be quoted were it not that the monstrous perversion of " the geometric progression 
of nations and the arithmetical progression of sustenance," called the Law of Malthus, 
is the towering Moloch which commands such widespread worship. It is because Moloch 



ns 

and Mammon dominate, that there is an universal traffic in, and inculcation of the use 
of, the filthy merchandise recommended by Malthusian leagues and which is supplied 
by conscienceless traders everywhere, in every town of Anglo-Saxondom. 

650. In the midst of the babel of argument one pregnant statement is heard when 
the clamour lulls : 

Knowledge of the conditions of life -which are favourable to limitation of population (according 
to M. PABODI) permits the psychologic theorist to conclude from the practical point of view : 

That poverty at the base of the social scale and, from the highest to the lowest, the influence of 
legislation and of customs, are very susceptible of having a marked reflex action upon the movement 
of population. But that the great cause of the decline of population as proved by all economists and 
sociologists in the countries of advanced civilisation, the sole circumstance which has a direct and 
necessary relation of cause and effect : is the increasing corruption of morals resulting from imitative 
extension to all classes of that which was at first only the vice of individuals. It is the absence of that 
moral discipline which is r-apable in this hour of relaxation or enfeeblcment of religious faith, of 
silencing all the selfishness and calculations of private interest by imposing a common ideal of familial, 
social and patriotic life. It is the absence of moral discipline capable of imposing iteelf upon the men 
of modern Europe, but above all upon the French people, who can only feel later on and in the sharpest 
and most intense fashion, the evils of civilisation itself. 

651. Thus a ray of light penetrates the complexity and confusion of these philosophers 
psychologists, quasi-physiologists, and Political Economists. It brings to mind the 
everlasting words of another Guide to mankind, Whom ten thousand millions of European 
people have acknowledged to be the Light of the World : " I thank Thee, O Father, 
Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things (simple truths) from the 
wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes." They agree, these Economists, 
that He is the Lord of Heaven, but are sure of the superiority of their intelligence in 
matters concerning the earth. 

652. And the psychologic theory when opposing the others [Malthusian and the like] believes in two 
kinds of possible remedies : measures legislative or fiscal, but above all in education. 

The legislative measures might be : a better regulation of the right of bequest, for example, 
or a simplification in France of juridic marriage rendering it easier and less onerous ; or even to a 
certain degree a tax upon bachelors, and so forth. But the great remedy from which we should expect 
a raising of natality is education, which, properly understood, is alone capable of contending with the 
corruption of morals. "It is from education," concludes M. Parodi, " that we have an to expect 
or all to fear." 

Whence Dr. Sonolet remarks : 

653. We can see to what a degree the point of view has changed since Malthas' time, when we re- 
member how he demanded from education that it lessen the rate of natality ! 

654. Many other theories of philosophers are then passed under review, amongst 
them that of a great man and a keen observer, who, however, scarcely recognised and 
certainly did not admit the Christian obligation, M. ARSENB DUMONT. His theory, 
or rather observation, of " social capillarity " as an active cause of depopulation will 
be stated elsewhere. 

655. Certain authors deny the possibility of excess of population, whilst affirming the existence of 
natural restraints which limit its increase without the interference of human prudence (M. LOBIA, 
" Morphologic Sociale "). " That is the second law of Quetelet, namely that the resistance of the 
sum of the obstacles to the increase of population increases as the square of the speed according to 
to which the population tends to augment. SADLER and GUILLABD have translated with clearneeH 
this principle in their famous law : that the fecundity of a population is in inverse ratio to ite density.'' 
And yet M. CAUDEKLIEB squarely affirmed that " population tends spontaneously to adapt itself to 
the mass of subsistences available " and he sees the proof of it in " the well-known fact that at each 
rise in the price of wheat we see the rate of marriages fall." 

656. "But these statistical lucubrations," as M. Loria says, "are absolutely void of any pcmble 
base. They are an abstraction made from the thesis of Quetelet, for which that savant always promised 
the demonstration without ever giving it. The law of Sadler is contradicted by figures, for plenty 
of countries with very dense population (the Kingdom of Saxony, for example), have great fecundity. 
Finally, the fact upon which M. Cauderlier rests his theory decline of nuptiality during periods of 
dear corn may indeed reduce the excess of population, but there is nothing to assure us that it will 



119 

succeed in effacing it altogether The truth is that these mysterious automatic restraints 

with which human population should be provided, much as a being by itself, independently of the 
individuals which compose it, is nothing else than a species of statistical superstition which has no base 
at all upon facts." 

In the closing chapter M. Sonolet writes : 

657. A grave question poses itself : since the will of man (and I do not at all except the will of woman 
on the contrary) does not cease to exert itself with more assurance and efficacy upon the transmission 
of life and the reproduction of the species, how can we save our country from the depopulation which 
threatens and the depravation which lowers it ? I only know one remedy ; and it is still the old 
Christian marriage with its moral sanctions and its religious restraint. Do you desire to found a family? 
Then marry. If you do not, then be chaste. Either fecund marriages, or virtuous celibacy. " But 
is not this remedy beyond our strength ? The discipline that it pre-supposes, is it not too pure, too 
severe for our debilitated souls ? " There are some sick people who do not want to be cured ! 

658. This is not unlike the phrase of Titus Livius as quoted by M. de FOVILLE, a 
member of the Extra-Parliamentary Commission upon the Depopulation of France, 
in his final declaration made this year of 1908 : Nee vitia nostra, nee remedia, pati possumus ! 
We can neither endure our vices nor yet their remedies. (Par. 811). Those are the last 
words of despair, and it would be well if the leaders and legislators of our own nation 
would consider the fact that the British people, as herein shown, are following exactly 
the French course of decline, but with much greater rapidity. 

659. That the possession of wealth lessens procreation is what many authors have seen in different 
ways. The partisans of physiologic theories have gone so far as to say that the genesic faculty was 
in inverse ratio to the satisfaction of material wants. Steriliora cuncta pinguia et in maribus et in 
foeminis [all fat animals are very sterile, and so it is with men and women]. We have noted particularly 
in this direction the theories of DOUBLEDAY and FOURIER (Gastrosophy), and we have recognised that 
these theories only contain a very small portion of the truth. But, apart from that, acquired wealth 
favours the limitation of procreation by developing the faculties and the passions, and by creating 
new wants 

660. M. PAUL PERNY, Roman Catholic Vicar- Apostolic of China, addressed a letter to Senator PIOT 
[another member and practically the founder of the Extra-Parliamentary Commission] dated 28th 

May, 1901, in which he begins an interesting enumeration of the causes of Chinese fecundity 

This enumeration is interesting because we find in it the contrary of that which tends more and more 
to be produced by our western civilisation : religious spirit, respect of the family, early marriages, 
frugal and calm life, absence of excessive ambition, and contempt for superfluous enjoyments. 

661. "In considering, however, the spectacle offered by Asia to Europe, it is impossible not to ask 
ourselves if that which has so long constituted its inferiority is not some day to constitute its strength. 
The most recent page of the world's history has recorded the Russo-Japanese war, the event of which 
has given Japan in the right." Amongst the pages which we shall have later to turn over, is there 
not a similar one to those which recorded successively the fall of all civilisations which had attained 
their apogee ? " The Scythians," continues M. Perny, " the Persians, the Medes, the Babylonians, 
the Ninevites, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, have disappeared. China has seen all these 
famous nations pass away and nothing shows that she is in her decline. Her civilisation still carries 
in it living fundamental principles which have maintained her across the ages. If China were un- 
fortunately to follow Japan, she could hold up her head, all by herself, against the whole of civilised 
Europe." 

662. Here we have, it seems to us, a new aspect of the question of population, an aspect quite as dis- 
turbing, even alarming, as was dealt with in the nineteenth century. The triumph of young races 
or those which remain young, over the senile races, thanks to the inferiority which is given to the latter 
by reduction of prolificacy, is once again the triumph of Nature which always gives the right to strength 
against weakness, to barbarism against culture, to intense and overflowing life against life that is slack and 
weary, and which, periodically, with a blind rigour, brings down one day or another that which raises itself 
np in the world individuals, governments, civilisations and societies. The theory of the Italian 
Vico upon the birth, growth, decrepitude and annihilation of nations, comes here to our memory. 
And we know not how better to conclude than by quoting the ideas expressed by TURGEON [Pro- 
fessor of the Faculty of Law in the University of Rennes] in his course of lectures upon the " History 
of Economic Doctrines." " There is a principle of action and a force of decision which Malthus 
omitted to introduce into his factors of the problem of population : the reflective liberty and the acting 
will of men. Both of these under the impulsion of self-interest can, in view of preserving and increasing 
acquired wealth, exert a depressing action upon the numerical increase of societies. Our time and 
our country afford a decisive example. Better than any we in France know that human reproduction 
has its limits, and that these limits are fixed by married people themselves. Our richest departments 
have the lowest natality, our poorest departments have the highest natality. Doubt there is none at 



120 

all, comfort and luxury are the agents of inf ecundity. Too much wealth corrupts souls and depopulates 
towns and fields. So long as they remain sober and virtuous, individuals and nations increase in 
number and strength. Arrived at opulence, characters are enfeebled and births diminish. Then 
wealth itself decreases and the entire society declines and decays. In proportion as appetites are refined and 
wants multiply, anus become less robust, hearts less valiant. And a time comes when it is easy to 
predict that old age is approaching with its train of poverty, weakness and sterility." 

663. Is it possible to put the brake upon this voluntary impotence ? Loto of physicians have proposed 
lota of remedies. If wealth is still susceptible of augmentation, certain Economists say, the population 
will follow it in its ascensional march. As the function creates the organ, BO a surplus of capital 
will call for a surplus of arms and cause a new surplus of lives to emerge. [Here we have in fine 
language the coarse phrase of the wealthy English trader, parliamentarian, and Economist of the 
accepted school, "Babies are getting scarcer, and according to the inevitable law of supply and demand, 
are rising in value."] But wealth is debilitating, and it is not at all shown that its progression did, 
either in Greece or Rome, revive dormant energy and restore enervated courage. 

664. Menaces and restraints by clever legislation, certain jurists say, can encourage marriages and 
raise the rates of natality. But depopulation is a complex evil which has causes multiple, profound 
and hidden. The legislator may attack them one, two, four at a time, when there are a hundred of 
them, of which many are inaccessible. In spite of their ingenuity the Roman laws were not able to 
arrest the depopulation of the Empire. 

665. The problem is neither juridic nor economic, certain philosophers say : it is moral. To restore 
to civilised people the taste for paternity, you must inculcate the love of duty, the spirit of sacrifice, 
devotion to the country and the family. Against wealth which demoralises let us oppose education 
which elevates, and religion which sanctifies yes, certainly. But it is more difficult to cure and to 
temper souls than to succour and strengthen bodies. All history attests that nations are mortal like 
individuals, and that they perish of exhaustion through bad morals. Vitio parentum rara jnventus. 
[By the vice of parents, children are scarce]. Modern nations of doubtful morals, beware ! 

After further pages, the book closes with these words : 

666. Whilst admitting that each nation describes a " circulus " more or less broad, traversing three 
periods of ascension, expansion and decline, it is important to add that humanity to-day is richer in 
knowledge and resource than humanity of old. The decadent nation which is disappearing from 
the scene of the world does not die completely ; it leaves to its successors a collection of experiences, 
inventions and lights which enrich the future and constitute progress. That which Athens and Rome 
did, has not been lost for UP. Beyond the peoples which pass away, there is immunity which remains. 
Life is truly the daughter of death ! 



A FRENCH BARRISTER UPON NATIONAL CANCER. 

LA DEPOPULATION EN FRANCE, SES CAUSES ET SES REMEDES. 

By HENRY CLEMENT, Advocate, Paris, Bloud et Cie., 4 Rue Madame, 1907. 

667. This little book of 64 pages, 8vo., echoes the same figures that are quoted by 
other authors and for which it is preferable to go direct to the fountain-head, the French 
Statistical Bureau. We can thus get later figures, more of them, and give a clearer view 
by presenting them in tabulated form and by plain graphics. 

On page 8 we read : 

(TRANSLATION). 

668. The fact which the preceding table puts in a strong light and which replies to a whole series 
of objections is. that population and consequently natality which is the principal element of it, far from 
decreasing in the case of the other nations of Europe, has sensibly augmented during the last ten years. 
And yet these people are as civilised as ourselves, and there is no apparent reason why France does 
not follow the same ascensional movement as theirs. Well, then, our country is attacked by a moral 
cancer which will diminish bit by bit her vitality, her influence and her expansion, until we phal 1 arrive 
at a point in the near future when we shall be of no more account in Europe. This situation is strikingly 
obvious and the brutal fact has no need of comment : in 1899 there were 1,980,000 births in Germany. 
848,000 in France ! [Seven years later the figures were respectively 2,022,000 and 806,000]. 



121 

669. A most important opinion of Dr. G. DBOUINEAU'S in his " Memorandum upon 
the demographic year 1898 " is quoted. He draws special attention to the effect upon 
natality that the residence in France of a million and a quarter foreigners, besides those 
naturalised, must exercise. 

670. " We rejoice in the nominal gain that we make nearly every year. Do we need thus to set up 
illusions for ourselves upon the true situation and are we afraid to tell bluntly and openly the whole 
truth upon the point ? . . . I am convinced that we have been for a long time below par (between 
births and deaths) were it not that we do these foreigners the honour to reckon them on the same 
level as French citizens, and I deplore the fact that this numerical artifice permits a fatal temporisation." 
Thie consequence is clear. If France does not witness her population lessen in an absolute fashion, 
it is because she is invaded more and more by the foreign element. . . . 

671. Mortality is less in France (22 per 1000) than in Germany and in Austria (27.5) or than in Spain 
and Italy (37). Thanks to the progress of hygiene we might further lower the rate of mortality, but 
everything else would be the same, and the position of France would remain identical from the com 
parative point of view. Finally, to place ourselves upon a perfectly selfish standpoint, but precise 
demographic-ally, the progress of hygiene and of well-being can only augment the number of old people. 
That is to say an element of the population which is useless for the expansion and the activity of a country. 
It is vain to make the death-rate responsible for our inferiority. 

672. This is the point that must always be borne in mind when considering what 
is wrongly called the " natural rate of increase " amongst Anglo-Saxon nations. The 
mortal disease which is spreading itself amongst us, preventing the budding life or des- 
troying the buds before they open (abortion), does not affect old people. That thousands 
of mothers are killed every year through it we know well by information from surgeons and 
even from newspapers, but generally males and females in the new countries favoured by 
healthy climate, improved hygiene, good food and exceptional comfort, are attaining 
a high expectation of life. Yet they will all die, sure enough, just a little bit later perhaps 
than the residents in old countries. Meantime the habit of comparing birth and death 
rates is utterly fallacious. The best reckoning of all would be as a basis that of infants 
which have survived the first year of life. But supposing all were to survive the first 
and most fatal year, the effect would only improve our position in Australia by 2| per 
1000 of population and that is a position which is wholly unattainable. We lose about 
10 per cent, of the babies in the first year, and that can be lowered materially no one 
can say how much. Certainly not more than half, because it must always be remembered 
that many of them are very unwelcome and help can only be extended to mothers who 
really want to be helped, medically, hygienically, or financially. 

673. Again, as the race declines there is less vitality, more difficulty in parturition, 
more complications, more drugging of babies, than at any time in history, besides in- 
ferior lactation, great disinclination to nurse or care for babies at all amongst certain 
classes of women, never-ending augmentation of quack foods, added to enfeebled powers 
O f resistance, and imperfections in development consequent upon conjugal frauds. 

674. Those imperfect developments in the offspring, indicated by tha authorities, 
are very much more common than is generally supposed. Upon that point we can 
never have statistics. Such children, who apparently will remain imperfec. through life, 
have been pointed out to me by both physicians and laymen, whilst I had myself suspected 
some of the cases. This is by no means to claim any authority, but only to impress the 
everyday fact of deterioration. Racial deterioration in England has been the subject 
of official inquiry. In Glasgow, Edinburgh, Lancashire, and part of Yorkshire it is 
most obvious. Hence even more elaborate care of. infants than they are at all likely 
to receive, cannot possibly so eliminate the effects of the disadvantages as to bring about 
any large diminution in infantile mortality. Every effort should be made, else there will 
be a further rise in the mortality rate, as already shown in the case of certain English 
towns in which there has been a frightful fall in the number of births. 

675. It is just the same with nuptiality. It falls away in our own country because of the state of 
morals, of laws which regulate marriages and successions, and because of the ceaseless increase of 
functionarism [official employment of females]. But if folk do not marry enough in France, they do 



122 

not do much better abroad. According to SIGNOB BODIO, Chief of Statistics in Italy, in 24 States out of 
27 in Europe and America, the marriage rate from 1887 to 1891 was inferior to that of 1865 to 1869. 
Saxony and Finland have alone a nuptiality somewhat superior. The decrease is not very observable 
in France, fdr, from 8 marriages per 1000 inhabitants in 1865, it has fallen to 7.5 in 1898. Finally we 
cannot complain of the sterility of the French race. We are no more exhausted than are other peoples. 
for the proportion of sterile marriages in France is an average of 16.5 per rent, and the proportion is 
the same abroad. 

676. The true cause then is the natality, which diminishes more and more in France, as may be seen 
by the following table. (These tables are not copied because I give them in clearer and more exact 
form herein]. 

077. " There is not room for doubt," says MONSIEUR EDMOND THERY, " that it is the progressive 
decline in natality to which we must agree to attribute the arrested development of the French popu 
lation. Legitimate marriages are as numerous as during the Restoration, free unions must be even 
more frequent in our days, since the proportion of illegitimate children, which was only 6.96 per cent. 
of the new-born from 1815 to 1830, has progressively raised itself to 8.07 per cent, in the last decade 
of the century. Deaths show a notable diminution. But French women refuse more and more the 
joys and sorrows of maternity." 

678. There is nothing to discuss. If there is in France so feeble a development of the population 
that it constitutes in reality a falling-off compared with neighbouring nations, it is upon the side of 
the birthrate that it must be sought. 

THE CONSEQUENCES. 

679. The first duty of the citizen towards his country is to serve it well, the second to give it plenty of 
children. When the generative power is used only for pleasure and consequently remains sterile, 
the degeneracy of the nation which employs this Malthusian procedure is bound to be rapid. What 
is the result ? That she becomes the prey of enemies and of foreigners who watch her and who have 
multiplied their forces whilst she has lessened her own. 

680. Now the density of population per square kilometre is 206 inhabitants in Belgium, 120 in England, 
110 in Italy, 98 in Germany, 78 in Austria, and 71.8 in France. Our country possesses less and les* 
families of large size. There is much jocularity upon this point, and the hope of a child is considered 
nearly all the time as an absurdity, if not a veritable misfortune for the father and mother. In the 
place of households which formerly used to reckon six, eight, and up to a dozen children, we see nowa- 
days almost empty hearths with an only son whom his mother brings up softly, seeking every means 
to save him from the difficulties of life rather than let him battle with them. This son counts upon 
the fortune of his parents more than upon his personal energy ; and it is for this education, devoid 
of strength and virility it is in order that this only son shall repose all his life upon the pillow of 
effeminacy, that parents limit the number of their children by suppressing the younger scions. 

681. No nation can exist thus, and that is why France is exhausting herself ; her influence, her time- 
honoured rank in the world, diminish and tend to be effaced. People speak less French than formerly 
in Europe, and upon this head, our action has less effect than previously. If the nation becomes 
anaemic it appears that its thought does the same, and without wishing to attempt the work of a 
literary critic one can safely say that for the last thirty years France has not produced a single work 
of genius in philosophy, in history, or at the theatre, which has helped to maintain the preponderance 
of this intellectual focus whence warmth and light used formerly to spread themeslves over the world. 

682. Just as foreigners are invading us, so the literatures of the north tend more and more to cloud 
French intellects. Our dramatic authors go to MAETERLINCK or to BJORNSTEBNE BJOBNSON to get 
their models and their inspirations. WAGNER and his Danish and Norwegian disciples impose upon 
us in our theatres their noisy orchestrations and their roaring harmonies ; German criticism invades 
all branches of erudition ; philosophers who still believe in something limit themselves to commenting 
upon KANT, whilst others shelter their materialism under the authority of SPINOZA, of HEGEL, of 
SCHOPENHAUER. HAECKEL and HERBERT SPENCER command battalions of transformists and 
evolutionists just as LOMBROSO directs the fatalist criminologists. French socialism does not form 
a distinct and autonomous school ; it draws its doctrines from the writings of KARL MARX, of LASSALLE, 
and of ENGELS. The true chiefs of the movement are neither JAURES nor GUESDE, but, according 
to their particular school, BEBEL, VOLLMAR, BERNSTEIN, ANSEELE, SIDNEY WEBB, ENRICO FERRI. 

683. The centre of the world's thought seems to leave our country ; we no longer impose our philosophy, 
our art, our science or our literature. We seek elsewhere our models, and we think we have attained 
perfection when we borrow from England her fashions, her methods of education, her sports, and 
even her language, or when we try to copy the military, scholastic, and social legislation of Germany. 

684. Think what we will about the foregoing, it is none the less a sign of decadence. Intellectual 
domination is a proof of vitality, and it advances, in general, on a level with economic expansion. 
" Limit the number, and you limit the faculties." This formula is as true as the following : " Limit 
the number and you limit the wealth." Now it is certain that our economic expansion is lessening ; 
our redoubtable neighbour (Germany) makes for us a ruinous competition ; he has grasped certain 
industries of which we used to have the monopoly, and the figure of his commercial business increases, 
whilst ours diminishes. 



123 

85. The author proceeds at length to show how the exports of France fall off whilst 
the imports of necessaries, by reason of insufficient hands to produce the latter locally, 
are increasing. Compared with Germany she is surpassed in every way, in manufacture, 
shipbuilding, metallurgical and mineral production, e ectrical installations, and chemical 
works. 

686. Finally, Frenchmen no longer emigrate except into official positions . . . From the military 
point of view France in 1872 counted about 300,000 conscripts and Germany 330,000. Our total 
has not varied, but in 1895 Germany had 448,000 conscripts. Then, again, in fifty years Germany 
will have 80,000,000 inhabitants [she is likely to attain that figure in much less time, probably in 1927]. 
Then she will have 700,000 conscripts, whilst France will hardly have 45,000,000 inhabitants and 
350,000 conscripts. 

687. Both figures are very improbable. Apart from immigration, or subjugation 
by her neighbours, France must decrease not increase in population, and in a more pro- 
nounced degree she will have a falling off in military strength, because the proportion 
of rejections on account of degeneracy is always enlarging in some places 50 per cent, 
of impossibles ; and further, there are always fewer coming on because the numbers 
were not born. 

688. Most assuredly the future is gloomy for our country. Whilst she gets aground in the shoal 
waters of politics, other nations apply themselves, by the work and by the energy of each and all, 
to better the conditions of their existence and to make sure of their future. 

Perhaps we shall end up by becoming aware of the danger which threatens us, but then will 
it not be too late ? 

689. Here we come to an intolerably weary part of the subject, upon which whole 
books have been written and which a very little mental experiment would have sufficed 
to clear up. But there are minds to whom moral ideas appear to have no value in this 
world, and who find an explanation for all social phenomena and a cure for all social troubles 
in the adjustment one way or another of taxation. Men of high intelligence claim that 
the births from English women have lessened and are still lessening so frightfully because 
the national policy is that of free imports (excepting alcoholics and narcotics). Men 
of high intelligence claim on the other hand that French natality has fallen so low and 
continues to fall because imports are dutiable in such wise as to favour local production 
of goods. " Protection " and " Freetrade " are both blamed for the same result. Let 
us examine the facts and prove by experiment if men and women really decide to have, 
or not to have, children, for such reasons. 

690. Canada has a " protectionist " policy duties on imports to favour that local 
production which causes a demand for workers, and largely young workers amongst them. 
Does that account for Anglo-Saxons, of all classes, practising conjugal frauds and pro- 
nouncing against the baby ? Say it does. The rich want to be richer, the comfortable 
want to be rich, the poor want to be comfortable. All struggle together. But the Norman 
people of Canada have large families, abhor sexual interferences, and welcome the baby. 
Are " protective " duties the cause ? Say they are. But the rich amongst them also 
want to be richer, the comfortable want to be rich, and the poor try to improve their 
position otherwise than by killing off human germs. And they succeed in the 
general struggle, overflowing by the hundred thousand into the Great Republic, where 
they continue to procreate children (under a still stiffer " protectionist " regime), and 
these children occupy the vacant places left by the rapidly decaying Anglo-Saxons. 

691. Both Saxons and Normans are under the same regime in either country and 
it is stated that the Saxons are the " better- off " of the two sets of people meaning that 
they effect material savings in cash out of the extinguished babies, and also have more 
time to attend to what they call the main chance. It appears to be altogether indisputable, 
and therefore undisputed, that married couples, barring the extensive accidents to health, 
mind and morals, do make in this way large cash savings as individuals. But it is hard 
to see how " freetrade " or " protection " can be debited or credited, according to the 
point of view, with either the racial health and progress, or the racial degeneracy and 



124 

decay. It is unfortunately demonstrated that the chief promulgators of the practice of 
child-restriction both in France and England professed Free Trade Liberalism, as we have 
seen from their own propaganda of the restrictionist doctrine. But it will also be shown 
that a sincere belief in the wisdom of free imports, so as to cheapen living generally, was 
consistent with strong denunciation of the Malthusian " gospel," as it was called by 
JOSEPH GARNTER and preached by YVES GUYOT, both prominent freetraders. I have 
not found in the writings of the Protectionist school any association of child-prevention 
as part of their principles, but have not, on the other hand, met with any special pro- 
nouncements against it. Between the two, however, it must be said that the early 
Socialist leaders of various shades strenuously defied, denounced and ridiculed the whole 
child-prevention propaganda and all the practices connected with it. (Pars. 85, 95). 

692. The entire weight of the evidence as also set forth by the New South Wales 
Royal Commission in unmistakable language is that racial decline in Anglo-Saxondom 
is apart from political matters and has no connection at all (saving the adventitious con- 
nection of certain personalities) with fiscal policies. It is a question of morality, and 
nothing else. There always has been, we may therefore assume there always will be, 
honourable celibacy, honourable continence. Not only would these cause neither racial 
degeneracy nor racial decay ; they would elevate a people. The Commission mentioned 
reduced the whole discussion, in its conclusions, to complete selfishness. The present 
Inquiry has found lengthy arguments, but no facts, to the contrary. And there are 
herein adduced numerous facts and observations in support of the conclusion above 
stated. 

693. Demographers have, for a long time, sought to pose fixed rules or " laws " by which could be 
explained movements of population. According to the Belgian statistician QUETELET (La Physlique 
Sociale) the movement of births and deaths is in inverse ratio to the dearness of food, and he points 
out in Holland the years 1817 and 1826, years of famine, and the years of abundance 1821 and 1824 
as corresponding to the least and the greatest number of births and marriages. Thus, said he " When 
the dearness of food is well marked, we have the greatest probability of finding it written upon the 
registers of births, marriages and deaths." 

M. BERTILLON the elder published a table in which he sought to establish the influence of the 
price of wheat upon the population between 1861 and 1869. 

MONSIEUR CAUPERLIER (another Belgian statistician) formulates the following law : " The 
number of marriages in a given population is a certain index of the faculty which this population 
enjoys of procuring itself the necessary means of living. It augments when this faculty augments 
and diminishes when it diminishes." 

694. This theory is contrary to facts. For thirty years the price of wheat has fallen regularly, even 
in France and in spite of protective tariffs. Now, everywhere births and marriages fell with the 
same regularity. So the fact signalised by Quetelet was only a coincidence, or, at any rate, was only 
applicable to an epoch when, the means of transport failing, famines were produced with such an 
intensity that the movement of population was greatly affected by them. Nowadays these calculations 
have no practical dismificance and we owe them very little attention, for we have already proved that 
the depopulation in France is partly due to diminution of nuptiality but in the main to that of natality. 

695. In any case France is one of the Countries where people marry the least. Mariability, that is to 
say, the proportion between the yearly number of marriages of young women and the value of a 
feminine generation [meaning the number actually married out of the total possible number] rose 
gradually until 1862 when it attained 0.921 ; since when it has fallen to 0.821, that is to say nearly 
a fifth of the young women remained celibate. [More retrograde even than France is South Australia 
in this respect, as elsewhere shown]. 

696. This result is due, as the demographers pretend, to economic movement, to the facility, greater 
or less, that the population finds to satisfy the wants of life ! The theory is ingenious certainly, but 
it demands considerable mental flexibility to make it coincide with the augmentation of mariability : 
in Holland, with the benefits of free trade ; in England with a material prosperity that is pretty 
doubtful ; in Prussia, with the advantages that the country has drawn from the war of 1 870 [to say 
nothing of her rigid " protectionist " policy] ; in Belgium with a period of sixty years of peace. All 
that is perhaps partly true, but how are we to apply the law of Quetelet to France whose economic 
activity has assuredly grown since 1840, at the same time that the conditions of life have improved 
from the material point of view, yet where the number of births and of marriages ceaselessly diminishes ? 

697. What influence has the price of wheat had upon the birthrate ? The result of the tables pub- 
lished by MONS. CAUTJERLIER for France, England, Prussia and Belgium show that, for one hundred 
and fifty years under observation, if a logical relation seems to be established 77 times between 



125 

the rise in wheat and the fall in fecundity, the direct opposite is the case during the other 73 years. 
Perhaps in agricultural countries like Prussia, an important rise in wheat might at any given moment 
influence legitimate fecundity ; but generally, and above all since the introduction of railroads, these 
changes of prices are certainly due to market speculations and do not count at all in the demo- 
graphic view. 

698. It is quite the same with the general prosperity of a country. Taking 189 years studied by 
Mons. Cauderlier, the fecundity followed 102 times the fluctuation of this prosperity and 87 times 
it did not follow it. Therefore the German statisticians are right in asserting that nothing at all 
permits us to perceive the influence of economic conditions upon the fecundity of a country. 

899. The theory set forward by DR. JANSSENS in the Academy of Sciences of Belgium, is more general 
and consequently more exact. According to him, Belgium is divisible into two quite distinct groups 
in point of view of natality, the Flemmings and the Walloons. The former show the maximum natality 
and the latter the minimum. But, says he, child restriction manifests itself at the same time in a 
certain number of districts on the French border, which is accountable from the fact that these districts 
have the maximum number of marriages and at the same time a minimum of births. [The comparison 
between Flemmings and Walloons reminds us of the same difference between Normans and Anglo- 
Saxons in Canada]. 

700. It is impossible to follow these authors through all their extremely diffuse ex- 
amination of the supposed causes of voluntary infecundity. The multiplicity of their 
guesses becomes distracting as well as wearisome. And yet our present Inquiry could be 
of little value if we reposed solely upon the careful and precise conclusions of the New 
South Wales Royal Commission without offering a fairly exhaustive summary of the 
earnest, honest and laborious researches of the demographers of the day. The English 
Economists who strove to bring about the present state of things in France and England 
a sharp and general decline in reproduction as the cure for poverty, mostly rejected 
the time-honoured idea of a Divine governance by fixed laws ; ridiculed the practice of 
beliefs founded upon social affections ; and abrogated the ancient sanctions of morality 
whilst setting up a quasi-Darwinian theory of natural selection, by demanding the " free 
play of " what, they called " natural forces." This was in conflict with Darwin's recorded 
personal opinions, but was supposed by them to be in accord with his demonstration of 
natural selection. It was solely argumentative. 

701. But we have seen that in Great Britain where their propaganda has been accepted 
in full, with social and political sanction, grinding poverty remains and pauperism always 
increases. Public inquiry into racial deterioration has only produced proofs of it. Racial 
reproduction falls fast towards the French level, which level the French authorities de- 
clare to be that of national dissolution. Hence we must regard the ancient belief in the 
Divine origin of man and Divine control by laws, as possessing unshaken all its foundations. 
The whole study throws us back every time upon the rejection of obligation as the one 
all-sufficing cause of our troubles, present and much greater to come. Otherwise stated, 
it shows to us selfishness, which includes injustice and national wrongdoing, as the active 
and adequate cause. 

702. There has been much written about the effect of the division of property upon the march of 
population. This idea, also stated by M. Bertillon, is contradicted by statistics. Here is a table 
which we have extracted from general statistics and which applies to five departments in which pro- 
perty is the most divided, the least divided, and to those which present an intermediate posit ; on. 
[Table of no special interest to us]. We should arrive at the same proofs if we presented a general 
table of which the preceding one is only a sort of resume. The result is that M. Bertillon is in default, 
at least as far as concerns France. And it is the same for the other nations. It has been taken up 
by TALLQUIST, who has specially tried to apply it to legitimate fecundity. He has compared the varia- 
tions of this fecundity with the average age of couples when married, with the number of landed 
possessions, the number of marriage certificates signed by the parties, the rate of wages of the work- 
men, the number of savings bank books, the amount of the personal and household taxes paid, the 
number of the members of benefit societies, and from it all he concludes that fecundity diminishes in 
proportion as progress and savings and democratic ideas develop. But his conclusions are often 
contradictory. Thus (page 84 of his pamphlet published at Helsingfors in 1886) he affirms that the 
natural tendency of the augmentation of wealth is to increase fecundity, whilst that of the diminution 
of wealth is to lower it. Then a little further on (page 90) we read that " ease and sterility are parallel 
with one another." Sometimes foresight favours early marriages (page 97) and sometimes it retards 
them. 



126 

In his fifth chapter Mons. Clement deals with the causes, and commences thus : 

703. They are manifold, for France is "undermined by a silent malady which is killing us slowly 
without shock : it is anaemia. Our social body requires energetic medical treatment which shall 
bring it back to life and restore its activity and energy." 

704. Let us not dissimulate the trouble. That France should be " like the sympathetic smile of 
civilisation," as SIONOR CRISPI said in his discourse at Palermo, is quite possible, and we have every 
reason to consider ourselves highly honoured that we should thus be crowned with flowers, but it 
is none the less true that (according to CHARLES BENOIST) " she is slowly sinking amongst the nations." 

705. In the front row of the causes which produce the decline and depopulation of the country, we have 
to place without insisting any further, for the fact is overwhelmingly evident, the forgetting of faith 
and of religious observances. Depopulation does not manifest itself in fact in the poorest departments 
but in the most prosperous, in the material sense, in Burgundy and in Normandy. Brittany on the 
contrary remains fecund, as also Auvergne, Aveyron, and the other departments of the Centre. They 
owe their fecundity to their fidelity to the faith of their fathers and to the traditions of the old French 
families. 

706. The adversaries of religion reply that Christian beliefs are not very favourable to population 
because they turn minds towards mysticism, and that notably the celibacy of the priests is a cause 
of decline from this point of view. No thine is more false than this sophism. "It is materialism 
which seeks to solve this question by sterility," says Charles Perin, " whilst the Catholic mind resolves 
it by fecundity. Nothing can better assure the regular propagation of familes than the examples of 
virtue that are exhibited by those who, by the vow of chastity, have consecrated their lives to our common 
Lord. These examples are a more efficacious preaching than any other to raise the heart of the father 
of the family above the narrow occupations of material interest. They make him look at life under its 
true aspect, that of a combat whose prize is, not false wealth and grandeur, but the true dignity and 
the pure joy of souls in the accomplishment of the divine precepts. They silence in him calculations 
for the future they turn him from those shameful calculations which reduce the number of children 
so as to assure ease to himself. Very far then from religions celibacy introducing sterility into those 
societies which practice it, it maintains on the contrary fecundity amongst them." (Premiers principes 
d'Economie Politique, page 243). Now the question of ecclesiastical celibacy is above all moral 
and social. On earth, everyone has his role and his place, each has a duty to fulfil. " Where duty is 
there is the vocation " was well said by M. DBS CILLEULS in his book " La Population," page 24. 
To some it is the call to be heads of families, to assure the perpetuity of the race and the future 
of their country by giving it children. The others are men of work, men of prayer. If there were 
only priests and nuns in the world, it would manifestly be an abnormal and absurd situation, just 
as it would be were there only scientists and engineers. The harmony of any society demands that 
every function shall be recruited in the proportion which is adequate to its utility, to ite cause for 
existence. If then religious celibacy does not in any country surpass the limits that its own mission 
assigns to it, it constitutes a buttress to society, a necessary part of the structure from the human 
point of view, instead of becoming a peril to it, as those believe who misunderstand the services that 
the Church has rendered to France. The man of religion gives to the young, instruction and education 
or occupies himself with charitable works. Certain orders guard the treasures of science and erudition, 
but above all, the priest teaches Christian law and morality which raise up the heart of man, and 
which, better than all human systems, cause the lights of heaven to descend to the daily groove 
wherein humanity travails and groans, teaching man resignation and giving him hope. It is thanks 
to this Christian faith that the robust families of ancient France were founded whose branches bravely 
spread around the stem, and it is because this faith is disowned and forgotten in our time ; because 
people think of nothing more than the daily life and present comforts ; that the race fades and perishes, 

707. Let us seek elsewhere the primordial cause of our distemper. Let us not say, for example, 
that the soil no longer supports the farmer, that phylloxera ruins him, that unsaleable wines draj; 
him down to poverty, and that it is not surprising that natality falls off in France. Of course agri- 
cultural and industrial crises have their influence upon the movement of population : but the evil is 
more general than that, its cause is deeper. Under the pressure of new ideas, the French married 
couple is disorganised and is no longer properly armed for the struggle of life. Therefore, in order to 
make a better position for his children, the father restricts the number of them. 

708. This phase of the subject is dealt with more fully and clearly by M. ABSENE 
DUMONT, whom we shall prefer to follow. In the judgment of the learned advocate, 
M. Henry Clement, material conditions and care for the future are an important demographic 
element. That, he says, leads him to examine the financial and fiscal system of his 
country. The tremendous subject of racial decline, national decay and decadence, 
receives in France as we see (par. 968) only a position of secondary importance in the 
legislative view. In Great Britain, Australia, and Anglo-Saxondom all round, it is neither 
of secondary nor tertiary regard in the eyes of legislatures, for nothing whatever has been 



127 

done, and nothing proposed, to check the British nations in their fatal slide. At the 
best there can only be slow and partial amelioration, whilst the process of racial elimin- 
ation must continue. That is in no way prophecy, it is mere arithmetical fact, as will 
be herein shown ad oculos. And the financial point of view is here taken, not at all as 
for itself, or that its importance is on the same plane as that of racial preservation, but 
solely for its demographic outlook. 

709. From bankruptcy, devastation, and pestilence nations can and do recover. 
After suffering from all three, peoples have soon become rich, prosperous and strong. 
But when malignant disease has once attacked a race, as it does an individual, and the 
subtle poison pervades the system, only heroic remedies can avail. Many physicians 
suggest many remedies, but we only know the disease by its fatal and terrible operation, 
and give it a name. The attempts of CJESAR AUGUSTUS in Rome were only palliatives, 
and the like would fail again. The only proof they afford is that you cannot purchase 
morality and motherhood. You can distort instincts and pervert growths, but having 
started the disorder you cannot arrest it by anodynes. You must use the knife. And 
then arise the financial, and the other, difficulties. These are what provoked the despairing 
words of TITUS LIVIUS at the sight of the putrid ulcers of Rome. 



FINANCIAL EFFECTS. 

710. Where practicable, money values will be translated into English currencies. 
All relate to years before 1906, but they are since merely intensified. 

Our debt is 1,216,000,000 without reckoning that of the communes and departments which is 
60,000,000 and that of Paris which is 96,000,000, plus a floating debt of 48,000,000, say a total 
of 1,420,000,000 (35 milliards 525 millions). These figures are from the *' Comptes de la Dette 
Publique," published by the Minister of Finance in 1901, vol. II., page 7. Our budget expenses have 
increased by 80,000,000 from 1876 to 1898 and from 1898 to 1901 by another 9,000,000 For 1902 
the budget of expenses is 144,000,000 without reckoning the supplementary credits 3,000,000 and 
the Chinese loan 10,000,000. The revenue and expenditure in 1901 showed a deficit of 12,000,000. 

In 1876 each citizen paid 3 3s (79 francs) taxation. In 1902, according to M. Caillaux, he 
pays 3 16s. 6d. The Minister has only taken into account, in his calculations, the budget of the 
State ; but if we add the communal and departmental taxes, the total budget exceeds 200,000,000 
(5 milliards) and every citizen pays more than 5 4s. yearly in taxes. And this dizzy course is always 
accentuating itself. The expenses of the war of 1870 were paid long ago ; the same with school 
buildings and railroads comprised in Freycinet's plan, yet the budget ceaselessly swells. Landed 
property paid, in 1 882, 32.32 per cent, of its revenue in land tax. It pays to day 48.6 per cent. House 
property paid 63.46 per cent. It pays to-day 92.86 per cent. Hence the valuation of landed property 
has fallen from 3,680,000,000 to 2,520,000,000 (from 92 milliards to 63 milliards). For fear of 
collectivism, capital emigrates and personal property has diminished by one-fourth. Small savings 
have fallen away in similar degree. In 1901 the savings banks received 680,000 less than in the 
preceding year. In 1902 the difference was multiplied tenfold. 

711. The conclusion ia plain : as the number of young citizens capable of working 
and bearing the burdens, falls away, the number of the old, sick, infirm, insane, criminal 
and vicious increases. The army and navy cannot increase, but the cost does. So that 
the fewer there are capable of paying taxes, the more taxes per caput must be paid, and 
as the ratio must accelerate, there will be no possible chance of bringing in reforms, as 
fairly lavished in Germany, to relieve the childbearers. Consequently there will be still 
fewer children, and fewer possible mothers, in each year. As the farmer saves the seed- 
corn, so he loses the harvest. The Economic gospel is perfectly correct in asserting that 
it is cheaper to have fewer, or no children. But cheapness very often costs dearly later on. 
That is where the French are, and that is where we are eagerly following. An influx of 



128 

children now would further raise the demand for taxation, for they must be sustained 
during many years. Undoubtedly they would call forth the loftiest patriotism, the 
noblest resolution and the best energies, but all that is unthinkable in the case of denatured, 
anaemic, and enervated peoples. 

712. What appeal is there to epicures ? They live the lives they bargained for, and 
afterwards the Deluge. The sun shines, Longchamps is where it was, the Boulevard 
des Italiens is just as usual, the theatres are as funny, and lubricity is as attractive as 
ever. Toil is tiresome and times are hard. It is painful to have children and they are 
no less troublesome and expensive than they used to be. Prospects are not too good for 
them, and the struggle for life is fierce. " Rather than see them in the gutters, we prefer 
to have none at all." It is easy to slide and even pleasant while it lasts. " Do you 
think," said a rich Continental legislator to me, " that a woman cares a fig about what 
will happen to the nation in a generation or two ? She'll snap her fingers at any suggestion 
that she is expected to help to save it !" However true that may be, it would be a very 
strong appeal to his own wife, being a German of the best type, and their family give the 
strongest evidence, by numbers and physique, of a different moral code. Once again, 
there are only the words duty and morality on the one side, and all the arguments on 
the other. Nature and Nemesis will silently take charge of the result. 



THE POPULATION OF FRANCE AND THE INFLUENCE OF THE CIVIL CODE (LAWS 
OF SUCCESSION) UPON THE FRENCH BIRTH-RATE. 

LA POPULATION DE LA FRANCE ET LE CODE CIVIL OU INFLUENCE DU REGIME 
SUCCESSORAL SUR LE MOUVEMENT DE LA NATALITE FRANCAISE. 

Par CHAKLES RAISIN. Bourg-en-Bresse. 1901. 

713. In a book of about 200 pages the author, who is a Government official in the 
provinces, sets forth with pains and exactitude, supported by statistics, the thesis that 
the laws of succession in France are not blamable for the decline in natality. In viewing 
this subject of racial maintenance and perpetuation, to which only casual and superficial 
attention upon the part of statesmen appears to be given, there is consequently an indolent 
and generally jocular habit of guessing at a cause that is to be taken as all-sufficing. The 
common attitude amongst British people in regard to national decline is amusement, and 
the remarks upon it are mere jest and jibe. With those who claim to be thoughtful, 
expressions of satisfaction and approval at the spread of the practice of child-restriction 
are even more frequent, as far as observation and inquiry can extend, than are regrets 
at the rapid advance of sterility. In France itself it does not appear to occupy the mind 
of the public generally that their nation has passed definitely the line of actual dissolution 
and that she is, to use the phrase adopted by so many writers, " dans son agonie." In 
both countries the healing professions, to accept their journalists as representative, are 
wide awake to the advance of the malignant disease. The other classes of the community, 
excepting sections of the clergy, are all but wholly indifferent. It therefore becomes 
a duty to look at each alleged and accepted explanation, however plain it may be that 
the only cause of artificial sterility is decay of morals, suppression of moral principle. 

714. From the very first words of this pamphlet will be seen how French sociologists 
recognised the danger to the nation of the decline in natality, so far back as 1870. The 
celebrated work of Dr. Bergeret was first published in that year. Yet the birth-rate was 



129 

then as high as, even a little higher for several years than, the present English rate. The 
latter scale is on a much steeper decline, as shown herein, and should therefore be more 
alarming. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

715. For a period of nearly thirty years, economists and others who interested themselves in social 
questions pointed out as an increasing danger the depopulation of France. What do we understand 
by this word depopulation ? Is France to see the number of her inhabitants diminish whilst around 
her all the nations find their population augmenting at each census ? If it were 30, we might say that 
our unhappy land is very near to ruin, for history is there to tell us that when a country augments its 
wealth at the expense of its numbers, the inhabitants of the neighbouring countries quickly set about 
seizing it whilst claiming the right of the stronger. 

We are still far from such a sad situation, but if our population does not diminish in the strict 
sense of the word, it does not increase as rapidly as those of the neighbouring nations, and the specially 
afflicting facts as ascertained by the last census show us annual increases insignificant beside those 
of the great European peoples and of Germany in particular. That suffices as occasion for alarm and 
lays upon us the duty of ascertaining the causes of the evil so as to discover the remedy 

Before seeking to realise in its own existence this or that philosophic conception, each nation is 
bound to assure its independence, because in our days independence is dearly purchased. It is when 
sheltered by a solid army that a civilised people can freely develop its commerce and its industry, 
whilst affording to its citizens that security without which there is no possible happiness. In the 
military sphere the question of numbers asserts all its importance, for the progress of artillery rendering 
more difficult the meeting of two armies at short distances, each soldier han hardly anv more value than 
a unit. In this respect statistics give us serious reasons to be alarmed, because while France gains in 
men the value of one battalion, Germany gains two regiments. 

716. "I see with sorrow." says Dr. Bertillon, " the proof of the approaching disappearance of our 
country. In 1841 Germany had about half the population of France, she has now fourteen millions 
more. During five years Germany gained three millions inhabitants, France the contemptible figure 
of 1 75,000. The Germans know it, and as they are men of taste, it was one of their favourite conver- 
sations with me when I was travelling in their country. A German doctor, HERB ROMELL, writes : 
' The policy of races is pitiless. The moment is approaching when the five poor sons of the German 
family, attracted by the resources and the fertility of France, will go and put an end to the solitary son 
of the French family ' ' ' . . . . 

717. So public opinion has been rapidly moved in France, leagues have been formed, congresses held 
to give dissertations upon the causes of the depopulation, to indicate the danger and to discover the 
remedy. Amongst work due to private initiative we must point out the efforts of Doctors BERTILLON, 
JAVAL and RICHIT, who in 1895 founded at Paris the " National Alliance for the Increase of French 
Population." The object of this league is defined by its name. Its action has not remained com- 
pletely useless ; it has provoked in the French public a salutary reaction by showing it the present 
danger of augmenting capital at the expense of the increase of the family. 

718. " The fecundity of Germany," said M. Cheysson, one of the most active members of the Alliance, 
costs her every year 1,200 million francs (48,000.000) which sum is economised by the sterility of 
France fatal and ruinous economy which squanders the future for the profit of the present, as would 
be that of the farmer who would sacrifice the harvest to save the seed." 

719. The committee of the Alliance addressed itself finally to the public powers in order to solicit 
from the Government the necessary means to begin the movement. To its influence is due the vote 
of the budget of 1897 which lowered the taxation in favour of fathers of families having more than 
seven living children. Since then it has caused the proposal of various legislative reforms not yet 
voted, but destined to procure certain advantages in the public offices to fathers of several children. 
Finally, this very year, the hon. senator of the Cote-d'Or, M. Piot, placed upon the table of the two 
Chambers a pamphlet which contains a remarkable resume of legislative measures, fiscal reforms, 
military and civil reforms designed to favour the increase of population. [M. Piot is also the author 
of a bill laid upon the table of the Senate on the 30th October, 1900, intended to arrest the depopulation 
of France, firstly by imposing supplementary taxes upon bachelors aged over thirty years and upon 
married couples without children after five years of marriage; secondly, in according pecuniary assistance 
to fathers of families having more than four children]. 

This effort, inspired by the most generous motives, will not remain, we believe, useless. It 
wa*> produced at the moment when public opinion, already moved by the campaign of the National 
Alliance, was quite disposed to accept reforms which legislators could offer in the interest of population. 
We believe that, without exaggerating the reforming influences of laws, without forgetting the truth 
of the old adage quid le?es sine moribUS, we may ask legislators to encourage by all possible means 
the creation of large families. 

720. Eight years have elapsed since the book was written. We hear little of the 
Alliance now. Some of the noble physicians who founded and supported it have died, 



130 

others are discouraged, and the legislative measures have been rejected. The diagnostic 
insight of healers, the attitude of patient investigation which is their wont, the single 
desire to regard facts in finding the truth, together with distrust of the merely argumenta- 
tive faculty, cause them to prognosticate in France and in England danger and disaster. 

721. But it does not suffice to have comprehended the danger that France might run, we must further 
discover the causes of the decline and the checks recorded in the ascendant march of her population. 
Here we meet the greatest diversity of solutions that ever a scientific problem could receive. There 
is no science, there is no school that has not claimed to explain the phenomenon of depopulation. 
Some by reasons of the physiologic order weakening of the race, development of alcoholism and 
of debauchery ; others see in the democratic and republican Constitution an obstacle to the develop- 
ment of the species ; others, finally, think that the cause of the evil is in the heart of man itself, in 
his psychologic state and his will not to have children. 

722. The truth appears to us to be in the widest eclecticism which permits each of these suggested 
causes to take its share. We can by no means attribute the decline of French population to this or 
that cause, to the exclusion of the others. Nothing that is human can be allowed to remain foreign 
to this complex and heart-stirring question, and we hold that all hasty judgment should be avoided 
in such a matter. 

723. From the start of the reaction against Malthusianism the demographers, following the materialist 
movement which so carried away minds and literature, tried to explain French depopulation by reason 
of the purely physiologic order. They pretended that our race was not so prolific as the Anglo-Saxon, 
or that it has lost the sap of its fecundity ; they pointed to the development of nervous maladies, of 
licentiousness, of alcoholism and of prostitution, as being quite as much causes of the decline, and 
as being morbid germs for our race. That was the epoch of the great success in the domain of letters 
attained by the " naturalistic " school. Its most complete expression is to be found in the great work 
of the Rougon-Macquart [EMILB ZOLA'S " La Debacle " and other of his writings] which is the picture 
of the hereditary consequences of alcoholism and of prostitution upon the members of a single family. 
The quick success of these studies in social biology certainly contributed to make common knowledge 
of the physiological causes of depopulation. 

724. But whilst later our literature was abandoning this "naturalism " the French demographers 
proceeded from the study and description of those facts to seeV in psychology, in the heart of the human 
being itself, the causes of depopulation. The conclusions of the studies of these demographers, con- 
clusions with which we entirely agree, are that the true cause of depopulation is in the choice, thoroughly 
proved in the case of the majority of French married people, to restrict the number of their childien. 

The French can have, but will not have, progeny. 

This sorrowful discovery could not surprise us, for it is natural to seek the cause of such a personal 
fact as the procreation of a human being, in acts of volition. But it is not enough to know that the 
French voluntarily limit the number of their children, and here the question poses itself, complex 
as it is in another way, " Why don't they want to have children ?" 

A problem very difficult to solve, because all volitional act of man supposes the influence of 
manifold causes, of which he is sometimes not perfectly conscious himself. We shall see presently 
what are the origins of the disquieting phenomenon of voluntary restriction and we shall devote our 
study to the examination of one of the causes : the influence of the successoral regime of our Civil 
Code. It may seem strange that we should seek in the Civil Code, that venerable monument of our 
legislation, the cause of French depopulation and the accusation may at first sight appear paradoxical. 

The indictment was, however, formulated by a man least inclined to paradox, by one of the 
most serious economists of the nineteenth century we mean M. LK PLAY. 

725. Le Play, who had the idea of building up society upon principles of the highest morality, was 
the first, we believe, to point out the nefarious influence of the successoral regime upon the movement 
of population. W e find these criticisms developed in the best known of his works ; " La Reforme 
Sociale." They may be classed under two quite distinct heads (I) the influence of the succeasoral 
regime upon parent* and (2) the influence of the same regime upon children. 

The father of the family, we are told, restricts the number of his children in order to avoid the 
fatal effects of forced partition of the heritage between the heirs, a partition which would involve 
the parcelling out of his land, or the ruin of his industry and his commerce. On their side, the children, 
sure of receiving their share in the paternal heritage, lose the taste for work and struggle. They 
neglect to make personal efforts to create for themselves a position. The regime of equal partition 
in France kills the spirit of enterprise, first condition of the fecundity of a people, for the race cannot 
multiply itself in a country when energy is in default and when each recoils before the fear of eventuali- 
ties. 

726. After Le Play, these criticisms have been taken up by his disciples and formulated by the organ 
of his school, " La Reforme Sociale." They have gathered around his banner numerous economists- 
and let us also add, many discontented souls for whom the opportunity always e^ems good enough 



131 

to make the law responsible for our ills. Also we find upon the part of these pupils of M. Le Play a 
vexatious disposition of mind which often makes them exaggerate the evil in order more severely to 
condemn the institutions of our country. 

It appeared interesting to us to inquire into the real foundation of thesa criticisms, and in what 
measure we should hold the Civil Code and the successoral regime responsible for the depopulation of 
Prance. 

727. M. Raisin then proceeds to prove his thesis by a long and elaborate series of 
statistical quotations, amongst others one that ought to contain a lesson for our people 
and which will be dealt with in a little more detail herein and upon more recent figures. 
It has been repeatedly alluded to and partially set forth in the first volume of this Report, 
namely, the decay of the Anglo-Saxon race in the New England States. He shows how 
in each of five states, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Connecticut and Massachusetts, 
that the natality is materially lower than that of France. That the mean of the former 
was 19.5 per 1000 of population and the mean of latter 23.2. That is to say, France was 
twenty per cent, higher. He omits all mention of Rhode Island, although the figures 
of the city of Providence, carefully kept for half a century, are the most striking and 
instructive. However, they are supplied in the first volume hereof. 

723. Thus we see that the law of depopulation in America, a country as advanced in civilisation as 
France itself, is undermining a race always cited as the most prolific the Anglo-Saxon. It is curious 
even to find that the population of New England only sustains itself thanks to the immigration of Cana- 
dians of the French race, which every year abandon the neighbouring territories of the Dominion to 
seek their fortune in the American Republic. 

Upon depopulation in Anglo-Saxon countries see PIERKB LEROY-BEAULIEF " La Natalite des 
Pays Neufs a Civilisation Avancee. Economiste Francais du 2 Mai, 1896. LEVASSBCTB, " La Popu- 
lation Franca ; se," Tome III., p. 198. 

These proofs are of a nature to make us contemplate the future of our country under colours 
that are less sombre, and they permit us to hope that the great European nations will very soon be 
submitted to the effects of the same law and that the demographic situation of France will end by bal- 
ancing itself with that of the other civilised countries. But whilst waiting for this equilibrium to 
establish itself, and we cannot fix the epoch for it, France should defend herself and maintain her 
position in the world. 

729. Solamen miseris est socios habuisse malonun ! If it be really " a solace to the 
wretched to have had companions in misfortune," it is but cold comfort. There is indeed 
probability amounting to certainty that England will occupy the present demographic 
position of France in the near future, unless there be a great change in the " psychologic 
condition " of the British people. But of that changed mentality there is no visible 
sign. And there would be no greater error than to suppose that a similar decline is common 
to the rest of the European nations. 

730. In dealing with the census figures of families and of celibates, M. Raisin con- 
cludes thus : 

If we comment upon the figures in this table we see that 69 per cent., more than two-thirds of 
the population, is formed by celibates, by couples who have no children, and by those having two children 
at the most. That furnishes us with the explanation of French depopulation, but we know that this 
phenomenon of restriction is not the sad monopoly of France. It is produced with the greatest intensity 
amongst the countries of Anglo-Saxon race, such as those of New England. "In France," M. Ranon 
tells us in the Refonne Sociale of 1st June, 1891, " married couples desire to have few children. In 
New England they desire to have none at all 

" Many girls marry only upon the express condition that their life in common shall not be troubled 
by the terror of a household and the bother of children. They are brought up to this role, which is both 
odious and ridiculous, morally and materially." 

Seventeen years have passed since those remarks of M. Raisin were written, 
the writer could now add with equal justice New Zealand, Australia, and Old England. 



132 
MICHAEL FIGHTING SATAN. 

THE PROBLEM OF DEPOPULATION. 

Programme of the National Alliance for the Increase of French Population. 

731. Dr. JACQUES BBETILLON, a patriot whose researches, whose writings and whose 
name are of world- wide celebrity, supplied an article to the " Revue Politique et Parlemen- 
taire " issued on 10th June, 1897. It is of epochal importance and I have translated 
several pages as below. It records the effort commenced a dozen years ago to retrieve the 
ruin to morals and national life, brought about in chief by the school which was founded 
in England by Adam Smith and his disciple Thomas Robert Malthus, promulgated 
therefrom by enthusiastic followers down to our own day, and still having full vogue. 

732. L' Alliance Nationale pour I'accroissement de la population frangaise, very recently founded, 
has met with a most flattering reception from everybody ; it is daily recruited by the adhesion of 
distinguished and sometimes celebrated men. The newspapers have joked a little we expected that 
yet nearly always they speak of it with sympathy and often they seriously study some parts of 
its programme. Notwithstanding, it is pretty difficult for them through want of space to make it known 
in its entirety. Hence it results that the public even the educated part know little about it and are 
not in a position to judge. I propose to explain it here. 

First of all it is necessary to recall briefly the gravity of the scourge, and the terrible consequences 
that it assuredly will have unless it be confronted immediately and energetically. 

L THE DECLINE OF FRANCE. 

733. Upon the progressive effacement of France during two centuries. That France should occupy 
in the civilised world a less place to-day than formerly is only what the following figures unfortunately 
prove to us. I borrow them from M. LEVASSKUR. 

At the end of the 17th century there were only in Europe three great powers, for Spain had already 
lost all her strength. Here we show what was their population : 

POPULATION OF THB GREAT POWERS OF EUROPE IN 1700 

France, 20 millions. 

Great Britain and Ireland, 8 to 10 millions. 

German Empire, 19 millions . 
States comprised in part in the German Empire : 

Austria, 12 to 13 millions. 

Prussia, 2 millions. 

Say in all 50 millions. France then contained 40 per cent, of the population of the great powers 
of Europe. Further we must remark that the German Empire was very far from having the cohesion 
which it has to-day. It was divided amongst a great number of sovereigns of whom the most powerful, 
the Austrian, held no more than 12 or 13 millions under his sceptre. France was not the greatest in 
extent, but the most populous of all the European monarchies, and consequently the most powerful 
from the economic and from the military point of view. 

Louis XIV. and Louis XV. used this power so ill that they diminished it, and this is how it 
was modified in the course of the century, from the above table : 

POPULATION OF THB GREAT POWERS IN 1789 

France 26 millions. 

Great Britain and Ireland . . 12 millions. 

Russia 26 millions. 

German Empire . . . . . . 28 millions. 

States comprised in part of the German Empire- 
Austria . . . . . . 18 millions. 

Prussia . . . . . . . . 5 millions. 

734. It may here be pointed out that ADAM SMITH, writing in 1775, made his suggestion 
of restricting the number of the young, when there were not, so far as can be known, 12 
million inhabitants in the whole territory of England, Scotland and Ireland. Had 
Malthusianism possessed the force then that it has now, what would have become of 
England in the wars of 20, 30 and 40 years later ? 



133 

T35. Say there were in all 91 millions. France figured in this total for 27 per cent, only, no longer 
40 per cent, as under Louis XIV. Yet she had the addition of Lorraine and Corsica, but Germany 
has found her population gradually increasing, and moreover Russia has taken a place amongst the 
Great Powers. 

From that epoch foreign nations have much increased themselves, and besides Italy has been 
constituted. Whilst the French nation has only a miserable increase, her neighbours aggrandise 
and multiply themselves, populate continents, extend their commerce thither, and fill the entire world 
with their language, their ships and their armies. 

POPULATION OF THK GRBAT POWBRS OP EUROPE TOWARDS 1890 

France 38.3 millions. 

Great Britain and Ireland .. 38.1 
Austria- Hungary . . . . . . 43.2 

German Empire . . . . . . 49.4 ,, 

Russia-in- Europe . . . . . . 100.0 

Italy .. .. .. 30.5 

Say in all 300 millions, France only counting for 12 per cent. And less than two centuries ago, hei 
ratio was 40 per cent. ! Yet in the preceding table we have only reckoned the British who inhabit 
the United Kingdom, whilst those of their colonies contribute none the less to the British power. 
Neither have we reckoned the United States, yet it is certain they will interfere more and more in 
the politics of Europe, as they interfere now in its commerce. 

736. Without doubt the effacement of France in the world is due in part to political causes. But 
a glance at our figures suffices to show that the principal cause of our relative decline is the incredibly 
slight growth of our population. Compare the English people which without any annexation of 
territory raised itself between 1700 and 1890 from 8 to 38 million inhabitants without counting the 
colonists with which it has inundated America, Australia, the Cape, India, etc., as against our population 
which has not even doubled since the time of Louis XIV., in spite of the annexation of five provinces. 

737. Hie universality of the French Language is disappearing. The above tables measure pretty 
exactly the political and military influence of France for two centuries. This goes on lessening all 
the time. Her moral and intellectual influence, which was one so preponderant, is just as much 
compromised. The language of Voltaire was that which 27 persons out of every 100 of the European 
population spoke from babyhood. Therefore the remainder of intelligent Europe exerted itself to 
acquire such a language. None could rival it. Nowadays if a new Voltaire were given to France, 
by whom would he be understood ? Hardly by 46 millions of persons (French, Swiss, Belgians, 
Creoles, and Canadians). But if that writer were German instead of French, the circle of his possible 
readers would be increased from single to double, because Germans, Austrians and Swiss form a total 
Of 100,000,000 people speaking German. Finally, if this writer were English his works would have 
the chance to spread themselves over the entire earth, for to-day there are 115,000,000 people speaking 
English, and this number goes on increasing. That refers to those of whom English is the mother 
tongue. Those for whom English is the official language number 440 millions, forming almost the 
third of humanity. 

738. Quantity and Quality. " Very good," say some of the obstinate optimists, " but the quality of 
men is worth more than the quantity. The French are less and less numerous, but they are worth 
more than the others ! " What an extravagant and untenable pretension ! The French have 
certainly precious qualities, but like all other men, they have regrettable faults. To balance the one 
with the other is a terribly delicate operation, and what is more, rather puerile. In our times a 
European is worth a European ; a Frenchman is worth a German or an Englishman. If there is 
any difference in value it is questionable if it would be in our favour ; and again it is so slight that 
it is not worth talking about. 

Diminution of natality for a century. This decadence of France is due, we have said, to the 
rarity of births in our country. France is in fact, of all the countries of Europe, that in which the 
natality is much the lowest. Besides natality being low in France, it ceaselessly diminishes. France 
is the only great country in Europe where we meet with this disquieting phenomenon. 

739. That was written when the French natality was 22 ; to-day the English rate 
is 26 and that of South Australia under 24. When we bring into account the string of 
young lives sent to Australia and New Zealand, the rates of the latter countries are even 
worse than the English rate. 

740. We see that the scourge has extended itself over our country slowly and progressively since 
the opening of the 19th century, marching at an even pace under all governments. All of them, 
moreover, were perfectly indifferent ; worse still, they were ignorant of it. This plague is general 
over all the country. 

All the departments, without exception, present a decline of natality since the beginning of 
the century. Upon the banks of the Garonne and more recently in Burgundy it has been particularly 
rapid. It has been slower, but very observable however, in Brittany and even in the North. 



i34 

741. From the beginning of the century, the French birth-rate in all the departments haa not ceased 
to fall and to approach the rate of mortality. At a given moment the two curves are bound to cross. 
That is what is happening in each part of the territory, as the following figures, extracted from the 
last census, show : 

1886 1891 1896 

Departments where the population decreases . . 29 55 64 

Departments where the population increases . . 58 32 23 

Which means that, in the last place, the diminution was general except in the departments which 
contained great towns. The latter increased not by the excess of births over deaths, but by the 
migration of country people towards the towns. For five years almost regularly, deaths are more 
than the births. From this point of view the new statistics of 1895 are especially terrifying. Deaths 
are greater than the births in 58 departments, and amongst the 29 others there are only two (the 
Nord and the Pas-de-Calais) where the births are in excess, say 19,835 for two departments. It 
must be remarked that the natality of these two departments, the most fecund of France, is itself 
very feeble. It is hardly 29 births per 1000. Very few regions outside of France show such restricted 
natality. In all the other departments the results are deplorable. Even in Brittany, whose fecundity 
is legendary, Dle-et-Vilaine shows an excess of deaths, and the Cotes-du-Nord hardly balance theirs. 

What shall we say of the Norman, Burgund and Gascon departments ? In the most of them the 
number of deaths exceeds by one-third that of the births ! For example, in 1'Eure there are 6,100 
births and 9,600 deaths, that is to say, two births for three deaths. L'Orne, 1'Aube, le Cotes-d'Or, 
le Gere, le Lot-et-Garonne, etc., are all in the same boat. In twelve departments there are three 
deaths for two births, which means that we have here the schema [the fashion! of the married people 
which inhabit them. When the two parents die, they have procreated two children (here are our 
two births) of which one died before being reproduced (here are our three deaths). At this rate it 
would only take one generation to ruin the country. 

742. In certain districts the evil is still worse. There is one birth for every two deaths. That is the 
position which tends to generalise itself over the whole of France. 

743. The image of our country is to be found quite graphically in certain portions of Contentin, where 
M. A rsene Dumont has followed generation by generation the history of each f ami'y. At the present 
day there hardly subsists a single one of them, the rare survivors of Malthusianism having migrated 
to Paris in order to become in that city public functionaries, concierges, or waiters. Entire villages 
are now only a heap of ruined houses. The most disastrous wars, or conflagrations, or the plague, 
could not have perpetrated more terrible ravages. 

744. Now that is the result of Malthusianism long and determinedly practised. But there is this 
difference between the violent causes of devastation and of Malthusianism, in that this latter calamity 
while slowly destroying the country does not make the inhabitants suffer. How true it is that the 
interests of individuals may be entirely opposed to those of the collectivity ! 

This is why so few folk are frightened as they ought to be at the depopulation of France, and that 
our country is slowly disappearing from the world without any protest whatever from the persons 
concerned. 

It is simply death by chloroform. It is in no way painful, but yet it is death ! 

745. Depopulation is a great scourge for France. It has been claimed that this is a consequence of 
civilisation, and folk have given to this idea sparkling literary developments. They want us to 
believe that France is the only civilised country because it is the only great country of Europe where 
natality diminishes with this implacable regularity. Here we have proof drawn from the experience 
of half a century : 

For 1000 inhabitants, how many living births in a year. 

1841-50 1881-90 

Germany (actual territory) . . 38 
Austria . . . . . . . . 38 

England 33 

Italy 37 .. 38 

France 27 .. 24 (since 21.6). 

746. But in the interim England has fallen to 26, a more terrible drop than that of 
France. 

Thus the natality of Germany, Austria and Italy remained at 38 births per 1000 per annum, 
whilst in France it is 21 to 22 only. And what is more, in France, and in France alone, it goes on 
diminishing without a stop. 

Hence comes the numerical decrease which has the effect that France no longer occupies that 
truly privileged position in the world which was hers in the last century. In order that France should 
preserve even her present rank 1 do not say in order that she may reconquer her former rank 
the birth-rate would have to be raised to 38 like that of her neighbours. Her population being 38 
millions, she requires 1,464,000 births, a figure which surpasses by 630,000 the actual amount. [Last 
year (1907) the deficit became 690,000], 



135 

II. FATAL CONSEQUENCE OF THE DEPOPULATION OF FRANCE. 

747. Finis Galliae ! At whatever point of view we place ourselves, it is at this heartrending position 
that those figures invincibly corner us. 

748. Military consequences. The political and military consequences are more easy to grasp. On 
the morrow of the war France and Germany had almost the same number of conscripts 296,334 in 
France and 330,136 for Germany and we could have preserved the legitimate hope of retaking that 
which we thought we had lost. To-day, Germany has one half more (448,443) conscripts than France, 
who has kept to her previous figure. As Germany since 1891 has twice as many births (1,903,160) 
than France (908,859) it is fatal that in 14 years she will have twice as many conscripts. Then this 
nation which hates us will devour us ! The Germans say it, they print it and they will do it. 

749. They say it ; Oh ! yes, they said it to me often enough when I was travelling in their country. 
And those who had the bad taste to inflict this sad subject of conversation upon me were not the 
professional statisticians ; they were just any sort of travellers, commercials, or trades people that 
I met at tables d'hote. I have sometimes heard it said that it was a bad thing to announce so loudly 
the danger which menaces our country, because it is informing a foreigner about it. The foreigner, 
alas ! has nothing at all to learn upon this point, and I have seen that the Germans, even the most 
vulgar of them, knew about this point a very great deal more than the great majority of our fellow 
citizens. " The French lose a battle every day," said Marshal von MOLTKB. We are bound to say 
" every day," and not " every year " as we often do. Germany gains every day 1.600 inhabitants 
more than France. A battle will have to be very important to be balanced by a difference of 1,600 
heads between the two belligerents. [It is now 2,300 a day] 

750. They print it ! Listen to what the German doctor ROMEL says upon this subject in a book 
entitled " Le Pays de la Revanche " : " The policy of races is pitiless. The moment is approaching 
when the five poor sons of the German family allured by the resources and fertility of France will 
go and put an end easily to the solitary son of the French family. When an overflowing nation 
elbows one that is more sparsely sown, and which, consequently, forms a centre of depression, there 
is formed an air current commonly called invasion, a phenomenon during which laws and morals are pro- 
visionally put to one side." 

This is only one of the aspects of the question. The others are not less sad. From the economic 
point of view as from the intellectual and moral standpoint, France is on the broad road to disappearance. 

751. Economic consequences. Even the wealth of our country, that wealth of which we are so justly 
proud, is compromised by the stationary condition of our population. Our exports in 1857 to 1876 
amounted on the average to 3,306 millions of francs (132,000,000) In 1895 they attained 3,374 
millions (135,000,000), say a feeble augmentation of 68 millions (say 2,800,000). Now during the 
same time German exports rose from 2,974 million francs (say 119,000,000) average of 1872-76 to 
4,540 millions (say 182,000,000), or a milliard and a half of increase. The principal cause of it is 
very simple : the number of our workers does not increase ; they can scarcely produce more than 
they produced formerly. On the contrary, Germany has witnessed the number of her people pass 
from 41 millions to 52 millions, being an augmentation of 1 1 million pairs of arms : it is quite simple 
that she should produce more. 

752. The reply will perhaps come that the political situation of Germany partly explains this result. 
It is not proved, but let us take another example. The economic development of Austria is like 
that of Germany, parallel with the development of her population, and it is certainly not due to the 
splendour of military glory. Austria in 1869-73 exported annually on the average 1,055 million 
francs hi merchandise ; in 1894 this figure had almost doubled 1,988 millions. That easily explains 
itself since she gained 7,000,000 workers (population : 37,000,000 in 1870 and about 45,000,000 to-day). 

All these people increase in strength and in wealth whilst we up to the present day have remained 
stationary. Henceforward we shall do worse, we shall diminish. 

753. Bertillon proceeds to show further how the French language and literature 
must fall in importance and influence, and how the intellectual patrimony of France 
is in course of being frittered away. Again, how it is impossible for the nation to spread 
abroad, to defend, and still less to occupy, its colonies. The number of foreigners 
resident in France steadily increased from 400,000 in the year 1851 to 1,300,000 in 1891. 

754. No country of Europe contains such an enormous number of foreigners. Nearly all of these strangers 
come to fix themselves in France, not to spend money, but to earn it. According to the census of 1891 
only 65,000 belong to families living upon their means. 

Thus the explanation of their presence in France is very simple : young Frenchmen knowing 
well how to work are not numerous enough to respond to the call of work ; industry and even agri- 
culture are compelled to gather operatives from abroad. As a German professor used to say, they 
take the place of our non-born. Fortunately it is so, else we should be obliged to close many of our 
factories. But it would be incomparably better if the latter had not to attract to our country the 
foreigner, that is to say, the rival, the enemy, and in the hour of danger, the spy. 



136 

765. The condition that we are approaching is that of the factory situated close to Nancy, of which 
M. DBBTTRY speaks. [Nancy is one of the most important military centres of France and not far from 
the Eastern frontier]. Its owner is a German, a captain in the Landwehr ; his manager, a German, 
is also a captain : all the workmen are Germans and are German soldiers. When the landwehr is 
called out the factory is closed. Frenchmen are only admitted to pay the police which are guarding 
it, and if any damage occurs, to pay an indemnity ! 

756. Now comes a bold attack, which the whole School of Manchester, with its cult 
of Malthus, grown up together from the beginning of the nineteenth century, inseparable 
to this very day, will repel with scorn and sophistry. But we are listening to a professional 
observer a great anthropologist, demographer and statistician as against the most 
mischievous quackery of modern times, the patent cure of Thomas Robert Malthus. 

757. The decrease Of population is a cause of poverty. I am bound to renew this demonstration, 
because in the eyes of many men it has not been made. " Look at the number of the workless," say 
they, " look at the mass of the poor : would it not be far better if they were not in the world at all ?" 
Pure sophism ! Many of these unemployed are clumsy workmen who do not find work because they 
are not capable of turning it out well. They are none the less to be pitied : but their proportion 
would not be smaller if the population were fewer, and people would not employ them on that account 
a bit the more. They would replace them what they are doing now by foreign workers, and so 
they would be none the better off. " Yes, but don't we see excellent workmen who can't find em- 
ployment ?" Would they find it any the more because the population would be less ? Most as- 
suredly not. Suppose a bootmaker finds all the workshops full, he soon begins to think that there are 
too many bootmakers upon earth and that if the population were less their number would be less 
also. Good, but there would also be fewer feet to shoe and our man would have gained nothing. 

The same reasoning applies to al' professions without exception. 

758. Malthus claimed that at the banquet of life there was not room for everybody. [At the time of 
Malthus' writing there were not neatly 10,000,000 people in " overpopulat:d " England, not- 2.000.000 
in all Scotland.] He forgot that amongst the guests at the banquet are also ita cooks, so much so 
that the number of covers served is proportioned to those who serve them. That he should even 
begin to be in the right, it would require that the globe be populated to the point at which existences 
would commence to fail, which is not possible in our era, when corn and meat are so abundant that 
we close our frontiers against them. Well then, subsistences are not lacking, and as to industrial 
work the best means to develop that is to develop the number of the inhabitants. Our courageous 
Alsatian compatriot CHARLES GRAB used to say, " Germany has never been so rich as at present, 
with her puissant growth of natality." And in fact they all agree to place the development of German 
commerce side by side with the development of her population. 

759. It cannot be often enough repeated : population is the source of all wealth, because all wealth 
has its origin in work, and that the work itself consists in the hands and the brains which produce it 
Besides the fact that population produces all wealth it utilises it, consumes it. and thus calls forth fresh 
production. In order that a country should be prosperous in every sense of the word, in order that 
it should be rich, powerful and intelligent, its population should be numerous. Hence depopulation 
is nothing else than a scourge which condemns our country to death. 

760. But they go on insisting : " Are you not touched at seeing a married couple who can hardly 
earn their own living, and who are burdened with children that they cannot feed ?" 

We are just as much touched as anyone, and we have shown it. L' Alliance Nationale pour 
I'Accroissement de la Population Francaise (26 Avenue Marceau) implores the State to surround 
the child, and especially the unfortunate ci , with all its protection and all its tenderness. The 
Alliance is determined to claim this protection until it is obtained. If the State refuses to accord it, 
it will default in its essential duty. But this protection to be given to the cbild does not go so far as 
to want to prevent its birth ! 

If that be mere every-day common-sense, it is still at the antipodes of Manchesterisiu. 



m. CAUSES OF DEPOPULATION IN FRANCE. 

761. Under this head Bertillon considers at length the phase that : the reduction 
of natality is due to the ambition of the father for his child. He says that when the 
repartition of natality between the different French departments is made, it is very soon 
seen that natality is lower in proportion as the country is rich. Thus Normandy, the 



137 

valley of the Garonne, Burgundy, countries of inexhaustible wealth, are the least fecund 
regions of France. He names the departments of poorest soil where the fall is less. The 
same with the Nord and Pas-de-Calais, great manufacturing departments where there 
are poor people. " M. CHERVTN has shown that in the rich and sterile Lot-et-Garonne 
(rich in harvests, sterile in men), the richest parishes are those where births are the rarest." 

762. He quotes Canada and the prolificacy of the French Canadians, who have 
ethnologically it would seem but little in common with the people who now occupy the 
lands of their Norman forefathers. Two centuries make a great difference, for stocks 
emigrate in part and the residue is largely or wholly eliminated by Malthusianism. I 
take this conclusion from a treatise by G. de la POUGE, librarian to the University of 
Rennes, printed in the " Revue d'Economie Politique " of December, 1895 (" Recherches 
Anthropologiques sur le Probleme de la Depopulation "). 

763. Bertillon delivers the judgment that the absolute freedom of testamentary 
transmission operates in Canada to raise the natality of the French there to 48 per 1000. 
That is a hazardous conclusion, for the law is quite the same, in all respects, to the Anglo- 
Saxons there, whose natality ceaselessly falls and does not exceed 24 or 25 per 1000, or 
about half the natality of their French fellow citizens. The answer that I obtained 
on all sides to my own inquiries made regarding French natality in Ontario and Quebec, 
in conversations with Ministers of State, members of the Dominion Parliament,functionaries, 
ecclesiastics of the highest rank, merchants, manufacturers and others, was that it is 
wholly and solely due to strict and persistent inculcation of, and obedience to, what the 
French Canadians hold to be religious and moral obligations. It is an adequate ex- 
planation of the phenomenon, it is of the first national importance and it should be safe 
to accept it. On the other hand, relaxation of religious faith and moral control, in favour 
of self-indulgence, is adequate to explain the spread of the practices of prevention and 
destruction of the human foatus. 

764. Plainly, a people which generally exhibits chivalry to the unborn an instinct 
much older than the human race itself will tend to persist like the Jews ; whereas a 
people that by its laws generally allows the preaching and practice of child-prevention 
must decline. The rate will meet with its greatest acceleration where babies are held 
to be a disgrace. (See pars. 1588 e. s.). It would seem also to follow that where a race is 
peacefully succumbing to the preponderance of another which preserves higher virility 
the heritable possessions of the former will pass over in large measure to the descendants 
of their more vigorous contemporaries. It is probable that laxity of morals in the parents 
of the decadent race, notwithstanding their inculcation of selfishness to their solitary 
sons, will tend to slackness in the dispositions of the latter, leaving them less fitted for 
competition in the struggle for life. But, whatever it may be with the Continental French 
of to-day, it is extremely doubtful that the Malthusianism practised by so many Anglo- 
Saxons is for any other reason than undiluted selfishness, and that their remaining sense 
of duty to their accidental children is a survival of primeval instincts unconsciously to 
themselves. 

IV. SOME REMEDIES TO OPPOSE TO THE SCOURGE. 

765. Inaction is stupid and criminal. Against so grave an ill there are certain sages who profess that 
there is nothing to be done. They say that France is lost, and resign themselves to assist at her death 
with aa much serenity as that of a physiologist studying the convulsions of a little poisoned rabbit. 
What would they think of a ship captain who said, " The storm is too fierce ! I can do nothing to 
sare my vessel," and who went to lie down in his cabin ? Hey ! my friend, get up and command 
your crew, exhaust every chance of salvation. Your task will be done when you have twenty feet 
of water on top of your head. At that rrice you will gain this much at least, you will not have been 
a coward : 

Let us reject this first opinion with contempt. It is a blasphemy and a blunder to wear mourning 
for France so promptly and so lightly. A country of 38 million inhabitants, rich, laborious and patriotic 
as the French are, has still chances of salvation, however dangerous the slope upon which she lets 
herself slip. In 1841 France (as at that time) and Germany (as at that time) had an almost equal 



138 

population. To-day Germany reckons 14,000,000 inhabitants more than France. Fifty years are 
not much in the life of a nation ; what fifty years have done against us, fifty years can do in the 
opposite direction. 

France and Germany are like two families which, equally rich at the start, had placed their 
funds, the one at 3 per cent, and the other at 4 per cent. If these two families are equally saving, 
the second, at the end of half a century, will be much richer than the first. Will the ruin of the latter 
be without remedy ? No. It will need, without delay, to make a somewhat more advantageous 
placement of its money. 

French families have on the average three living births, and German families b'ttle more than 
four. Is it impossible to induce these French families to produce a child or two more ? We do not 
think so. 

The remedies proposed to counteract the depopulation of France are innumerable. " We must 
apply them all," said JULES STMON, " in order to be sure of employing that which will be efficacious." 
Be it so, but that does not dispense with classifying them so as to claim firstly the most active 
remedy. 

I mention to begin with those which appear to me illusory. We may certainly apply them, 
following the precept of Jules Simon, but we are not bound to reckon upon their efficacy. 

766. Bertillon then enumerates at length those suggestions which he considers in- 
effectual. Amongst these is the " restoration of religious ideas, if that were possible, 
which might have some effect upon natality. ..... It is possible that there exists a 

relation between natality and the degree of sincerity of religious convictions. But it 
is manifest, do what we may, we cannot change our century nor prevent it from being 
more and more incredulous." Under the heading " Examination of the measures 
proposed with a view to lowering mortality " he sets forth a simple yet remarkable 
observation of his own. He gives tables of mortality of many countries, and says : 

767. We see that French mortality is less than countries of the same latitude, and even than that 
of many other countries situated more to the north. We cannot, therefore, hope to see it diminish 
materially .... 

If we should save by means of very rigorous measures a considerable number of infante from 
death, we should not by so doing better the conditions of French population, because a demographic 
law which is well known tells us that we should only end by lowering the natality to the same extent. 
Let us remember the demographic position of the Malthusian departments : the two parents die after 
having procreated two children of whom one died and was replaced by another. Save the former 
from death and you will prevent the other from being born : the population will have gained nothing. . . 

France has few deaths, so few that it would require a sort of prodigy to make her have less. 
Why attach the salvation of the country to the realisation of this miracle ? 

France has extremely few births, much less than it is natural for a people to have. Is it not 
logical to desire to make her re-enter the common rule ? Instead of ascending by the staircase, why 
do you want to clamber up by the wall ? 

768. Under the heading of " Efficacious Measures," Bertillon says : 

We must fight the evil in its causes. These causes are the detestable conjugal morals dictated 
by money considerations. It is these morals which must be reformed, and since money is in the case, 
it is that by which we should act. Against the disease which is gnawing France we might certainly 
demand energetic measures, painful if needed ; those which we claim are only equitable. 

They fully respect the liberty of the individual and even augment it. Their object is to make 
Frenchmen know that they are unaware of the wrong that their mistaken selfishness is doing to their 
country. Our measures aim above all at modifying morals and to demand for families which are 
sufficiently numerous that profound respect and protection which is their due. Finally, they propose 
to put the general interest into concord with individual interest, for present laws have precisely the 
contrary effect. 

769. Thence, from the monetary standpoint, he proceeds to prove the interest of the 
State, in adjusting internal taxation, to favour large families, and lays down at length 
ingenious suggestions supported by the experience of other countries, especially of 
Germany, in the way of concessions and advantages to the parents. But he pretty 
well knocks this very thin hope on the head by the following reflections : 

To the whole of the propositions which precede (fiscal) a reproach has been made which we might 
accept : critics recognise that these are just, but do not find them radical enough Tn effect they say 
to us " Do you really believe that Malthusian couples which have at present only one or two children 



139 

are going to decide upon having four of them in order to escape some taxes ? " We do not delude 
ourselves in that way. But neither do we think it necessary to exaggerate the baseness of the con- 
jugal morals of our country. Most of these couples sin by selfishness, truly, but it is because they do 
not know that this egotism is culpable, that it is injurious and ignoble. They do not know it, because 
no authorised voice has ever said it to them except the Church, but they do not listen to that any 
longer. We must make them know it. No means of publicity is as good as the tax-gatherer's notice, 
no public newspaper is so widely spread, none is so carefully studied, nor so keenly commented upon. 
The teachings that it contains display themselves by a palpable fact which engraves itself immediately 
on the memory. No preaching is as good as that. 

Thus the reform of direct imposts that we propose has the object, above all, of propaganda. 
Religion is just about dead in France : on the other hand patriotism subsists, but it is little enlightened. 

770. He proceeds to other suggestions such as slight alteration of the conditions 
of military service, which has the authorities declare little or nothing to do with these 
questions. That is proved by the state of Germany, Austro-Hungary, Italy and Russia 
in regard to reproduction. Indeed the necessity for armies, real or supposed, should 
tend to induce governments to maintain, as far as they can, the supply of men. 

771. There should be mentioned an astounding phenomenon which accompanies 
these sexual or Malthusian interferences : the proportion of male births falls away 
heavily. That, too, notwithstanding the fact ascertained all over the field by anthro- 
pologists, that those who practice what these authorities denominate conjugal frauds 
desire to have one or even two sons. When the undesired daughter is born, the parents 
are willing to have another child, perhaps a third, in the hope of a son. Now, Nature 
formerly provided in France about eight per cent, more male births than female ; which 
margin has fallen by one half, in spite of the above-stated manipulations by the 
parents. It is regarded by scientific men as in principle a sign of race-failure or 
degeneracy. The proofs are far too copious to enter upon. Nature no longer rules 
for a while. 

772. Bertillon continues : 

Perhaps the Malthusians claim that we are subversive and that the measure proposed is too 
severe for them [equality of taxation to make against Malthusian couples] or yet that it is too much 
in opposition with present morals and habits. That is just why we do propose it anodyne remedies 
would have no effect at all upon a deep-rooted and inveterate malady. 

It is necessary that French couples should cease to have an evident interest (financial) in re- 
stricting the number of their children. To obtain this result there must be quite another thing than 
half -measures. 

RESUME OF THE PRECEDING REFORMS. 

773. Their principle is equality of burdens. We say to the French people " You have three principal 
duties towards your country : to contribute to its perpetuity, to contribute to its defence, to con- 
tribute to its pecuniary charges. We admit that you are lacking in the first of these duties, but you 
must accept the two others, with a supplement." By this principle, constantly and severely applied, 
and by some other reforms, we hope to bring back into the country the notion of respect due to large 
families, with contempt for the detestable morals which are ruining France . . . 

It is manifest that these reforms, in detail, can only have a direct effect that is pretty limited, 
but we count upon their moral effect and upon the orientation that they may give to public opinion 
which is now justly alarmed at the decline of France. 

OF THE PROTECTION TO BE ACCORDED TO THE CHILD. 

774. It is the duty of the nation to surround the child, and especially the unfortunate child (illegiti- 
mate), with all protection and all affection. In it resides the future of the country : an intelliyent 
society will not recoil from any sacrifice whatever to assure to it nourishment and instruction. Upon 
this last point the State to-day does its duty : but what use is the school if the scholar has nothing 
to eat ! We have given to it that which is needful before taking care to secure to it that which is 
indispensable. . . . This reform is, of all that we propose, the only one that may be onerous 
to the State. Who can fail to realise the necessity ? On all sides men talk of retreats for the aged ; 
but their lot touches us less than that of the children. Old people are not a strength to a country : 
moreover they have had sixty years to prepare some security for their old age, and if they have not 
succeeded they must partly blame themselves. Without children, on the contrary, France could not 



140 

exist to-morrow, and again, less than anyone are they responsible for their poverty. To them, then, 
we owe all oar available resources ; to them all our protection, all our love, and for them all our sacri- 
fices. 

The programme of the National Alliance for the Increase of Population, as we have just sketched 
it, is not limitative. We examine every project that is presented to us with the greatest attention, 
and we are quite disposed to accept, at least for the future, those which appear to have some chance 
of success. 

775. Compare these noble, patriotic and humane aspirations with the brutal and 
barbarous philosophy of the school of Malthus and Manchester as quoted from their 
leading lights in Division I. Our nation is where those lights have led us on the 
broad and sloping road to destruction. But strait is the gate, narrow and difficult the 
way that leads back to life, the life that we need more abundantly ! 

EXAMINATION OF OBJECTIONS. 

776. The Press of all parties has riven to our Association an excellent reception. Some objections, 
however, have been made, to which it is important to reply. Some are so visibly dictated by party 
interest that it is useless to respond ; we shall limit ourselves to mentioning them. 

The " Cologne Gazette " assures us at great length that the sole remedy to oppose to depopulation 
is to accept cordially the Treaty of Frankfort. From that on, industry, commerce and agriculture 
will be born again and the population will multiply itself. 

On the other side, an Englishman who is an explorer and coloniser (HBNBY M. STANLEY) counsels 
the French to " concentrate themselves," that is to say to abandon all their colonies. Behold, according 
to him, the remedy for depopulation ! 

A free-trader of the oldest school (M. YVES GUYOT) declares that Free-Trade can alone regenerate 
onr population. It is true that a protectionist, no less convinced, claims that if France is depopulated, 
it is because her industry and agriculture are not sufficiently protected ! 

177. This is precisely the same M. Yves Guyot, Political Economist and Vice-President 
of the Malthusian League, founded by CHARLES BRADLAUGH and Mrs. ANNIE BESANT 
to print and circulate literature teaching in minutest detail, to married and unmarried 
people, how to practice sexual intercourse whilst avoiding the birth of children. (Pars. 
735 e. B.). 

All their contradictory counsels are a little too much interested for it to be of any use to answer 
them. Here is one, however, which in appearance at least, is a little more serious : we are reproached 
that we turn to the State a terrible crime in the eyes of classic Economists. The State, they say, 
can only spoil whatever it touches. They don't reason that way in the other sciences. Lightning 
is a scourge, says the physicist, yet it is a force ; hence well directed it may become a benefit. Opium 
is a poison, says the doctor, yet it acts upon the organism and may become a remedy. And so on. 
But it is understood that the action of the State can only be fatal and never beneficent ; in other 
words, that the State is only directed by imbeciles ! 

" You must reform morals !" they sing out with the voice of conviction, " and not apply to the 
State." What means do they propose to us to " reform morals ? " Absolutely nothing at all ! 
That fine phrase is nothing else than " I'm not taking any." 

In order to reform morals, we ask, first of all, for equality of burdens and the extension of the right 
of bequest. From whom should we demand these reforms if not from the legislator ? Is it not from 
the State that the most irreconcilable of freetraders claim " freedom of exchange ?" Because of that 
fact are they going to let us treat them as " Statists ? " Then what right have they to^ apply the 
epithet to us which is in their eyes the most insulting of all epithets ? We are no more " Statists " 
than the most orthodox of the Economists. 

They have also attributed to us the desire to " force " the people to bear children, to " punish " 
those who have not any, and to " assail the liberty of bachelors." It is useless to protest against these 
imputations. Those who formulate them have certainly not read us. Let them be good enough to 
take that trouble before talking about us. 

Finally, some grave personages, complacent in their own inaction, have decided that our success 
is problematical. They know nothing about it. 

778. It is ridiculous to talk here about the Romans, for we know nothing of their demographic situation, 
either before or after the Papia Poppoea and Julia, of which MONTESQUIKU uttered such a fine eulogium. 
Inasmuch as the Roman Empire lasted five centuries after the measures taken by AUGUSTUS against 
depopulation, and did not perish until after their abrogation by CONSTANTTNB, it would appear that 
these measures succeeded : but it would be as bold to affirm as to deny it. 



141 

779. Bertillon is contending against the conclusion accepted by many of his colleagues 
that the remarkable laws of Augustus known as Julia et Papia Poppoea, and which are 
dealt with elsewhere herein, were unsuccessful. Constantino reigned three centuries 
after. The very laws themselves prove the then advanced stage of racial extinction, 
but not depopulation, which is a very inaccurate word. The extremely rapid dissolution 
of the Latin race, called Pvoman, is only too well recorded, but they were replaced or 
displaced instantly by the centripetal flow, the pacific penetration, of foreigners. The 
dynasty ended in a few years, in fact with the death of Augustus. The race we are assured, 
vanished, but it is quite true that the power passing into other hands, 
the Empire in an actual sense persisted for centuries. So in like manner if our racial 
decline continues, and it is hardly possible that the decline of reproduction by the Roman 
people during the rule of Augustus was more rapid than our own, the influx of teeming 
races from Asia who are in full ascendant vigour would not mean depopulation of Australia. 
It would merely mean to historians the final extinction of our branch of the Anglo-Saxon 
stock. 

780. Moreover, the question is not of calculating our chances of success. It is graver than that. 

The disappearance, or at least the reduction, of our country is assured if we do not attempt something 
to raise it. Hence our duty is traced out. To resign ourselves to the malady under the pretext that 
it is fatal, would be a blunder and a cowardice. We make therefore a pressing appeal to all those who 
comprehend the greatness o* the danger, whatever may be their political, religious, or other opinions. 
They will come to us persuaded like ourselves, that our noble nation will not allow itself to perish for 
lack of equity and la?k of morality. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

781. In a grave matter, repetition is hardly a fault, for it may be emphasis. A few 
lines, therefore, of his conclusions are here translated. He says in a note : 

(We have the lively satisfaction of announcing that thirty-nine Conseils-Goneraux, in their session 
of April, 1897, have adopted in whole or in part the resolutions that we presented to them to grant 
tax remissions to, or to protect, large families. We believe that no proposition emanating from 
private initiative ever had such an accord amongst departmental assemblies. 

The Conseils-Generaux who have not adopted our resolutions have set them out for deliberation 
or have adjourned the examination of them to the August session. We have not been informed 
that a single one has rejected them.) 

I. Natality decreases in France progressively from the beginning of the century, and nothing 
indicates that this movement is near a stoppage. The evil is due to a profound and permanent vice. 
The population, formerly 28 per cent, of that of the Great Powers, is only 12 per cent, to-day. Her 
role in the world is being effaced. France is the only country in Europe where this phenomenon is 
remarked with the same intensity and the same constancy. Her industry, her commerce, her moral 
influence in the world, are lessened by the lessening of her population. Thanks to the decline of child- 
life in France, far from extending herself beyond her frontiers as other people do, she has not the power 
of budding, necessary to protect her territory against pacific invasion by foreigners. The latter 
colonise our country, attracted by the call of employment, to which the autochthonous population 
does not respond sufficiently. They take the places of our non-born. They respond to the call of 
work but in the hour of danger they will not respond to the call of cannon ! 

II The fatal effects of the restrictive laws upon the right to bequeath are chiefly felt 

in France, because the French are more saving and more provident than the other nations which submit 
to the Civil Code, and because fortunes are more divided. What renders that evil (the Civil Code) 
still greater, is that while the nation is slowly dying of it, individuals do not suffer from it at all. This 
is death by chloroform ; but it is none the less death. 

III. Nobody has ever succeeded in seriously establishing any connection whatever between 
depopulation in France and the search for paternity (of illegitimates), the emancipation of the woman, 
socialist reforms, and so on. We have mentioned in what measure probably real but anyway very 
feeble we may admit that the restoration of religious ideas would perhaps raise the natality, if it 
were possible. 

We have seen that the number of marriages is sufficient in France, and that the number of 
marriages which are quite sterile does not appear to be higher than it was formerly, nor than it is in 
other countries. 



142 

We have seen the perfect inanity of the measures proposed to lessen mortality. If they were 
efficacious, and they would not be, they would not have any influence whatever upon the population 
of France. 

IV. (This conclusion deals with direct taxes and the successoral laws.) 

782. Accessory measures. The State should never lose an opportunity to manifest the respect and 
gratitude that it ought to have for those parents who bring up numerous children. All the favours 
at its disposal ought to be reserved for them as far as possible. 

It is the nation's duty to surround the child, and especially the unfortunate child, with all its 
protection and all its tenderness. 

.- . (signed) JACQUES BERTILLON. 



Some Means of Counteracting Depopulation by lessening Infantile Mortality and chiefly by 

favouring Maternal Lactation. 



Des Moyens de Combattre la Depopulation par la Diminution de la Mortalite Infantile et 
Principalement en favorisant 1'Allaitement Maternel. 

DOCTEUR FERNAND DTJCOURNAU de 1'Universite de Paris, Ancien Externe des Hopitaux 
de Paris. (Paris : Jules Rousset, 1900). 

783. The title explains the noble aim of the book. Always keeping in view our own 
case, we learn from the Introduction : 

(TRANSLATION). 

Whenever we open a statistical year-book we are terrified at seeing the feeble annual increase 
of French population. If we compare the curves of mortality and natality we find that for several 
years they tend more and more to approach one another. The former declines almost insensibly, the 
latter on the contrary drops progressively and regularly, so that at the present moment (about 1899) 
the annual increase in France is no more than 2.3 per 1000, whilst it is 12.3 in Germany, 13.4 in England, 
and 13.9 per 1000 in Norway. 

Hence the result, very easy to foresee, is not calculated to cause us rejoicing. France, which 
in 1700 formed with her 20 millions of inhabitants 40 per cent, of the total population of the Great 
Powers. . . . passed in 1890 to the fourth rank of the great states and only forms 12 per cent, of 
the total. 

When we examine these figures, so brutal and so terrifying, we are tempted to despair and it is 
just this to which unfortunately so many persons yield. They say, or at least they think, " after all, 
bad as it is, the depopulation of France does not prevent my being happy and enjoying life, and after 
my time, let come what may." 

Thus we are impelled by human egotism to fold our arms before the malady against which we 
must never cease to struggle. 

Is France then destined to perish ? Must she then, at a time near or far removed, disappear 
from the ranks of the great nations ? No, she shall not disappear, there are still in our beautiful 
country men with hearts who are not afraid to utter a call of alarm and to throw themselves vigorously 
into the fray, either as individuals or in associations. They strive courageously and try to face this 
terrible malady, which grows without cessation and threatens to overwhelm us. Their words and 
their examples must draw after them those who hesitate, and excite new devotion. We may hope 
that their meritorious efforts will soon be crowned with success and that France will resume in Europe 
that position which she ought never to have quitted. 

But what is the cause of this state of things ? The chief cause is certainly the diminution 
of natality, constant and progressive since the beginning of the 19th century, whilst in other countries 
natality is maintained at an even rate, or even augments in slight proportion 

We do not need to search for a cause of this low birth-rateit is selfishness, and selfishness only, 
which must be blamed. Amongst well-to-do families they do not want to have many children so 
as to avoid too much expense, and the working classes themselves voluntarily restrict the number 
of children until they arrive at a certain degree of comfort, so that they shall not have to divide amongst 
several heirs the profits of their labours. 



143 

784. It is not the physician's part to busy himself with the means proper to augmenting the natality ; 
the economist and the legislator alone can attempt to face the evil, but unfortunately they put this 
question too much to one side, although it concerns in the highest degree the future of France, and 
upon it depends her influence in the European concert and her preponderance in the world. 

But if the physician is powerless in what concerns natality, he can at least lessen mortality, 
not indeed general mortality, which has, however, been materially lowered since the immortal work 
of Pasteur and his pupils, but the mortality of the new-born, which forms nearly a third of the whole. 
" In order to bring the French population back to the rate of progression of 25 years ago," says M. de 
FOVILLE. " it would suffice that two children more (per thousand) should be born, and that two less 
should die." If we are unable to cause these two children to be born, let us at least use all our efforts 
to lessen the truly frightful tribute that early infancy pays to death. 

785. By consulting statistics we find that in France annually 150,000 children of less than a year die, 
and of this number about 50,000 are carried away by diarrhoea. By intelligent care and good hygiene 
we could certainly lower this figure to 20,000 (BERLIOZ). It will perhaps be said " What would 30,000 
or 40,000 children more or less matter when we should require a gain of 600,000 existences annually 
in order to attain a growth equal to the 12 or 13 per 1000 of the other States ? " 

Tt is true that would not suffice to restore to our country the rank which formerly she held in the 
world, but when we want to gain an end we must not neglect any one of the means which will help 
us to approach it, and if for a century past we had saved 40,000 children yearly, one does need not to be 
a great mathematician to conclude that the increase of population would have been more considerable 
and perhaps France could have spoken somewhat largely in the world. 

786. M. BERTTLLON has spoken (Revue Politique et Parlementaire, No. 7, 1897) against this idea, 
but we cannot at all unite with his opinion. He claimed that a lowering of mortality would be followed 
by a lowering of natality. "When an infant dies," he says, *'it is replaced in the same year ; if 
it is saved it is not replaced." There is certainly some truth in this reasoning, but say what he will, 
not all the infants that die are replaced, especially when there remain several living ones. Moreover, 
certain couples see all their children decimated by an epidemic, and the place of two or three children 
thus taken early is often only occupied by a single new arrival which must surmount in its turn, firstly 
the dangers of birth, and then those of early infancy. It would therefore be more advantageous to save 
the children already existing. 

We quite agree with Mons. Bertillon when he says that it would be above all necessary to increase 
the number of births either by premia to large families, or by facilitating their bringing up, but if 
mortality increases in proportion to the number of births, the annual increase of population will still 
be only very slight. The means that we propose are therefore the complement of what M. Bertillon 
asks for. 

Increase the number of births, we say to the economists, and we doctors will strive to preserve 
to France all the children that you will cause to be born. 

787. The great demographer, M. JACQUES BERTILLON, is, however, clearly in the 
right in his observation. And so it is conceded by his colleagues charged with these 
researches, even though the limitations stated by Dr. Ducournau are also only plainly correct. 
It throws a light upon the complicated, deplorable, and deadly morality which has become 
the vogue with them and with ourselves. The subject willl be elsewhere dealt with 
herein. 

788. Dr. Ducournau proceeds with his discourse, treating of the nursing of infants. 
As it is not in the direct line of our inquiry, merely exhibiting parallel modern tendency, 
only short extracts are here supplied. 

Where is the society lady who has not felt a quiver of joy as the fruit of her womb moved within 
her for the first time ? Where is the society lady who has not been at the summit of happiness when 
she at last felt in her arms and covered with kisses the babe that she had carried for nine months ? 

But the first transports over, there enters her chamber a woman, still young and with capacious 
bosom. Father, mother and grandmother give her some instructions, and she departs taking with 
her the newly born child. She takes it away with her, hundreds of miles, perhaps, but at all events 
when the father comes home of an evening, whether from the theatre or club, he will not have to hear 
his child crying and can repose at his ease until breakfast time. The mother after fifteen to twenty 
days can resume her course of life, interrupted momentarily by her pregnancy : receptions, balls, 
soirees, races, she will be seen everywhere. 

From time to time the nurse will write that all goes well with the little one and that such and 
such things will be useful. And the mother continues to live happily and free from care until the 
day when a letter, more or less bordered with black, will apprise her at one and the same time of the 
illness and death of her dear baby. She will shed some tears, wear mourning a while for the child that 
she has hardly seen, and all is said. 



144 

789. So thia woman who has never felt the maternal instincts vibrate within her, this woman who 
sacrifices without remorse her child for her pleasure, thinks she has fulfilled her duties as mother, 
she thinks she has nothing to reproach herself with because she deprived her child of nothing, nor 
refused anything the nurse demanded. Yet, unconscious and unhappy mother, you have deprived 
your child of the main thing, you have taken from him the only food which suited him. your own 
milk. Do you really believe that the Creator gave you those luxuriant breasts just to display them 
immodestly to the eyes of your admirers ? No, your bosom was given you for your child and only 
for your child, until he should have attained the weaning age. " A woman is only half a mother to 
have merely borne a child," said MARCUS AURELIUS, and it is a real crime for a mother not to nurse 
her baby, unless, as in the case of certain maladies, she be prevented by force majeure 

Of the little unfortunates sent out to nurse, the scale of mortality is truly frightful. LATAPIE 
says " Of the 20,000 babies sent from Paris every year into the provinces, 15,000 die in their first 
year, so that by applying this figure proportionately to all the great towns we may measure the extent 
of the evil." There we have the result obtained by these unnatural mothers, who, insensible to all 
feeling of maternal love, prefer their own comfort to the health and life of their children. 



FRESH DISASTER. 

An Article by Da. JACQUES BERTILLON in " Le Journal de Paris," 7th June, 1908. 

790. DR. JACQUES BERTILLON, chief statistician to the city of Paris, is the elder of 
two celebrated brothers. His junior is M. ALPHONSE, the criininologist. Their father, 
who died in 1883, was named Louis ADOLPHE and attained distinction in anthropology 
and demography. His works in the latter domain are much cited. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

791. The decline of France is hastened. Here are the figures of 1907, as they will 
be published within a few days by the Journal Officiel : 

Marriages . . . . 314,903 
Living Births .. 773,969 
Deaths .. .. 793,889 



Excess of Deaths. . 19,920 

Twenty thousand deaths over and above the births ! 

Now, the year 1907 was a perfectly normal year of which nothing evil could 
be said. Alas ! the excess of deaths is also a normal result which we are bound 
to expect again and again until the country exists no longer. It was, in fact, very 
easy to foresee, and it is just fifty years since my father announced it for the cult 
of statistics is hereditary in my family. It was a useless prediction, like those of 
the ancient priestess of Apollo, whose heartrending prophecies were listened to by 
nobody and yet verified themselves inevitably ! 

There was no need of the oracle of Apollo to predict the decline of France. 
792. The following figures suffice : 

1901 857,274 

1902 845,378 say, 11,896 less than 1901 

1903 826,712 18,666 1902 

1904 818,229 8,483 1903 

1905 807,291 10,938 1904 

1906 806,847 444 1905 

1907 773,969 32,878 1906 

Total 83,305 1901 



145 

793. Inasmuch as we lose, good year or bad year, ten or twelve thousand births 
as compared with the preceding year, and since our mortality, which anyway is 
moderate, does not diminish and cannot diminish to that extent for we shall 
not be able to suppress death it was perfectly obvious that at a given time births 
would fall below the number of the deaths. Hah* a century ago this decadence 
was already visible, though less apparent. And it has accelerated uninterruptedly. 
That fact was fatal, and it will continue up to the point of exhaustion of the 
country. 

France, which is a very fertile land, only contains at present 73 inhabitants 
per square kilometre, and this number tends to diminish. Germany, possessing 
an ungrateful soil, contains 117, and this number increases rapidly. It is manifest 
that sometime or other she will find it absurd to leave empty alongside of her a 
splendid country which is badly utilised. The law of communicating vessels, which 
we teach in physics, is equally true in politics as it is in hydrostatics. Everywhere 
nature abhors a vacuum. 

794. In place of wasting their time in discussing whether a tax should be taken out 
of the right-hand pocket instead of taking it out of the left, and in trying what they 
can do further to torment the old priests, why don't our governors devote all their 
efforts to this vital question ? 

"There is nothing to be done !" those people say, to excuse themselves, who 
do not want to do anything. " The law cannot reform morals ! " 

795. The proof that the law can modify morals, and modify them rapidly, is found 
in the very figures that we have just quoted. We have said that there were 314,903 
marriages in 1907. Never at any time were there so many (excepting in the year 
1813 and 1872-3, extraordinarily abnormal years for well-known reasons). Now 
in 1907 there were 8,221 more marriages than in the preceding year. Well, these 
marriages were the work of the legislator. I have proved it right here (16th April, 
1908) by analysing the figures of Parisian statistics. The analysis of the figures 
for the whole of France would be at least quite as conclusive. Is it not to have 
modified manners that we actually did, in less than six months, induce 16,442 
persons to marry who would not have done it ? And yet what an anodyne was 
that law of 21st June, 1907, which caused this astonishing result ! And how much 
less complete it is than its author the ABBE LEMIRE would have wished ! It 
practically limits itself to dispensing with a certain number of troublesome 
and useless old papers in the case of betrothed persons of more than thirty years of 
age. Truly a very slight cause for such a remarkable effect. Thus we see that 
a well devised law can have an effectual action upon manners. And concerning 
marriages we see that we only needed less mischievous interference in order to 
raise their number. So, regarding the fecundity of marriage we could begin by 
asking only a trifle more, and that is to be equitable and protective to the father 
of the family. Every man is bound to contribute to the perpetuity of his nation 
precisely as he is bound to defend it. In order that this duty be strictly performed 
he must bring up three children. As a matter of fact two are required to replace 
the two parents, and there must be a third over and above as a stop-gap, because 
the probabilities show that out of the three there will be one who will not reproduce 
himself, whether by premature death, infirmity, celibacy or sterility. Thus the 
couple which bring up four children or more have done more than their mere duty. 
They are entitled to public respect and protection. 

796. To raise children is to impose upon oneself sacrifices which are certainly 
sweet but onerous, to the profit of the whole nation. Married couples who supply 
to the country more than three children give to it at great expense to themselves, 
the most necessary and the most precious of all gifts. They have then a claim 
upon the nation. This claim is never paid very far from that ! Direct and 



146 

indirect taxes, and the poll tax, are very much heavier for large families ; and 
moreover the successoral laws are devised in such fashion as to ruin them. Far 
from paying the debt that we owe them, we increase it. And yet, what a number 
of opportunities we should have of clearing ourselves ! I have already explained 
some of these to the readers of the " Journal " on the 7th, 18th and 28th February, 
1908. That is the smallest part that we could do. We grant privileges to retired 
non-commissioned officers. Why do not we grant them to fathers of large families ? 

797. Above all, it is poor couples who have children that it is important to com- 
pensate for the precious and extremely heavy sacrifice that they bear for the benefit 
of the nation. What do we do for them ? Nothing at all, excepting in some 
departments (Bouches-du-Rhone, Gard, etc.) where very insufficient help is supplied. 
What do we do for widows burdened with children ? That is to say, for the most 
interesting poverty that there is in the world ? Almost nothing. And to these 
families, meritorious as they are, the State does not pay its debt. 

The couples know it quite well. And so they treat the country as the baker 
treats his bad pays : they don't supply. "You want bread, do you? Then pay 
for it!" 

798. You want children so that France shall not perish ? Then make due acknowledg- 
ment, to those couples who give you them, of what you owe. Assure respect to them 
and, above all, efficient protection. But let this protection be very broad and very 
generous. Don't raise the objection that it would be too expensive. France is rich 
enough to feed her children. It is a question of her very existence ! 

(Signed). DE. JACQUES BERTILLON. 



The President of the Academy of Moral Sciences, M. ALFRED DE FOVILLE, upon 
the Rush to Ruin. " L'Opinion," Paris (rue Chauveau-Lagarde, 4), August 22nd, 1908. 

THE DEPOPULATION OF FRANCE. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

799. France has been attacked by a malady of which it is probable that she will die. 

This malady is the increasing and generally voluntary sterility which so acts that 
the French population no longer augments and that it begins even to decrease, 
whilst around her frontiers rival races continue to bud abundantly. 

This double assertion is only too easy to justify. Let us make sure first of all 
of this terrifying decline of French natality. 

A hundred years ago there were born every year upon an average 31 or 32 
children per thousand inhabitants, which rate was by no means excessive. Fifty 
years ago the proportion had already fallen to 27, a rate that was becoming in- 
sufficient. To-day it is no longer more than 20 (19.7 in 1907) ; hence the fall, 
instead of being slower, is accelerated. 

800. And, beyond doubt, mortality also has been lowered, for it always drops in 
places where natality diminishes, because the first stage of life is, and remains, that 
which pays the heaviest tribute for its trespass. We may also find that the mortality 
rate is attenuated by the progress of comfort, of hygiene, of medicine and surgery. 
But let us set death-rates opposite birth rates ; in doing so let us take generally 
the excess of births over deaths. This excess, by which is measured the numerical 
progression of nations, is still above 350,000 units for Italy, more than 400,000 for 



147 

Austria-Hungary, and 800,000 to 900,000 for Germany (910,000 in 1906), say for 
the whole of the Triple Alliance, an annual reinforcement of at least 1,500,000 
souls. And now let us look at ourselves. With us the first year of the 20th Century 
witnessed the excess of births over deaths tending towards zero with an almost 
mechanical regularity. It was 84,000 in 1902 ; it was 73,000 in 1903 ; it was 
57,000 in 1904 ; it was 37,000 in 1905 ; it was already at 27,000 in 1906. In 
1907 not only do we arrive at zero, but we fall below it, for deaths exceed births 
by 20,000. Here are the official figures: deaths 794,000, births 774,000, say, 
alas ! 33,000 births less than in the course of the two preceding years, which were 
themselves below all those which had preceded them. From this point of view 
the future promises to be worse than the present. Therefore there is no exaggera- 
tion in speaking of the depopulation of France. And it is the only State where 
statistics have had to make such revelations. We do not wish to say, as it pleases 
the Germans to say, " finis Galliae." But who would dare to affirm that this de- 
plorable state of things does not mark, for our beautiful country, the beginning of 
the end? 

So much the more because this abnormal sterility is, with exceptions, voluntary 
sterility. The great majority of French families would reckon, if such were their 
good pleasure, as many boys and girls as German families. It is not so difficult : 
only let Nature have her way. Is it not Norman blood so infecund in France 
which runs in the veins of those good Canadians on the banks of the St. Lawrence, 
with whom it is an everyday thing to show a dozen heirs and who sometimes show 
two dozen ? Old France would not ask so much. But when a nation, led astray, 
has begun to disobey the laws of life, its rebellion does not stop half-way. Surely 
that is what we see around us. French couples, in all degrees of the social scale, 
voluntarily oppose themselves to the ancient precept : Crescite et multiplicamini 
(increase and be multiplied). Many have no children at all. Many have only 
one child and complain when a second comes. Yet where celibacy has its partisans, 
there must be at least three children per marriage merely to maintain the equi- 
librium between entrances and exits in the human account. If there were not 
still to be found, here and there, some really prolific groups, depopulation would 
have already done its work over the whole of the territory and France would be 
ripe for the final invasion. A little sooner, a little later, it is the fate which awaits 
her, if, well able to feed 80 millions of inhabitants, she refuses even to have 40. 
Between her and Germany there was numerical equality in the middle of the last 
century. In 1875, Germany surpassed us by 6 millions. In 1908 the disparity 
was more than 20 millions. In 20 years, if indeed France shall not have been 
devoured in the meantime, there will exist two Germans for one Frenchman, and 
that without taking into account all that emigration has sown of Germanic element 
in the two worlds, whilst the French themselves hardly swarm at all. 

Thus does France march towards her ruin, and she marches at accelerated 
pace. In the presence of such a peril all our vain quarrels, political and other, 
should give way to a truce, and the supreme care of men who preside over the destinies 
of our country ought to be to fight an evil which is undermining us and will kill us 
if we leave it to its course. True, the cure demanded is by no means an easy thing. 
Epidemics of the moral order, or rather of the immoral order, as is the case here, 
are the most tenacious. The whole of French thought of our day would have to 
be altered. Here, materialism combines with individualism and their claims are 
strengthened the one by the other. Ambition, social vanity, desire to make show, 
to enjoy and to possess, such are the motives to which our countrymen abandon 
themselves more and more. The thirst for wealth increasing with the wealth itself, 
the desire to become rich at any cost, whilst a child is feared because they see in 
it a bother, a charge, an importunate creditor. As soon as it is born, and even 



148 

before, does it not assail our purses, our liberty, our pleasures ? It personifies 
for its responsible producers, sacrifice under all forms, and for that it is no longer 
forgiven. Let us acknowledge, moreover, that egotism properly so-called finds 
here for an accomplice paternal love itself. It is often this love which, by a curious 
deviation, prevents other than the first child from being born. Many French 
people are still more ambitious for their descendants than for themselves, and 
in the interest of the eldest son they desire that he shall have neither brothers nor 
sisters. 

803. Here we have the initial cause of that quite artificial infecundity of which 
those men and women who impose it upon themselves avow more willingly the 
end than they do the means. And we are not concerned to deny that against 
such calculations the legislator may well consider himself helpless. But it is de- 
manded of him, at the very least, that he do not encourage them. Now, such is 
our disgrace, that the governing powers, with us, do all that they ought to do if 
their programme were to discredit more and more, instead of encouraging, marriage 
and paternity. 

That is a grave accusation : is it rash ? We shall see. 

804. First of all it is surely permissible to class amongst the depopulators of France 
all those of our countrymen who during thirty years have made war one of our 
sacred ideas. Those most imbued with anticlericalism, if they were pre-occupied 
with the future of the country would have remembered that there exists a direct 
bond, a link from cause to effect between the diminution of the Christian mind and 
the increasing scarcity of births. Christianity has at all times severely condemned 
the whole of the frauds which sap the very source of life, and that is why those 
of our provinces where religious feeling best defends itself are just those which 
have the most children. Such a one is pious Brittany. When the light which 
comes from on high shall have become extinct there also, the birth-rate of the 
Breton departments will have fallen to the same level as elsewhere, and it will be 
by tens of thousands that the deficit must be reckoned in our annual recruits both 
for the army and for the navy. 

805. Take another category of depopulators. The worst obstacles to all procreation 
are manifestly misconduct, libertinage and debauchery. There has never been a 
time when, as now, licentious literature (la pornographic) under its most cynical 
forms, enjoyed such tolerance as it has acquired to-day, even before courts of 
justice. 

806. Moreover, there is a worse thing than sheer obscenity. French natality has 
enemies still more to be feared than those of which we have just spoken. For 
several years an abominable propaganda has been organised, under a name whose 
pedantry is only an extra snare, and leagues that had better be called " leagues for 
national suicide " preach ostensibly or clandestinely to working-men, to working- 
women, to peasants, to all the young girls and all the young women whom they can 
approach, these base practices which, without implying the " moral restraint ' ' 
of Malthus, promise the same results. To refuse life to a child, or to take it from 
it in time behold the art which in France has its theory, its professors, its in- 
struction, its manuals, its journals, nay its poets ! And neither administration 
nor law wants to be bothered. If they raise the objection that the Criminal Code 
does not arm them against such malefactors, we would reply that that is only a 
slander, and that, besides, they can always add a new regulation to it. Further, 
we would show with what stern vigour the neighbouring States have acted when 
this odious proselytism attempted to cross their frontiers. 

807. And again, without classing them with the preceding, we must in like manner 
add to the number of artificers of French depopulation the authors of those laws 






149 

which firstly established divorce and then facilitated it to excess. The supporters 
of the reform of 1884 cannot possibly dispute that children have unfortunately 
been its expiatory victims. Thus, that which ought to have remained in any case 
a very exceptional expedient, becomes almost a national habit, and it is actually 
by tens of thousands that we count, every year, the sorry legion of the divorced. 

808. Our fiscal laws have also their share, their large share, of responsibility, and 
here at least, if legislators desired it, it would be possible to modify quickly a 
situation upon which light has been thrown. As declared by everybody, our 
taxes are crushing, and it is madness further to aggravate in each budget the charges 
upon those taxpayers whose wealth no longer augments and of which the effective 
force begins to diminish. But it is less the exaggeration of the imposts than their 
vicious distribution which must here be denounced. It has been shown and it is 
notorious that in France large families are outrageously overtaxed. Far from 
considering them, they have to pay double. What could be more iniquitous 
or more discouraging ? As the Prussian Einkommensteuer (income-tax) lavishes 
reductions to such families, simple folk might suppose that it would be the same 
with our future income-tax. Let us remove that illusion. The Bill which the 
Chamber of Deputies has just discussed so laboriously does not admit of any 
difference in treatment, however infinitesimal, between the bachelor and the 
father of ten children. The Commission (Extra-Parliamentary) itself was openly 
scandalised and said that the Minister of Finance had begged them not to complicate 
his task by considerations of a secondary order, but the Commission did not insist. 
" In a spirit of conciliation that everyone will comprehend," said the secretary, 
" at the sitting of the 6th February last, we conceded to the Minister the non- 
deduction for family expenses." A touching transaction wherein the only com- 
promise is the claim of right and the sacred interest of the race ! 

M. de Foville is himself a member of the Extra-Parliamentary Commission upon 
Depopulation. 

809. Not only does M. Caillaux' Bill improve nothing from the demographic point 
of view, but he reserves a fresh trouble for us : under his system, when two young 
people marry, the treasury punishes them instantly because the progressive rate 
of the tax will imply, for the two incomes henceforward blended, a higher rate 
than those at which they were previously taxable. Thus this great reform which, 
better understood, might have exercised a happy influence upon natality, becomes 
a premium to concubinage. 

The successional regime which is common to France and to Belgium, does 
not prevent the Belgians augmenting their numbers by one per cent, per annum 
on an average. But, given the turn of mind of the small as well as of the large 
French proprietor, we could doubtlessly profit by introducing some modifications 
in this respect into our Civil Code, or at the very least into our procedure. 

810. We ought also to ask ourselves whether by dint of preaching and of subsidising 
the spirit of foresight and economy, we have not already overshot the mark. It 
is to make more savings that the French have less children. It should be time 
to react against a policy whose result is that these milliards in which we put all 
our complacency will soon lack defenders, above all, young defenders. Alas ? what 
will be our army contingents in ten years, in twenty years, in half a century ? 

811. Numerous, we see, are the measures, legislative and otherwise, which by their 
combined influence might hold France back from the fatal slope whereon she 
is letting herself slide. Salvation would still be possible, but to that it would be 
necessary that those who govern us should consent without delay to open their 
eyes, to recognise their faults and to repair them. It would require, apart from 
all party spirit, to reflect and to reason, to will and to act. Nothing manifests, 
up to the present, in the case of our masters, that reflection or that effort. The 



150 

remedies which it is urgent to apply cause them more pain than the malady itself, 
mortal though it be, and which is in part their own work. Thus is prepared the 
destruction of a great nation. Titus Livius, at the sight of those ulcers which 
Rome allowed to fester before his eyes, said : Nee vitia nostra nee remedia pati 
possumus ! (We can neither endure our vices nor their remedies !) 

(Signed) A. de FOVILLE, 

Membre de 1'Institut. 



THE FRuiTFUli MUST CONQUER THE UNFRUITFUL. 

THE POLITICAL DANGERS OF CHILD-DEARTH. 

I translate from the "Neue Freie Presse," Vienna, October, 1908. 

812. THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS, who brought so much pessimism into national economy, 
as also at the same time SCHOPENHAUER brought it into philosophy, is dead more than 70 years. The 
great theorist would indeed have been astounded if he could have heard an announcement which has 
recently made a deep impression. In the Paris " Opinion " the President of the Academy of Political 
and Moral Sciences, M. de FOVILLB, draws a picture of the present position of French population. 
In a hundred years, he says, the number of births has fallen from 32 per 1000 inhabitants to a trifle 
more than 19. In the year 1907 there is shown as the result of this long development the weighty 
and ominous fact : deaths exceed births by 20.000 ! Next to Ireland under her misfortune of a large 
emigration, France is the only country with a sinking population. Does that agree with the sore 
trouble of old Malthus. " mankind multiplies itself faster than the means of subsistence which are at 
its disposal ; population grows in geometrical progression, but food only in arithmetical " ? 

France, de Foville says, is fit to nourish 80,000,000 people. To-day it has barely 40,000,000 
inhabitants, and the whole of the statistics of the past distinctly show a continuous weakness, a latent 
malady which is hard to comprehend. From the year 1850 the figures of the German Empire ad- 
vanced with a rush. In 1820 France had 4,000,000 more people than Germany ; to-day Germany 
is stronger than France by 20,000,000 people, and thus the old pun of PAULUS DIAKONUS is justified, 
that the former should not be called Germania but Germinania. That comes from germino, to sprout 
forth. Into many hundreds of thousands, close to a million, goes the German annual surplus ; with 
steady and mighty advance it has doubled itself since the year 1872 up to 815,000 in 1896. France 
showed, however, for many a year a deficit in births. Again in 1907 the enervation of the national 
fibre shows itself afresh by a further decline of the generative force the virtus generative, a victory 
of death over b'fe. 

813. This strange development against nature and against the law of national economy most have 
weighty causes. They must be some of those mighty and clearly visible obstacles which Malthus 
mentions. The great French savant, PAUL LEBOY BEAULIEU, cites these facts, which might explain 
the retardation of the French population : wealth is more general, more widely spread ; modern 
irreligious education favours the lust for public honours and for greater riches : military burdens 
and tares are more oppressive than ever. Just here a little doubt is permissible. Cannot these 
same phenomena of ambition, of scepticism, of increased wealth and heightened burdens, in the countries 
of greatest increase of population, of highest industrial activity and intellectual tension, namely in 
Germany, England, Belgium, and the Netherlands, also count ? Is there not in France something 
special, something quite peculiar to that country, which represses the procreative force and lets it 
leak away and vanish ? Perhaps indeed it is the consequence of over -refined and indolent wealth ; 
of a civilisation which admires itself in its own crystal mirrors polished to dazzling brilliance : of a 
morbid estimate of the standard which permits the maintenance of the minor luxuries. Add to that 
the selfish, scornful superiority of " society " women, who consider themselves in their exalted 
" world " so much above natural events, and who know how to calculate so clearly the utter uselessness 
and the absolute superfluity of the pain, of the thousandfold cares, of the awkward hindrances that 
the child causes, as well as the difficulty of its education. The art of living thus leads in its highest 
completion to the annihilation of the source of life. 

814. A sad analogy with ancient Rome, impossible wholly to reject, obtrudes itself. The same 
anxiety shows itself to-day in the public discussions upon the sterility of France as when once upon 
a time the Roman Senate, Caesar, and the legislators wanted to place in the hands of the State all 
means and all power so as to increase the population. The newly arisen National Economy of latter 
days begins just where the Roman ended. In the multitude of inhabitants which a country is able 



151 

to contain, said a writer of the eighteenth century, lies the happiness of the State. Marshal VAITBAN, 
the great general of Louis XIV., wrote : " It is certain that the greatness of kings is to be measured 
by the number of their subjects. It is impossible to place in their hands too much means for the 
maintenance and multiplication of the people." The whole system of the Physiocrats, the economic 
policy of MARIA THERESIA and especially of FREDERICK THB GREAT, besides almost the whole political 
literature until Malthus, united itself in one phrase : " more population." 

815. From Malthus begins a scientific backwater movement, a current against the surplus of births 
which augmented in such wild profusion [when Prussia had 2,000,000 people and Great Britain 
10,000,000 !] There was a regular fever of anxiety about the geometric progression of human increase 
and the merely arithmetical of food supplies. The most insane proposals even purely mechanical 
appeared in order to diminish births. Laws which rendered marriage more difficult, were introduced, 
and literature was under a sort of hypnosis of trembling fear about the imminence of over-population. 
Even now fear of poverty has not disappeared, which the abundance of children is alleged to bring to 
the poor. We all know it : that picture of the prolific couple collapsing under the pressure of children, 
to whom they are unable to offer any chance in life, any strength for the struggle, and what is the most 
terrible of all, any love 

816. And in spite of it all, we regard it with quieter gaze. We see the problem of over-population 
all the time in connection with the division of wealth. Countless stretches of land in all parts of the 
world, gigantic plains in Russia and Siberia, are scarcely opened up. Through the stimulus of chemistry 
and the processes of modern agricultural economy the earth's sap is more and more deeply tapped, 
and yet it is renewed in a measure which formerly would have been considered impossible. The 
sources of nutriment now run steadier, richer, more full of sap than ever. New ones are always being 
opened out in far off and empty lands. Slowly the fear of reproduction has vanished. In like manner 
the economic pessimism of Malthus is overcome and expurged, like the philosophy of Schopenhauer. 
Therefore so much the stranger, so much the more incredible is it, that a rich and fruitful land of labour 
with the sea on two sides of it, in political quietude, is suffering under a defeat in respect of population 
as it hardly could experience during a great and unfortunate war. 

817. No diplomatic successes can disguise the significance of the cold speech of these figures. Victory, 
said Napoleon, is with the big battalions. His power for destruction, his hysteria for glory which 
collapsed so dismally, also co-operated to lessen the big battalions of France. The fruitlessnesa of 
those titanic national efforts, the slaughter of entire lusty stocks in hopeless battles and defeats, must 
for decades have had a paralysing effect. Is it not characteristic that just in the year 1870, the figure 
of the German surplus of births should have advanced at a bound to half a million ? How much more 
oppressive must be the burden of the army for France, which tries to vie with Germany, the burden 
growing largely although population diminishes. How hopeless would be a struggle with Germany ! 
The latter now contains 20,000,000 more people imbued with patriotic ideas, is always striving upwards, 
and with ever renewed procreative force facing the future, which more truly belongs to Germany than 
to France. In twenty years Germany will probably have twice as many inhabitants as France ; all 
deep-rooted cleverness, all the smart strokes of diplomacy, cannot touch that. The high French 
" culture " and the " grande nation " are menaced by a dreadful curse sterility. And yet this 
culture sends the fibres of its roots from all the past deep into love, and in its own peculiar style catches 
the faintest vibration of feminine souls as upon infinitely delicate strings, whilst the same culture 
to-day neglects and ignores maternity and brings it to that corruption foretold by Zola's celebrated 
romance ! Herein, too, we see the confirmation of HERBERT SPENCER'S assertion, that the differ- 
entiation of organisms, the refinement of the intellect, spiritualisation, stand in inverse ratio tn 
fecundity. 

818. Victory is not to that nation which fixes up ententes cordiales, which surrounds itself with com- 
plicated and contradictory friendships, whilst finding in its own thrift, in the delicate and magnificent 
polish of its intellectuality, and in the comfort of its ancient social forms, nothing but hindrances to 
procreation. In the long run, victory belongs to that nation whose women can, best of all and most 
of all, bear children. The number of its population is essential to its value in time of war. The 
history of all ages demonstrates this law : The fruitful must conquer the unfruitful. 



THE TENDENCY TO DEPOPULATION IN FRANCE, AND ITS POSSIBLE REMEDIES. 

A Leading Article signed by M. PAUL LEROY-BEAULIEU in the " Journal 
des Dbats, Politiques et Litteraires," Paris, 29th August, 1908. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

819. This time of summer vacation is more suitable than any other season for the 

reflective study of problems that are complicated <wid of permanent interest. That 



152 

is why we deal just now with the gravest, the most heartrending question for the 
future of the country, namely, the tendency to depopulation in France. 

820. Certainly there is nothing new in this tendency, and for the last quarter of a 
century we have very often had occasion to point it out, to announce its sure 
aggravation, and to seek for remedies that might be applied. But hitherto 
people flattered themselves that it was for France only a matter of relative stagnancy 
of population, and they submitted with what they thought was philosophic 
resignation. To-day it is actual depopulation which threatens us, or rather 
which presents itself to us as an actual fact still only in its beginnings, and slight, 
but possessing every chance of accentuating and perpetuating itself. 

821. We shall take all care, in this study, not to misuse figures. We shall only 
cite those which are indispensable. The balance of births and deaths for the year 
1907 shows an excess of 20,000 deaths in round figures (exactly 19,920). 

It is not the first time, unfortunately, in the last quarter of a century, that 
the true annual movement of French population, that is to say leaving to one side 
emigration and immigration, is represented by an excess of deaths. It is actually 
the sixth time in twenty years : in 1890, 1891, 1892, 1895 and 1900, was presented 
the same phenomenon as 1907. We see how frequent for two decades has been 
the excess of deaths over births. 

It was almost an unknown occurrence in the whole course of the nineteenth 
century up to 1889 inclusive. There were only four years in which the figures 
of births did not attain those of deaths : these being the years 1854 and 1855 
afflicted by the epidemics of cholera and also by the war of the Crimea and the years 
1870 and 1871 when the Franco-German war was raging. Thus in the former 
half of the nineteenth century not once did deaths exceed births in France, and 
from 1851 to 1889, the fact only occurred four times, in years of war and of ex- 
ceptional epidemics. 

Now, however, in a thoroughly normal period, in a year economically very 
prosperous, 1907, one of the most successful that we have known for a very long 
time, France has not been able to maintain by herself the figure of her population, 
although it is relatively very thin compared with her territory. We know, 
indeed, that the density of French population, that is to say the proportion of 
the number of inhabitants to the surface, is the lowest by a long way of all Eastern 
and Central Europe, excepting only Portugal and Spain. 

822. The year 1907, so remarkably flourishing, was not afflicted by an ex- 
ceptional mortality, although the latter, as always in our case, was too high ; there 
were indeed about ten thousand deaths above the annual average of the last ten 
years, but had it been strictly on a level with this average there would still have 
been an excess of deaths above births. 

That which is particularly disquieting and, we repeat, heartrending in the 
statistics of births, marriages and deaths in 1907, that year of exceptional pros- 
perity, is that it exhibits a new and very notable decline in French natality. 

For the first time in more than a hundred years, the total births have fallen 
below 800,000. Up to 1886 from the beginning of the nineteenth century, and 
with the sole exception of the year 1871, when the war had called to the flag all 
male youth, the figure of births in France, although relatively lower than witli 
our neighbours, largely exceeded 900,000 yearly. Towards the middle of the 
second Empire it even exceeded by a little 1,000,000. In 1907, that year when 
all economic circumstances were favourable, it fell to 774,000 in round numbers 
(exactly 773,969). We lose therefore actually about 150,000 to 200,000 births 
per annum, and more nearly the latter figure than the former, compared with 
the first three quarters of the nineteenth century. 



153 

823. Whence comes this uninterrupted fall in natality, and where will it stop ? 
It is easy to answer the first question, and unfortunately it does not appear a bit 
more difficult to reply to the second. Doubtless the gradual decline of natality 
is a universal fact in Eastern and Central Europe. We have established a long 
time ago that democratic civilisation, especially when it coincides with a weakening 
of ancient beliefs, of the old conception of the destiny of man, leads to sterility. 
Democratic civilisation, without the help of the old traditions and the old faiths, 
depopulates. We must have the courage to say it, for there is no doubt whatever 
upon the subject. 

824. France is the first nation to have arrived at the democratic idea of national 
life, of social and of individual life. It is that idea which has detached us from 
the old beliefs, that which has so soon realised ease, if not universal comfort, and 
which every day is still more eager for this ease and this wealth. Thence it comes 
that France has no longer more than a limited number, an intentionally limited 
number, of children. 

That is the cause, at least the principal cause, of the constant decline in French 
natality. And not only is it by no means hazardous to say that so long as this 
cause shall last and that we do not make effort to combat it by energetic, almost 
heroic, remedies, the decline in natality will be aggravated. 

Doubtless it would be possible, to a certain degree, to countervail this gradual 
decrease in natality by a reduction of mortality, which is still too high in our case, 
considerably exceeding that of England, Holland, Belgium, Scandinavia and 
Switzerland. But we can hardly hope that even if we gain considerably from the 
side of mortality, we shall succeed in fully counterbalancing the effect of the re- 
duction that may be foreseen in the figures of natality, unless we can succeed 
in arresting the continual decline of the latter by the said heroic measures, those 
only which could possibly be efficacious. 

826. From about 1,000,000 of annual births towards the middle of the second 

empire, we have gradually descended, but with a rapidity which has been cease- 
lessly accelerated, to 774,000 in round figures in the year 1907 that was so flourishing, 
as already said. This figure might possibly be raised a little, accidentally, but 
it is probable or even certain that, saving always the possible effect of heroic reme- 
dies, it will further diminish. Indeed it is much to be feared that we shall very 
soon have no more than 750,000 births yearly, and later on perhaps 720,000 or even 
700,000. The examination of natality by departments shows that these forecasts 
are only too well founded. 

826. The number of marriages up to the present in France is fairly large and scarcely 
departs from the normal figure of nations of our civilisation. It was 315,000 
in round figures (exactly 314,903) in 1907, which is 8416 more than in 1906, and 
the highest that we have had since 1873. Doubtless the economic conditions 
which were so exceptionally favourable in 1907 had tended to an augmentation 
of marriages, which might cause us to hope that the year 1908 will show a movement 
of population with results less disturbing than last year, if we did not know, un- 
fortunately, that the mortality in the present year has been higb and that it appears 
bound to exceed the normal. 

827. Although marriages remain fairly numerous in France, their mean fecundity 
continues to decrease, and the forecasts that we are able to make for the future 
make us fear a fresh reduction of this fecundity, already so feeble. A somewhat 
high proportion of marriages, because of factors which in general are rather physical 
than intentional, is absolutely sterile ; another rather high proportion show it by 
having only one child ; and a third numerous category have only two children. 
The list of marriages which have over two children becomes more and more restricted, 
and it is likely very shortly that these will be quite rare. 



154 

828. Now take into consideration the 315,000 marriages effected in France in the 
course of the prosperous year 1907 ; suppose that each of them gives on an average 
two children, a figure that the vast majority of married people regard as fully 
sufficient. That will only make 630,000 legitimate births. Add to these the 
usual contingent, which also tends to be restricted, of 70,000 to 75,000 illegitimate 
births per annum, and we thus arrive at only 700,000 births in round figures, say 
74,000 less than the total, considered with good reason to be disastrous, of the year 
1907. 

829. It is towards this position of 700,000 births a year that we are directing our- 
selves ; that is what corresponds to the general conception of life in the French 
nation. It is highly probable that, with rapidity, say in ten years or less, we shall 
fall to that low level. We shall then lack about 100,000 births per annum to balance 
the deaths, and even supposing that mortality should be lessened by 40,000 to 
50,000 deaths a year, as ought to be obtained by the application of good social 
and individual methods, we shall nevertheless find that we are facing a deficit of 
about 50,000 births a year to maintain the French population. 

A deficit of 50,000 births per annum corresponds to a deficit of 5,000,000 births 
for the entire country. We are bound therefore to face this eventuality which, 
and we do not affirm that it will be realised, but there is a very great risk of its 
being realised, that France will lose by the actual movement of its population 
four to five millions of inhabitants in the course of the present century. 

830. Here we must point out that Leroy Beaulieu's arithmetic is quite astray. When 
those births are lost there must also be lost the subsequent progeny that would come 
from such persons had they been allowed to live. Caeteris paribus, there must and will 
be aggravated loss because as the women become older they cannot procreate. The case 
is worse than as he states it. 

It is quite possible that this lack of four or five millions of inhabitants, if it 
should occur as we have the right to expect, will be made up by an immigration of 
foreigners, Belgians, Germans, Swiss, Italians and Spaniards. In place of 1,100,000 
or 1,200,000 foreigners as we reckoned in the census of 1886 and of 1892, there 
would be upon our soil five or six millions, if not more, unless indeed the contrast 
should not continue to be aggravated between the slight density of population 
in France and the density of the neighbouring countries, which is two or three 
times greater. The five or six millions of foreigners, or even more, might become 
naturalised, but that would not be one whit the less for the purely national French 
element an enfeeblement and an alteration. 

831. We say that in default of the eventual action of energetic or even heroic reme- 
dies it appears most probable that the French birthrate, which is now 774,000 souls, 
will quickly fall to about 700,000. It only required a score of years for it to decline 
from 913,000 in 1886 (which was a lower figure than that of any previous year) to 
774,000 in 1907. Therefore we may conclude that in a dozen or fifteen years there 
is a risk of its coming to the neighbourhood of 700,000. 

832. The examination of natality by the French departments also gives foundation 
to this forecast. There is still a certain number of departments, a very small 
number, where the birthrate without being high exceeds by a good deal the average. 
These few departments are divisible into two categories : departments with primi- 
tive mode of thought, as we say, having preserved ancient beliefs and ancient 
traditions, for example the departments of Brittany, La Vendee, and some other 
neighbouring departments. On the other part, some manufacturing departments, 
like the Nord, the Pas-de-Calais, the Seine-Inferieure, the Meurthe-et-Moselle, 
three of these latter being moreover maritime departments. That which has 
preserved the highest natality is the Finistbre, which has 287 births per 10,000 
habitants, whilst the whole of France has only 202. The Morbihan, the Cotes- 



155 

du-Nord, in a less degree, the Ile-et-Vilaine, the Vendee, the Lozkre, departments 
reputed to be primitive, have still a much higher natality than the rest of France. 
Suppose, what tends to happen, that the old mentality, the attachment to former 
beliefs and to ancient traditions should be destroyed in these countries that we 
absolutely modernised these departments they would become bit by bit what 
the Burgund and Gascon departments are now ; that is to say, births will fall 
away by a full third, or even a half, which means 25,000 or 30,000 births, if not 
more, that France will lose every year. 

833. The departments which have the lowest natality are those where the population 
is most impregnated with the modern spirit, with the get-there-at-any-price spirit. 
Here we have for example the Lot-et-Garonne, that department, small in itself, 
which has furnished by a long way the most ministers of state and men occupying 
the highest situations under the third Republic, and which is the last but one in 
respect of natality. Its neighbour, the Gers, which slightly precedes it, has only 
132 births per 10,000 inhabitants, whilst Finistbre has 287 and Morbihan 253. 

834. When our system of education and our administration shall have succeeded 
in modernising all of those departments which remain primitive, the French birthrate 
will experience a new and terrible djrop. We have calculated that if, since 1861, 
the whole of France had had the birthrate and deathrate of Finistere, she would 
have gained 400,000 inhabitants a year ; that is to say, that she would have had at 
the present moment a population of about 53,000,000 instead of 39,000,000 ; and 
that, on the other hand, if France since 1871 had had the natality and mortality 
of the Lot-et-Garonne, she would have lost between seven and eight millions of 
souls and would not reckon now more than 31 or 32, in place of 39, millions of people. 
Now then, it is the manner of thought of Lot-et-Garonne that public instruction 
seeks to spread, and it is the mentality of Finistere that it makes every effort to 
eliminate. It is impossible to conceive a madder aberration. 

835. The direction given to public instruction, the brutal contempt that all our 
authorities manifest for the faiths and the traditional morals of France, constitute 
downright suicide for the race, suicide which has not even for an attenuating circum- 
stance that of being slow. 

The first remedy for the depopulation by which France is menaced and which 
threatens to make her lose four or five millions of inhabitants, of French stock at 
least, in the course of the present century, would be that of changing the whole 
of the direction of public instruction and the whole of our legislative mentality. 
Apart from this sort of return to a hygiene alike moral, salutary and normal, there 
are different methods, positive and precise, to which we could resort in order to 
endeavour to arrest our morbid and fatal tendency to depopulation. They are 
energetic methods demanding from the nation great and continuous sacrifices. 



HOW URBANISATION SAPS THE NATION'S STRENGTH. 

836. MONS. E. CHBYSSON in the " Revue Politique et Parlementaire " of 10th October, 
1906, quoting the 48,000,000 which France, by her sterility, annually saves over Germany, 
exclaims : 

(TRANSLATION). 

Fatal and ruinous economy which squanders the future for the profit of the 
present, as would be that of a farmer who sacrifices the harvest to spare the seed-corn ! 
A nation cannot dodge its duty with any more impunity than an individual. If it 



156 

obtain immediate ease by shaking off the charges that duty implies, " immanent 
justice " requires that this selfishness and improvidence shall be paid for, sooner 
or later, and with usury. 

If all France were populated like Paris, 31,000 inhabitants to the square 
kilometre, the French population would be equal to 15 milliards of souls, ten times 
more than the whole world. 

837. Finally and it is an observation true for all countries towns are devourers 

of men ; they draw them by suction from all parts of the territory, pump them 
into the furnace, and consume them. 

It is an expression much quoted both in France and Germany, and it is the 
leading thought in the following paper by Bertillon. 



TOWNS WHICH DEVOUR MEN. 
(Les Villes Mangeuses d'Hommes). 

Leading Article by Dr. JACQUES BERTILLON in " Le Journal de Paris," 
15th November, 1908 

(TRANSLATION). 

838. Not only do all French towns present a rapidly falling birth-rate, but, beyond 

that, in the great majority of them the total deaths are greater than the total births. 
Amongst them more dying goes on than child-bearing. So much so, that if a 
great many country people did not come into the towns to seek their fortune 
or rather to find poverty there these towns at the end of a certain time would 
be deserted. It is not that mortality is so high, but that natality is incredibly 
low and ceaselessly diminishes. We shall limit our researches to the last twenty 
years. 

In Paris during good years and bad there were 58,000 births annually during 
the period 1887 to 1890. This figure fell to 50,811 in 1907, although the city 
during those twenty years had increased by half a million inhabitants. In 1887 
to 1890 there were in Paris 25 births in one year for every thousand inhabitants ; 
there are no more now than 18 or 19. 

In the great provincial towns (towns of more than 100,000 inhabitants), 
here is the rapid retrogression of the figures : 

Births per 1000 inhabitants per annum. 

1887-90 . . 25.5 

1891-5 . . 24.8 

1896-1900 . . 22.8 
1901-5 .. 21.6 

1906 . . 21.1 

In the smaller towns disappearance of births is scarcely less rapid. 

French towns of 10,000 to 20,000 inhabitants. 
1887-1890 . . 23.3 
1891-1895 . . 22.7 
1896-1900 . . 22.3 
1901-1905 . . 21.3 
1906 20.6 



157 

Thus the small towns, which in general are not manufacturing and are extremely 
tranquil, have always fewer births than the larger towns, and moreover they have 
less and less of them. Yet distractions are rare amongst them, and the absence 
of these ought to make people appreciate the joys of the family. But it is not so. 

839. In the great majority of French towns, deaths are more numerous than births. 
We do not see it in the case of Paris, but that is only to say that the exception 
confirms the rule. Out of 51,191 children born to the Parisian population in 1906 
one-third (exactly 16,327) left the city immediately after their birth to go to nurse. 
If they died (and that happens to them, unfortunately, much oftener than to 
the others), the deaths are registered and reckoned against the villages which 
the nurses inhabit, and are not charged to the mortuary statistics of Paris. Thuf- 
they are reckoned to the credit of Paris when they are born, and not passed to its 
debit when they die. Hence, and hence only, it comes that the city shows more 
births than deaths. In reality Paris makes no exception to the rule. Therefore 
let us put the city and its suburbs to one side. 

840. In the rest of France there are 112 towns containing more than 20,000 in- 
habitants. Now, amongst these there are 78 in which the number of deaths is 
greater than the number of births ! These towns would not fail to claim that 
the number of their deaths is increased by some strangers to the town who go there 
to enter the hospitals and who may die there. Vain excuse ! For into these 
same hospitals go also women from the neighbouring country for their accouche- 
ments. So, although the town gets some deaths from outside, it also receives a 
certain number of births. Besides, the discrepancy between births and deaths 
is generally too great to be explained by such details. 

841. In some towns the contrary is the case and births are more numerous than 
deaths. How very rare that is ! They are almost all massed in the north-east of 
France. They are all manufacturing or mining towns. At their head must be 
placed the mining towns of Lens and Lievin, in which the population increases 
almost as much as it does in foreign countries. There is a smaller excess of births, 
but notwithstanding it is considerable at Lille, Tourcoing, Watrelos, Dunkerque, 
and Calais. We always hear people assert that Brittany makes up in part the 
deficiency in French natality, and it is true to say that births there are not so scarce 
as in the larger part of our territory. But this superiority is disappearing. Most 
of the Breton towns count at present more deaths than births. Those of the 
neighbouring districts (Vendee, Anjou, etc.) are no better fated. That is what 
the following figures show. They relate to 1906, and those of the preceding 
years only slightly vary. 

Births. Deaths. Actual Number. Per 1000 

inhabitants. 

Brest .. 1921 .. 2043 .. 122 .. 1.4 

St.-Brieuc ..439 .. 669 .. 230 .. 10.0 

Rennes .. 1349 .. 1932 .. 583 .. 7.7 

Nantes .. 2162 .. 2893 .. 731 .. 5.5 

Angers .. 1398 .. 1949 .. 551 .. 6.7 

Laval.. ..401 .. 841 .. 440 .. 12.8 

LeMans .. 1313 .. 1681 .. 368 .. 5.7 

Niort ..354 .. 599 .. 245 .. 10.5 

Poitiers ..694 .. 771 .. 77 .. 2.0 

The differences, as we see, are often considerable. At Rennes, Saint-Brieuc, 
Niort, Angers, for every three deaths there are barely two births. At Laval it is 
even worse. Deaths are double the births ! Fougeres and Vannes also present 



158 

twice as many deaths as births. At Lorient and Saint-Nazaire they are about on 
a level. At Caen, a great excess of deaths, 1295 deaths against 862 births. 

842. Above all it is in the cities of the Centre and in those of the South (excepting 
Nice and Ajaccio) that mortality as a general rule is higher than natality. Here 
are some figures relating to the principal towns of the Centre : 

Excess of deaths over births. 

Births. Deaths. Actual Number. Per 1000 

inhabitants. 

Lyon . . . . 8273 . . 9830 . . 1557 . . 3.3 

Bourg ..374 .. 618 .. 244 .. 12.2 

St.-Etienne .. 2888 .. 3344 .. 456 .. 3.1 

Roanne ..598 .. 748 .. 150 .. 4.3 

Lepuy ..357 .. 614 .. 257 .. 12.0 

Cl.-Ferrand .. 996 .. 1302 .. 306 .. 5.2 

Bourges ..697 .. 908 .. 211 .. 4.8 

Dijon .. 1227 .. 1510 .. 283 .. 3.9 

Nevers ..443 .. 572 .. 129 .. 4.8 

Orleans .. 1193 .. 1494 .. 301 .. 4.4 

Chartres ..430 .. 591 .. 161 .. 6.9 

843. In all this immense region we barely see Limoges and Le Creusot, where births 
are pretty nearly equal to deaths. But everywhere else deaths are in the ascendant 
and always in about the same proportion ; for three births there are four deaths. 
It must be remarked that Lyon, quite the same as Paris, sends a third of its infants 
to nurse. Thus the real deficit is very much greater than is indicated by the above 
figures. 

In the south the evil is still more general : 

Excess of deaths over births. 

Births. Deaths. Actual Number. Per 1000 

inhabitants. 

Marseille . . 11,352 . . 12,378 . . 1026 . . 2.0 

Avignon .. 834 .. 1227 .. 393 .. 8.1 

Valence .. 389 .. 596 .. 207 .. 7.4 

Nimes .. 1224 .. 1631 .. 407 .. 5.0 

MontpeUier .. 1484 .. 1837 .. 353 .. 4.6 

Beziers .. 915 .. 1174 .. 259 .. 5.0 

Montauban .. 469 .. 687 .. 218 .. 7.6 

Toulouse .. 2616 .. 3650 ., 1034 .. 6.9 

Agen.. ..304 .. 568 .. 264 .. 11.4 

Bordeaux .. 4295 .. 5447 .. 1152 .. 4.6 

At Nimes and at Beziers for four deaths there are only three births. Worse 
still, at Avignon, at Valence, at Montauban, and at Toulouse there are only two 
births to three deaths. 

At Marseille and at Bordeaux there is a very observable excess of deaths, 
but it is not so marked. What shall we say of Agen, the place which furnishes 
us with so many Cabinet ministers ? There are seen two burials to each baptism ! 
How long will France last if this regime becomes general, as it appears to be on 
the high road to do ? 

Already twenty years ago births were less in number than deaths in most of 
the French towns. These towns have set France the bad example. It has 
been only too much followed ! 

(Signed) Dr. JACQUES BEKTILLON. 



159 
POLITICAL ECONOMISTS AND RACE SUICIDE. 

844. How French racial decay is regarded from the viewpoint of the English Political 
Economist school is shown by the following sample of self-styled philosophy. The London 
journalists of that cult in this day and hour still point with insular pride to the fact, as 
declared by opponents of Manchesterism such as Mr. Greg and Mr. Benjamin Kidd, 
as also by other authorities English or French cited herein, that " Malthusian " limitation 
of children is the central idea and the great regenerative principle of their philosophy. 



DWINDLING FRANCE. 

" The World, A Journal for Men and Women." London, Wednesday, 

August 26, 1908. 

845. Even M. de Foville, who is not an alarmist, cannot conceal his apprehensions. 

" France," he declares, " is marching with quickened step to her doom." He 
accepts depopulation as a fact, and regards it as " the beginning of the end." 

We wonder whether time will justify this pessimism. Is the example which 
France presents to be looked upon as a reach forward to a better dispensation or as a 
sign of yielding in the fight for international existence, or, perhaps, as both ? 
All countries, more or less, are discussing some aspect or other of the population 
question. It is, of course, as ancient a problem as mankind itself, but it is at last 
being approached with sense and responsibility. Most people probably regard the 
falling birth-rate of France as a token of decay. Yet it is curious to notice that the 
best economic-philosophical thought of the day tends towards an endorsement of the 
doctrines of Malthus. Nearly all the imaginary Utopias of to-day make the rejec- 
tion of the common and Rooseveltian views on race suicide their very foundation. 
Nearly all are based on the Malthusian opinion that a State whose population 
continues to increase in obedience to unchecked instinct can progress only from 
bad to worse. 

846. The data do not as yet exist for anything that could be called a population 
policy. But there seem to be four conclusions that the world is gradually nearing : 
First, that race suicide, in the sense of a conscious limitation of population to the 
means of subsistence and to a definite standard of living, is not, when practised 
by a nation instead of by a small and well-to-do class, to be construed as necessarily 
a sign of degeneration, but may be the starting-point of a far higher civilisation. 
Secondly, that its causes are at bottom economic complicated and intensified 
by a vulgar set of social ideals. Thirdly, that the " remedy " is to be sought 
not in any specific legislation, but in a wide and long-continued effort to promote 
a greater equality in the distribution of wealth and to transform the very nature 
and essence of the average man's social ambitions. Fourthly, that it is the duty 
of the State to insure, even by the most drastic enactments, that those who fail to 
reach a certain minimum of age, health, physique, economic efficiency, and 
mental development, shall not be permitted to add to the population of the State. 
We are, of course, a very long way from the time when these conclusions will be 
accepted and acted upon by the commonsense of mankind. But that the best 
thought of the world on this matter is moving in these directions and no other, 
seems to us unquestionable. 

847. But while a philosopher might thus make out a very good case for France, 
France herself seems more perturbed than consoled by the success of her experiment. 



160 

More deliberately and completely than any other country she cuts her coat accord- 
ing to her cloth she regulates her population by her resources and her well-worn 
social arrangements. Of all nations she is perhaps the most placid, the most pros- 
perous and provident, the most deeply civilised ; and she is all this, in her own 
judgment, because she is also the most strictly limited. The great bulk of the 
French people are Malthusians by conviction and temperament. Those who are 
not are either the devout poor in the country districts especially districts like 
Brittany, where the Church is strongest and her teachings most faithfully obeyed 
or the heedless and improvident poor in the towns. But the average Frenchman 
severely limits the number of his children. It is natural that he should do so. 
Indeed, it is difficult to see how any people who have incorporated into their legal 
code the principle of forced testamentary division of property can be anything 
but Malthusians. 

France derives from her Malthusian policy an immense diffusion of prosperity 
and happiness. The only drawback is that Malthus lived before conscription. 

848. Now the foregoing is thoroughly representative of the School which rejects 
the " common and Rooseveltian views upon race-suicide." The lofty superiority of the 
insular " philosopher " breathes in every line. But let us not for a moment lose sight 
of the unutterable dirt and depravity upon which this inculcation rests. That which 
Knowlton wrote, and Robert Dale Owen " taught his workpeople " (par. 130), which 
Charles Bradlaugh and Annie Besant (pars. 131, 277.) themselves proudly claim to have 
reprinted and to have boldly shouted from the public platform the act of Onan with its 
manifold and hideous variations is, upon their own declaration, the central idea of this 
philosophy, and indeed is the philosophy itself. For take away the unnatural practices 
and you take away the philosophy. 

849. Let the reader look straight at the extracts from the Report of the Joint Com- 
mittee (Lord Beauchamp's) of the Houses of Lords and Commons. Let him read how 
the mere specific recommendation of the means necessary to the practice of this Politico- 
Economic Philosophy is pronounced to be " indecency and outrage." How from nobleman 
and from labourer, from physicians and persons of all sorts, bitter complaints were received 
by the Postmaster- General that to their wives during their confinements had been 
sent, in the ordinary course of commerce through the post, pamphlets and circulars 
containing Malthusian arguments, just the customary quasi-scientific assumptions as 
in the article quoted above. Only that with the arguments came diagrams of the 
male and female generative organs, as also pictures, prices and details of chemical and 
mechanical means of interference with the course of Nature, (par. 1822.) 

The Report of the Joint Committee is a public document for sale by anyone, 
and may be copied or quoted by anyone. But its descriptions of wide-spread indecencies 
will not here be given. So that what " philosophy " allows and teaches openly, common 
decency may not mention ! 

850. If the Economic philosophy be truth and right, then this traffic and instruction 
is as honourable and commendable as the household supply of milk and bread. Instead 
of the State proposing to interfere, by maximum fines of forty shillings, to check the 
energetic advertisement and sale of preventives and abortives, it ought to intervene, 
as in the case of milk and bread, to see that the agents of child restriction, as sold " on 
an enormous scale," are up to recommendation and thoroughly efficient. Because " the 
first of the four conclusions that the world is gradually nearing is : that race suicide, in 
the sense of a conscious limitation of population is not, when practised by a nation, to be 
construed as necessarily a sign of degeneration, but may be the starting-point of a far 
higher civilisation ! " (Refer to pars. 1246-9.) 

851. France is declared to be " the most deeply civilised, the most placid, prosperous 
and provident ; and she is all this in her own judgment because she is also the most 



161 

strictly limited. France derives from her Malthusian policy an immense diffusion of 
prosperity and happiness ! " 

852. That is the typical British Political Economist " wie in einem Buch beschrieben, 
und wie er leibt und lebt." Theory is everything, and when facts don't fit he waives them 
aside. The placid French nation is a huge camp of armed men, triply fortified along each 
frontier. The French are inventing new weapons and are feverishly watchful of their more 
vigorous neighbours, who also are armed from head to foot and ever augmenting their 
numbers. In a few years the French will lose and no prophecy about it 38 regiments, 
and every few years thereafter whole army corps, out of their actual army. They lose a 
Volkerschlacht every year, in actual loss of citizens, as many lives as were swept away 
in the total losses at Leipzig in 1813, the bloodiest battle in the history of Europe. The 
very cadres of their army are being broken, so that the nation is anytliing but placid at 
the desperate resort deliberately proposed to Parliament this year, 1908, by the authorised 
rapporteurs of embodying native Algerian troops in the territorial army. Crimes of 
violence are always increasing, homicides multiply, whilst failure of detection is each 
year more frequent. The use of spirits, especially of drugged spirits, and alcoholism 
generally, are constantly increasing. Venereal diseases are a greater trouble than ever ; 
cancer, insanity and nerve-disorders ceaselessly spread. The nation is actually becoming 
senile, not metaphorically, because as so often explained young lives did not and do not 
come along to replace the old and thereby to keep the nation young. Where does the 
providence come in ? It is the worst form of extravagance, being irremediable. The 
English Political Economist rejects the Spinozist dogma "homini nihil utilius homine" and 
takes the philosophy of Onan for his cornerstone. To practice that act upon a national 
scale is to be " most deeply civilised !" That which has obliterated civilisations is con- 
secrated by a whole school of British philosophers as the guiding principle for mankind ; 
and that which France derived from us Britons, " her Malthusian policy," has meant for 
her " an immense diffusion of prosperity and happiness !" The writer of this typical 
leader in the " World " well knows that Malthusianism as taught by us to the French 
is not the doctrine taught by Malthus himself, but an extension of it evolved by the 
Economic School, some of the teachers being named herein. (Pars. 130 e. s.). 

853. To quote LORD BEATJCHAMP'S words " It is difficult to exaggerate the importance 
of this matter." The restriction of families in France and in Anglo-Saxondom involves 
the practice of a vice which carries with it the curse of the ages, together with the soul- 
destroying crime of infanticide in or out of the womb. Both have bold and universal 
advertisement amongst British people, and especially in Great Britain itself. To apply 
the words of the ABBE CORBIERE, " It will be difficult to disengage the act of Onan, of 
which they attempt the justification, from the stigma that several thousand years have 
accumulated upon it. My opponents, in accepting this work, have given proof of a most 
astonishing courage, for they fully know that the rehabilitation that they have undertaken 
will give them a gigantic task, and will rouse everywhere the indignant voice of religion, 
-of morality and of medicine." 

854. But the fourth conclusion " that the world is gradually nearing," according to 
the British Economist, must not be passed over, for it is a part of the central idea of the 
School and was repeatedly and strenuously declared by JOHN STUART MILL. Also by 
most of the other English and French Political Economists. " It is the duty of the State 
to insure, even by the most drastic enactments, that those who fail to reach a certain 
minimum of age, health, physique, economic efficiency, and mental development shall 
not be permitted to add to the population of the State." Here we have savage restric- 
tion of liberty so as to bring about restrictive procreation, as if the inculcation of vice 
and crime were not sufficiently restrictive in themselves. But these Economists inculcated 
freedom also as a war-cry. Freedom to employ children in factories twelve hours a day 
(pars. 302 e. s.) which is forced labour freedom to sell secret and injurious drugs, 



162 

freedom to adulterate foods as being " a form of competition," (par. 1303), freedom 
to compete in selling by tens of millions of doses as they are now sold, opium, chloride 
of mercury and acetanilide for the Anglo-Saxon babies that are permitted to be born. 
Freedom also to advertise the British inventions for conjugal frauds as quoted in par. 1012 
and freedom to sell them. Freedom to sell the " irregularity " drugs of savin and ergot 
to effect abortion, as they are now sold by almost all chemists. These are the bonds, 
and the liberty, of their " gospel." 

855. The leading article from " The World " was not chosen, it came without being 
sought, and of the same kind of thing one could fill a library. Its language is quite decent, 
but it is wholly impossible to quote the specific and necessary recommendations which 
are before me in the books, pamphlets and tracts of the Politico-Economic Malthusians. 
These printed matters have been issued by millions and are still sold side by side with 
erotic literature calculated to excite sensuality. 

856. Such is our civilisation, and it is difficult to guess whence reform shall come, 
for Anglo-Saxon parliaments are entirely supine. It has been my good fortune to meet 
one statesman THEODORE ROOSEVELT who not only sees the truth but boldly speaks 
it, and endeavours to deal with the evil that is undermining our Anglo-Saxon race every- 
where. Our Empire therefore is honeycombed, and in not many years, even in the life- 
time of our present citizens, it may be overwhelmed. The progress of the decay is quite 
sure, because the borers are at work in heart, stem and branches, whilst there are no signs- 
whatever of anything but expansion of the disease. 

857. GUYAU: " L'lrreligion de 1'avenir." Paris, 1887. 2nd Edition, part II., 
chap. VII. 

Guyau, who has examined the relations between religion and the fecundity of 
races with his accustomed impartiality, condemns Malthusianism as economically 
disastrous, morally dangerous and fatal to civilisation. (Nitti). 



FRENCH FORECASTS OF DECAY. 

858. It is significant that the MARQUIS DE MIRABEAU two decades before the end 
of the 18th century, foresaw and feared the decline of fecundity in France. Others de- 
duced opposite conclusions, so common in our own day, and prophesied a rapid increase 
in births because of increasing comfort and ease. MONTESQUIEU, more surprisingly 
still, had prophesied the ultimate depopulation of all Europe. (Vide LEVASSEUR, Tome 
III., page 510). 

859. QUESNAY, so much admired by Malthus and the English Economists, the gentle- 
man who discovered the quadrature of the circle as he declared blamed Mirabeau for 
putting the cart before the horse in not first dealing with subsistences. MALTHUS, the 
clergyman whose conclusions are " axiomatic," and whose statements were declared by 
the Lord Chief Justice of England to be " irrefragable truth," said that so long as there 
is food, " men will multiply like rats in a granary." Upon which M. BAUDRILLART, with 
true French perspicacity, remarks that Malthus well knew " there is this difference be- 
tween man and the rodents, that the rat consumes without producing, whilst man produces 
what he consumes. Man, wherever he is, makes wealth ; he improves the soils of the 
country by his work and his capital." Which proves that a clergyman or a Lord Chief 
Justice can be as blinded by prejudice in our own day as the like have been in history 



163 
DEPOPULATION OF THE COUNTRY DISTRICTS : ITS CAUSES, EFFECT* AND 



By P. DEGHILAGB. 

860. The author of this book of 320 pages is an inspector of primary instruction in 
France. The work was crowned by the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. Only 
the opening page will be quoted. 

(TRANSLATION). 
IMPORTANCE OF THE DESERTION OF THE COUNTRY. 

A great danger menaces France, in its present fortune and in its future, namely 
the progressive emigration from the country towards the cities. The rural com- 
munes are being depopulated with appalling rapidity. " Hearths are extinguished, 
families are uprooted, properties are split up and the land perishes." 

Paris attracts the province ; the town attracts the village. The Breton 
farmer leaves his fields of wheat and his blossoming hedges. The Fleming 
abandons his fertile plains, his fat meadows and his charming red-brick dwelling 
gay with geraniums and fuchsias. The Provenal deserts his glorious blue sky 
and his dazzling sunshine. The Savoyard descends from his mountains to wander, 
with anxious, perspiring face, pale with privations and fatigue, through the great 
cities. The Auvergnat chases after the hardest work and endures the most grinding 
poverty. All are attracted by a will-o'-the-wisp, forsaking the paternal home 
to face, often without reflection, nearly always without resources, the incertitudes, 
deceptions, dangers, and too frequently the shame, of life in the great towns. 



A GLIMPSE THROUGH GERMAN SPECTACLES. 
THE WOMAN QUESTION. 

A Lecture by Dr. H. THIEL, Privy Councillor and Ministerial Comptroller. (Deutsche 
Verlags-Anstalt. Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1908.) 

Page 27 (TRANSLATION). 

861. I wish to utter a few words upon those extreme demands which aim at a 
complete reconstruction of our social surroundings, and which, if they do not actually 
insist upon free love, still require in the married state that it shall depend upon the 
consent of the wife, every time, whether she shall have a child or not. If that 
were so to-day, then marriage at least in its monogamic form could not long persist. 
It was not in vain that our legislation included both the word and the idea of 
conjugal duty, attributing to it such importance that a refusal of this duty is 
ground for divorce. If this principle were to be abolished, then mankind must 
return to polygamy or tolerate illicit relations in general. 

Assuredly the husband ought to exercise all consideration and to avoid de- 
manding and exercising his rights in brutal form if they be granted unwillingly. 
Nevertheless the woman who enters into wedlock must clearly realise to herself 
what duties she thereby undertakes and that this relation becomes untenable 
if she refuses to bear the lot of women. 

862. Dr. Thiel proceeds to show that the original sexual differentiation must persist 
in all societies that continue to exist, whereby, too, the preponderance of the male over 



164 

the female will and must remain, " unless the phantasies about a human parthenogenesis 
shall have attained actuality." 

863. This sentence is quoted to show that the insanity of the decadent women with 
university degrees in America, as mentioned by Dr. STANLEY HALL in his masterly work 
"Adolescence" (Vol. 1 of Report, par. 136), is also under observation from Germany. These 
highly civilised ladies would enlarge the Malthusian gospel to the extent of attempting 
to produce human creatures by some other method than that ordained by Nature the 
womb of the woman. As already said, it is only one of the hideous symptoms and accom- 
paniments of sterility and decay. 

Dr. Thiel continues and concludes thus : 

864. There is just one tiling more to add : unreasonable demands for exaggerated 
"rights " of women will always find a limit in the fact that the majority of men 
will constantly prefer for wives those who do not claim such rights, but who rather 
seek their happiness in cultivating and developing their specially feminine virtues 
and attributes, apart from any aim at equality with men. These attributes will 
also therefore be preferably inherited, whilst the extreme tendencies of the women s 
rights movement will usually not come into heredity, but will constantly tend to 
die out. Notwithstanding, should woman-rule contrary to all expectation- 
become so strong in any single State that it will be able to enforce all its demands, 
even the most extreme, that result could only be possible where the men are com- 
pletely degenerated. Such a nation would soon be supplanted and dissolved by 
healthier peoples, who might, perhaps, stand on a lower scale of culture. 



INFLUENCE OP RELIGIOUS CONFESSION UPON POPULATION, DEMOGRAPHICALLY 

CONSIDERED. 

865. This subject is often one of great difficulty. In Canada there is no difficulty, for 
figures are kept separate in such wise that results can be quickly traced. The birth- 
rate of Protestant Christians is about half that of French Roman Catholics in the Dominion. 
The age-constitution of the Catholic females is as a consequence much more favourable 
than that of the others. Protestant women in Canada also as a consequence could 
not possibly bear the same number of children now, per hundred, as the others, for the 
simple reason that there are not enough of them, per hundred, within the child-bearing 
ages. 

866. The Canadian French are separated by one century at least from relationship 
to the French in France. The latter are practically divisible into Catholics and Atheists, 
for there are few evangelicals. It is doubtful that there is much difference between them 
in respect of procreation, excepting in well-marked divisions of the country, such as the 
Finistere, the Nord and the Pas-de-Calais. That is amply dealt with elsewhere herein. 

867. We can get a fairly instructive view by examining some of the German figures, 
but we cannot spare the space for details. I take then the two pages " Religionsver- 
haltnisse der Bevolkerung am 1 Dezember, 1905 " (Vierteljahrshefte zur Statistik des 
Deutschen Reichs 1907, III.), and " Die Eheschliessungen, Geborenen und Gestorbenen 
im Jahre 1906 " (Vierteljahrsheft 1908, I.). 

868. PRUSSIA. In the populous province of Ostpreussen, seven-eighths Evangelicals, 
one-eighth Catholics, the birth-rate is 33.1 per 1000 of the population. In Posen one- 



165 

third and two-thirds respectively, the birth rate is 39.6. Pommern, only three per cent. 
Catholic, the rate is 32.4. In Schlesien, two millions Evangelicals, two and three-quarter 
millions Catholics, the rate is 36.4. Sachsen (Provinz), two and three-quarter millions 
Evangelicals, quarter million Catholic, the rate is 31.6. But we take Westfalen, where 
the confessions are nearly balanced, and the rate is 39.8. In Rheinland, about two 
millions Evangelicals and four and a half millions Catholics, the combined rate is 35.7. 
Schleswig-Holstein and Hanover, nine-tenths Evangelicals, the rate is 30. But in 
Elsass-Lothringen, more than three-fourths Catholics, the rate is only 28.5. 

The Kingdom of SAXONY, nineteen-twentieths Evangelicals, 31.9. 
The Kingdom of BAVARIA, over three-fourths Catholics, 34.5. 
The Kingdom of WURTTEMBERG, two-thirds Evangelicals, 33.1. 
BADEN, about two-thirds Catholics, 33.0. 

Whence the reader will perceive that there is no marked superiority to either 
confession. It would be preferable to supply the figures separately for each form of 
faith, but they are not at present available to me. 

869. Of the cities, Berlin, seven-eighths Evangelicals, the rate is 25 ; and of Ham- 
burg, nineteen-twentieths Evangelicals, it is 26.1. These two rates are no better than 
those of British or Australian cities, and go to show that " towns devour men." 



POPULATION MEANS POWER. 

870. A well known savant of Munich, Bavaria, Geheimer-Hofrath Professor Dr. Karl, 
Freiherr von STENGEL, who was one of the Imperial delegates from Germany to the Peace 
Conference at the Hague in 1899, has just published a book of 145 pages (Verlag : REICHL 
and Co., Berlin), under the title " Weltstaat und Friedensproblem " (A World-State and 
the Peace Problem). He dwells upon the dangers of disarmament and exposes the 
utopistic and even hypocritical motives that partly underlie the movement. 

871. He cites the words of the military delegate of the German Empire, Colonel von 
SCHWARZHOFF, who said in the conference on the 26th June, 1899 (inter alia) : 

(TRANSLATION). 

The German nation is not oppressed by the weight of burdens and imposts ; 
it is not slipping upon an inclined plane to the abyss ; it is not marching towards 
exhaustion and ruin. On the contrary ! Public and private wealth is being 
multiplied whilst the general welfare, the " standard of life." is raised higher from 
year to year. 

872. And in allusion to the budget deficits of the German Confederation, painted 
abroad just now as bankruptcy, von Stengel continues : 

Would it then be better for the corporeal and spiritual welfare of a nation 
if the money that the State now claims for the supply of arms, uniforms and war- 
ships, should be spent by the citizens upon articles of luxury and follies of fashion, 
or squandered in voluptuous living ? 

It would be straight-out political suicide if Germany, in the case of an inter- 
national conflict, were to trust that she could establish her rights before the 
Arbitration Court of the Hague and were to disarm. The best protection for the 
good rights of a State will always remain its own good sword. 



166 
GERMAN LEADERS OF THOUGHT UPON FRENCH DEPOPULATION. 

Professor HANS DELBBUCK writes in " Le Matin " of Paris, in September, 1909 : 

(TRANSLATION). 

873. Although France and Germany still look upon one another as rivals, it would 
be for us Germans an irreparable loss, if France were unable to preserve her de- 
termining and influential position. Our start of 64 millions of people against their 
39 millions is so great that politically we have nothing to fear from the expansion 
of France, whilst from the standpoint of civilisation we could only lament her 
retrogression. 

Professor KARL LAMPRECHT, in the same paper, wrote : 

874. Every true friend of what is human, in the noble sense, must therefore cherish 
a lively wish that to this destructive influence (depopulation), a resistance will be 
offered ; at least in so far as the nations come into question that are leaders and 
masters of civilisation. More particularly France and Germany have a mutual 
interest in desiring that their neighbours for the time being shall remain strong, 
healthy, and animated by a noble spirit for sickness is catching. In order to 
hinder the back-sliding of the population, the historian of civilisation can give 
but one advice of any certain effect special medicines serve for nothing a complete 
psychical new-birth is necessary. But ever so simple and sure as is this advice 
in principle, it is still hard to say how it is to be translated into practice. There 
remains therefore nothing more than the indication of a general healing principle, 
and this may perhaps be thus expressed : " Renewal of the nation by strict self- 
education ; by an ever alert attention ; by patience in adverse times ; by a religious 
ideal ; by a clear sense of actuality ; and by joyful trust." 

875. There we have, at the last moment of writing, the leading thinkers of our day 
with large hearts and broad perception merely paraphrasing the unique counsel of a still 
greater Philosopher, " In truth I say unto you : You must be born again." It was found 
then, and it is found we see after nineteen centuries, to be a hard saying. What use 
is there as their own French leaders say in offering such advice to a weakened and 
anaemic people, overtaken by the curse of sterility? 



THE DEPOPULATION OF FRANCE. 

To the Editor of " The Medical Press and Circular." 

SIR, The decline of population in France has reached its present depth during the last few 
generations. We are following the example of our neighbours, and if we continue at the present rate 
we shall in a few years no time in the life of an empire be in the same position. We shall not have 
enough men for our needs at home ; we shall have none to send to our domains across the seas where 
there exists room for hundreds of millions of people. In Canada, Australasia, and in Africa we have, 
with the finest climates, with the richest virgin soils, and every kind of natural resource, territories 
three times as big as Europe. At present they together contain about 10,000,000 of inhabitants. 
If a mighty British Empire is to be constructed we must people these lands mainly with British stock. 
If we have a vast proportion of our people at home physically, mentally, and morally inferior, we know 
the causes ; we [medical men] are working to remove the causes, and must work harder as knowledge 
of them and power to deal with them accumulate. It is within the power of the nation to make sure 
that our annual increase shall be up to the level in every respect of what is best among the foremost 
peoples of the world ; and it is within the power of the Empire to render it easy for our annual surplus 
to find its way across the seas to where among kith and kin work, peace, and happiness may await 



167 

them. It is to these ends that statesmanship should address itself. I again leave without discussion 
the question of the effect upon the evolution of the race of the practice of restricting the offspring to the 
number now conventional in France. The subject for full treatment would need an essay. My own 
strong opinion, based upon personal observation and some study, is that the French are really carrying 
on a gigantic system of artificial selection, which must tend to encourage and is encouraging survival 
of the physically, mentally, and morally unfit. 

I am, Sir, yours truly, 
July 3rd, 1908. A STUDENT OF SOCIOLOGY. 



PABIS, Dec. 3rd, 1909. 
DISCUSSION IN THE CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES ON DEPOPULATION. 

Apropos of the discussion of that portion of the budget of the Ministry of the Interior relating 
to the protection of young children, M. Gauthier of Clagny called the attention of the Chamber of 
Deputies to the serious question of depopulation. The alarming figures on this subject for the first 
semester of the present year were given in " The Journal " (Nov. 4, 1909, liii., 1833). The Neo- 
Malthusian League is spreading among women the idea that they have the right to avoid maternity. 
Since 1887 another league, also intended to promote depopulation, has been working through pamphlets, 
prospectuses, journals and lectures. There is also a class of criminals who, under the shelter of the 
league, send to families manuals of debauchery and pornography. In closing M. Gauthier referred to 
President Roosevelt's epigram that a nation in which the men are unwilling to make war and the women 
are unwilling to bear children is a nation stricken at the heart. M. Briand, the Prime Minister, replied 
that orders had been given that the authors of these shameful works should be severely prosecuted. 
He believed that the existing laws were sufficient for the purpose, but if not, he should not hesitate to 
demand more rigorous ones. JOUR. A.M.A. 

The printers and publishers of filth have little, however, to fear. They are as 
safe in France as in England and her colonies. 



DIVISION III. 



HISTORY OF THE FRENCH 

EXTRA-PARLIAMENTARY COMMISSION 

UPON DEPOPULATION 



171 



HISTORY OF THE FRENCH EXTRA -PARLIAMENTARY 
COMMISSION UPON DEPOPULATION. 



876. Ever since its foundation on the 29th May, 1896, the National Alliance for the 
Increase of French Population has conducted an active campaign (CLEMENT, " La De- 
population en France," page 35), in favour of the reforms which it claims as imperative 
from the Councils-General, from Parliament, and from the Government itself. 

877. Under its auspices M. PIOT introduced the question to the Senate. Finally, 
on the 5th July, 1900, MM. BEBNAJEH) and PIOT, together with 131 of their colleagues, 
representing all sorts of political opinions, submitted from the tribune of the Senate "A 
motion for a resolution inviting the Government to institute an extra-parliamentary 
commission, with the object of proceeding to a complete study of the question of de- 
population, and to search for the most practical means of combating it." (Appendix 
to the Minutes of the sitting of the Senate, 5th July, 1900, Documents Parlementaires, 
No. 290). 

" The statement of the objects summarises very clearly the present situation 
of France from the point of view of the movement of her population, and concludes by 
declaring that inevitably, and with only brief delay if it continues thus, France will pass 
to the sixth rank of the great nations, and that the population of Germany will be double 
ours." The motion was taken into consideration and the Senate charged a committee 
to study the question so as to present a preliminary report. 

878. In a letter addressed on the 10th March, 1901, to the Senatorial Commission 
upon the Army, M. Piot recalled a proposition tabled in 1897 by Messieurs LABBE, 
BEBTHELOT, and GUYOT, with the object of only requiring young married men to serve 
one year. This proposition was never submitted to discussion. At the opening of the 
session of April, 1901, Senator Piot reminded the Councils- General of this proposition, 
and invited them to support it by favourable resolutions. 

In his circular letter he said to them, in substance, that " we must apply ourselves 
to assure a more equitable repartition of taxation, and he asked that the reductions to be 
granted to large families should be submitted to the departmental assemblies. He also 
asked that they should favour the establishment in our colonies of young people who 
would found families, and thus render prosperous those distant lands which had cost 
France so dearly. Finally he spoke of dispensations to young married people against 
the military ballots, and suggested support to large families." 

879. On 6th November, 1900, the same Senator submitted a " Bill tending to combat 
the depopulation of France." (Appendix to the Minutes of the sitting of the Senate of 
6th November, 1900, Doc. Parl. No. 316). In setting forth the objects he said : " You 
hear people groaning everywhere about the cost of living always increasing ; about the 
exodus of the farming class to the large towns ; about overcrowding of the professions ; 
about the difficulty of emigration to the colonies : and finally about fiscal exaction? 
which do not apportion the taxation according to the expenses of each citizen." Then he 
indicated the object of his bill : "It has no pretence to resolve all at once the problem 
of depopulation, but to create a first reform which is urgent, and realisable in a short period.- 



172 

The law would require bachelors and couples without children to pay a tax whose product 
would be employed to subsidise large families. Celibates of both sexes, aged at least 
thirty years, would be subjected to a tax equal to the fifteenth part of the principal of the 
four contributions already payable by them. Persons married five years at least would 
pay a twentieth, calculated in the same manner, if they had no living child. On the 
other hand, a credit of 20 millions (800,000) would be opened and distributed each 
year to parents having more than four living children." 

880. Here are the different categories and numbers of the persons who would become 
contributories : 

Celibates above 30 years 2,707,000 

Couples without a child 1,809,000 

Widows and widowers without child . . 300,000 



Total . . 4,816,000 

881. On the 22nd November, 1900, Senators PIOT, BEENAED, and ANTOINB PEEEIEB 
tabled an amendment to the Bill upon patents (taxation assessments) according to which 
*' The amount of the taxation assessments shall be diminished by 5 per cent, when the 
assessed has three children, by 15 per cent, when he has four children, by 30 per cent, 
when he has five children, by 45 per cent, when he has six children, by 60 per cent, when 
he has seven children, and so on in like manner." 

On the other hand, " the amount of the assessment shall be raised by 20 per cent, 
when the assessed has no child, by 10 per cent, when he has only one child, and by 5 per 
cent, when he has two children only. Taxable persons of whom the total amount of the 
assessment shall attain the figure of 4,000 francs (160) shall not benefit by any reduction." 

" As to the reductions applicable to large families, this amendment rests upon 
a righteous idea. The father of six children has need of a larger lodging than he who has 
no children. Therefore it is wrong to take the figure of his rent as a sign of comfort. 
The law which makes the assessment proportional is badly calculated. Moreover his 
expenses are heavier than those of the shopkeeper or dealer who has no children, and 
more ought to be demanded of the latter." 

" The application of this system would be easy, which is so true that in other 
countries, and notably in Bavaria (Law of 6th June, 1899), account is taken of the expenses 
of families in the passing of the fiscal laws." After many vicissitudes the text was 
adopted at the first reading in the Senate. 

882. On the 19th January, 1901, M. Piot profited by the discussion upon the taxation 
of successions to demand the raising or lowering of the rate of impost upon legacies in the 
direct line, according to the number of the children. 

On the 25th January, same year, Senator Bernard presented a report of the 
Committee charged with the examination of the resolution of which we have spoken 
above. (Par. 877). The Committee declared its urgency, and the conclusions of this 
report came up for discussion on the 21st November, 1901, and were adopted. 

883. " Since then and conformably to the vote of the Senate, a great Extra-Parlia- 
mentary Commission has been nominated to study the necessary reforms. It has met 
from time to time, appointed sub-commissions and chosen reporters " (those of its members 
who prepare special papers or " reports " for presentation to the general Commission) 
" but it has not yet submitted any resolution which has advanced in the smallest degree 
the solution of the problem." 



173 

884. The foregoing is partly derived from the work of the learned advocate M. Henry 
dement, and is in agreement with other information, including that of the minutes and 
Reports of the Extra- Parliamentary Commission itself, which are now, in full, before me, 
and cover 1200 pages of close small print. 

885. The patriotic Senators named above were unsuccessful in their efforts to introduce 
laws comparable to those of their virile and puissant neighbour on the east. These 
laws encourage moral and natural living, by not actually oppressing and discouraging 
citizens who adhere to ancient principles, Christian or Jewish, in their family life. The 
published letter of M. ALFRED DE FOVILLE, Master Counsel in the Cour des Comptes, 
one of the most active and deeply concerned members of the Commission (pars. 799 e. s.), 
shows the complete hopelessness of the situation of the French people as a people. The 
more profound the examination, the more assured is the spectator of the truth of the 
phrase they themselves employ, " Finis Gallise," France is finished ! 

886. The extinction and replacement of the Italian people in the time of the Roman 
Emperors has been for nearly two thousand years a subject of interest to Europeans. 
We are now living in the time of declension of another people who have left indelible 
marks upon history and upon civilisation. Their decline is plainly shown in graphic form 
herein, as also statistically, physiologically, even morally. There is hardly a phase of 
the decline, a factor or a cause, that is not touched upon in this my present Report 
and all upon authorities. When historians and philosophers to use a much debased 
word shall come to write upon the events of our day, they will surely not overlook so 
significant and important an event as the nomination of a Commission embracing seventy- 
five distinguished men, including the ablest advisers that the French nation affords, to 
consider some means to arrest or to retard the decline. For the reason of its weight of 
authority, I was determined to obtain a copy of the minutes of its proceedings and of its 
several treatises, so as to embody a precis of them in this second Volume. 

887. It is not in the remotest intended, and none of the heavy labour would have been 
undertaken, to exhibit the true situation of the French nation as a matter of interesting 
study. The sole object is that our own people may have for the first time an opportunity 
of a complete synoptical view of the devastation of that race, and to form an idea of the 
inevitable ruin to come, so that they may make efforts to save their own nation which 
has already advanced, at a faster pace, along the same course of national suicide. It 
will be seen that there is not a factor present with them that is not present with us. The 
" gospel " of child-restriction, for that is the word employed by the restrictionists, was 
originated by our nation, adopted by our Economist philosophers, formulated and promul- 
gated by our countrymen. We put its formulators and promulgators into the British 
Parliament, honored them, and erected a statue to their chief in the Metropolis. By 
another great misfortune, our people invented, introduced, still manufacture, and sell 
largely and openly, objects whose sole use is the prevention of conception by the human 
female. We still permit the sale of destructive literature, its advertisement in newspapers, 
and we carry it by the public mails. There is no possibility of repudiating the example 
that we have set, and it will be all, inevitably, recorded by our historians in days to come. 
Neither can the angry but loyal protests and denunciations by authorities against these 
ulcerous iniquities be denied, for they stand in the files of the great medical journals, 
year after year, for more than a generation. 

888. As before said, France is in advance of us as to actual position on the slope, 
but our speed is greater. We are at the point now, 26 and 27 births per 1000 of population, 
in England and in Australasia at that point where France was when learned and 
venerable men uttered the heartfelt warnings and disregarded supplications which are 
recorded herein. There is the lesson to learn, and the sand slips through the hour-glass. 
We know perfectly well what to do, for other nations are doing what we ought to do, 
and remain in full growth and vitality. But we cannot save the race and permit unholy 
commercial gains. We cannot serve God and Mammon. 



174 
LIST OF MEMBERS 

COMPOSING 

THE EXTRA-PARLIAMENTARY COMMISSION UPON DEPOPULATION. 

Messieurs 

889. ALAPETITE, Prefect of the Rhone, Lyons. 

ATTHALIN, Counsellor of the Court of Cassation, 49 rue Naples. 

BARBERET, Controller of Benefit Societies at the Ministry of the Interior, 35 rue 

Traffaut. 

BABTHOU, Deputy (Member of the Chamber of Deputies), 7 Avenue d'Antin. 
BAYET, Director of Primary Education at the Ministry of Public Instruction, 

24 rue Gay-Lussac. 

BEBNABD, Senator, 218 rue de Grenelle. 

BEBTTLLON, JACQUES, Controller of Municipal Statistics, 42 Avenue Marceau. 
BIENVENU-MARTIN, Deputy, Minister of Public Instruction, 12 rue Decamps. 
BOMPABD, ex-Deputy, 8 rue Purvis-de-Chavannes. 
BOBNE, Senator, 9 rue du Val-de-Grace. 
BEIEUX, author, 21 rue d'Aumale. 
BEUMAN, Director of Departmental and Communal Administration at the Ministry 

of the Interior. 
BUDIN, Member of the Academy of Medicine, 51 rue de la Faisanderie (since 

deceased). 
DE CAZOTTE, Sub-Director of Consular Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 

5 rue du Regard. 

CHAUMIE, Senator, Minister for Justice, 28 Avenue 1'Observatoire. 
CBUPPI, Deputy, 80 rue de 1'Universite. 
DELAMOTTE, Inspector of Finances, 97 Avenue Victor Hugo. 
DELOMBEE, Deputy, 89 rue de Monceau. 
DELONCLE, CHABLES, Deputy (formerly Inspector-General at the Ministry of 

Agriculture), 20 rue Boccador. 
DBON, Deputy, 12 rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs. 
DB. DBOUINEAU, Inspector-General of Administrative Services at the Ministry 

of the Interior, 105 rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs. 
DUBOIS, EMILE, Deputy (since deceased). 
DIJMONT, ABSENE, Demographer (since deceased). 
FEBDINAND-DBEYFUS, Member of the Superior Council of Public Assistance, 

98 Avenue de Villiers. 

FAUBE, FERNAND, Director of the Revue politique et parlementaire, 79 rue Mozart. 
FLOUEENS, Councillor of State, 64 rue de Prony. 
FONTAINE, Controller at the Ministry of Commerce. 
DE FOVILLE, ALFBED, Master Counsel at the Cour des Comptes, 3 rue du Regard ; 

President of the Academic des Sciences morales et politiques. 
FUMOUZE, President of the Chamber of Commerce of Paris, 20 rue de Saint Peters- 

bourg (since deceased). 

GASQUET, Director of Primary Instruction, 48 rue de Vaugirard. 
GAUTKEEB, Senator, Minister of Public Works, 70 Avenue de Breteuil. 
GIDE, Professor of the Faculty of Law, Paris, 141 rue de la Tour. 
GBEABD, Vice-Rector of the Academy of Paris at the Sorbonne (since deceased). 
GRIOLET, Vice-President of the Compagnie des Chemins de Fer du Nord, 97 Avenue 

Henri-Martin. 
HENNEQUIN, Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of the Interior, 42 rue de Bour- 

gogne. 
HONNOBAT, Sub-Director at the Ministry of the Navy, 29 rue Le Peletier. 



175 

JAVAL, DR., Member of the Academy of Medicine, 5 Boulevard de Latour-Maubourg 

(since deceased). 

LABBE, Senator, 117 Boulevard Haussmann. 
LABICHB, EMILE, Senator, 28 rue du Luxembourg. 
LALLEMENT, Vice-President of the Bureau of Public Charity of Nancy. 
LANDOUZY, DR., Member of the Academy of Medicine, 4 rue Chaveau-Lagarde. 
LANNELONGUE, Member of the Academy of Sciences, 3 rue Francois Premier. 
LATERRADE, Senator, 79 Boulevard Saint-Michel. 

LETULLE, DR., Physician to the Hospitals of Paris, 7 rue de Magdebourg 
LEVASSEUR, E., Member of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, Adminis- 
trator of the College of France, 26 rue Monsieur-le-Prince. 
LOWENTHAL, Demographer, Anizy-le-Chateau, Aisne. 
LYON-CAEN, Professor of the Faculty of Law, Paris, 13 rue Soufflot. 
MAGNIN, Senator, 89 Avenue Victor Hugo. 

MARCH, LUCIEN, Chief of the Census, Ministry of Commerce, 221 rue de I'Universite^ 
MARTIN, A. J., Inspector of Public Sanitation, Prefecture of the Seine, 3 rue Gay- 

Lussac. 

MASTIER, Prefect of the Bouches-du-Rhone, Marseilles. 
MAUREL, Doctor of Medicine, Lecturer at the Faculty of Medicine of Toulouse 

10 rue Alsace-Lorraine, Toulouse. 

MESUREUR, Director of Public Assistance, Paris, 3 Avenue Victor Hugo. 
MONOD, Director of Public Assistance and of Hygiene, Ministry of the Interior. 
MOTJRIER, Director of Public Assistance, Paris (since deceased). 
NEYMARCK, publicist, Member of the Superior Council of Statistics, 90 rue d' 

Amsterdam. 
OGIER, Inspector-General of Administrative Services of the Ministry of the Interior, 

6 rue de Copenhague. 

PAYELLE, Director-General of Indirect Taxation, Ministry of Finance. 
PINARD, DR., Member of the Academy of Medicine, 10 rue Cambaceres. 
PIOT, Senator, 59 Avenue Alphand, Saint-Mande, Seine (since deceased). 
RISLER, Mayor of the Seventh Arrondissement, Member of the Council of Control 

of Public Assistance of Paris, 39 rue de 1'Universite. 
REY, Deputy, 126 rue de Rennes. 

RICHET, DR., Member of the Academy of Medicine, 15 rue de I'Umversite. 
DE ROTTVILLE, Councillor of State, 64 rue de Monceau. 
SABRAN, Honorary President of the General Council of the Hospitals of Lyons. 
SALONE, Professor of the Condorcet Lyceum, 68 rue Jouffroy. 
SERRE, EDOUARD, Counsel at the Court of Cassation, 50 rue Pierre-Charron. 
STRAUSS, PAUL, Senator, 76 Avenue de Wagram. 
VARIOT, DR., Physician of the Hospitals, 149 rue de Sevres. 
VEL-DTJRAND, Councillor of State, 11 rue Soufflot. 
WADDINGTON, Senator, 41 rue Francois Premier. 
YVES GUYOT, publicist, 95 rue de Seine. 

OFFICERS OF THE COMMISSION. 

President : M. MAGNIN, Senator. 

Vice-Presidents : MM. PIOT, Senator ; 
BERNARD, Senator ; 
PAUL DELOMBRE, Deputy ; 

LANNELONGUE, Member of the Academy of Science ; 
LATERRADE, Senator. 



176 

SUB-COMMISSION ON NATALITY. 

President : M. BERNARD, Senator. 
Vice-Presidents : MM. PAUL DELOMBRE, Deputy ; 

LEVASSEUR, Member of the Institute ; 
PIOT, Senator. 

SUB-COMMISSION ON MORTALITY. 

President : DR. LANNELONGUE, Member of the Academy of 
Science ; 

Vice-Presidents : MM. BARTHOU, Deputy ; 

DE FOVTLLE, Master Counsel at the Cour des Comptes; 
PINARD, Member of the Academy of Medicine. 

General Secretary : M. OGIER, Inspector-General of Administrative 

Services, Ministry of the Interior. 

Secretaries : MM. BONET-MAURY, Secretary to the President 

of the Senate. 

GTJERIN, Stenographer to the Senate. 
PIOGEY, Librarian to the Senate. 
SALLES, Professeur au lycee Janson de Sailly. 



REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE. COMMISSION EXTRA-PARLEMENTAIRE CONTRE LA 

DEPOPULATION. 

890. As will be seen within, Comptes-Rendus were not supplied to the members of 
the Commission, nor to either House of the French Parliament, nor to the public. The 
Commission has not been discharged, nor has it been re-convoked, the last of its " Reports " 
being dated 1905. I obtained in Paris a copy of each of three of these " Reports " through 
a second-hand bookseller who is also an official publisher. One of these bore the autograph 
of the late lamented Arsene Dumont. I was subsequently favoured with the loan of the 
entire series, in all about 1200 pages. These I assiduously studied. It was due to the 
courtesy of the Home Secretary, London, by whose intervention they were obtained. 
" Rapport " means a paper read before, or supplied to, the Commission. The following 
is a list of them, but, besides, there were oral communications of high value from the 
national point of view. It is a matter for us of deep regret that so much, and so noble, 
work of true patriots should be wasted. That being so with foreigners, the expressions 
of poignant disappointment by the President of the Academy of Political and Moral 
Sciences, M. de Foville, and of M. Jacques Bertillon, will cause no surprise (pars. 969 e.s.). 

891. RAPPORTS. 

DECLINE IN THE BIRTHRATE, Reasons of the Moral Order. M. JACQUES 
BERTILLON (Chief Statistician of the City of Paris) and M. ANDRE HONNORAT 
(Sub-Director in the Navy). 

(Upon this Report a valuable commentary was supplied by the late Arsl-ne 
Dumont). 

PERSONAL INQUIRY INTO THE DEPOPULATION OF FRANCE. M. EDME 
PIOT, Senator. 

His concluding sentence is this : J'ai la confiance que notre Commission tant 
desiree, composee des hommes les plus competents sur la matiere, choisis parmis 
les plus eminents de la Republique et de la Nation, fera aboutir le meilleur de ses 
revendicatious et accomplira une O3uvre vraiment humaine et fra^aise. 



177 

PUBLIC MORALITY. M. CHAELES GIDE (Professor of Law, University of Paris). 

[TRANSLATION.] 

He says : " Let us suppose a country, in which all the causes of immorality, in- 
cluding those especially aimed at in the list of this Report a licentious press, sensual 
plays, obscene images, and prostitution have attained the maximum of their 
development, and in which the influence of moral and religious sentiments is at its 
minimum, a country that we shall call X so as to offend nobody, a Sodom or a 
Gomorrah, or at least Rome in her decadence, and let us ask what consequences 
will probably produce themselves in respect of natality and generally of demographic 
phenomena. We should see a small number of marriages and a great number 
of celibates, because the men would seek and find outside of marriage, more varied 
and piquant enjoyments than in conjugal relations. 

" We should find in the second place, that the age of marriage would be late, 
for the reason that young people, using gallantry or prostitution freely, would not 
be impelled to marriage by the sexual instinct ; they would only marry to settle 
down, and would naturally do that as late as possible. 

" The number of divorces would be great there, for the indissolubility of the 
conjugal bond could hardly persist against the liberty of manners, and marriage 
would tend to regulate itself by free unions. 

" Venereal diseases would be widely spread, proportionately with the spread of 
prostitution. 

" Further, there would be in this hypothetical community, many sterile mar- 
riages. I do not speak of voluntary sterility, but of physiologic sterility. It is 
certain that venereal diseases have for effect the rendering sterile of a certain number 
of marriages. M. Duclaux, in his " Hygiene Sociale," indicates this result as very 
frequent, not only by syphilis but by blennorrhagia, which is still more widely 
spread, and because it is less dangerous from the individual point of view, is all 
the more so from the social standpoint. In effect, as diseased persons are less 
disquieted, it is less cared for and rarely cured. 

" Moreover, it would induce a great mortinatality, a great number of mis- 
carriages, and a heavy infantile mortality in the first days following birth. These 
phenomena would be manifested because the parents infected by venereal maladies, 
badly cured, would only be able to engender infants unfit to live, which would 
perish in the course of the uterine life or very soon after. 

" Again, the habitual and prolonged practice of conjugal frauds would bring 
on physiological impotence. Thus voluntary sterility transforms itself in the long 
run into involuntary sterility. One proof is that the only son, when he dies, is 
not always replaced." 

PHYSIOLOGIC CAUSES OF THE DECLINE IN THE BIRTH-RATE (22 pp.). MM. 

PINAED and CHARLES RICHET (Members of the Academy of Medicine). 
UPON THE MORTALITY OF CHILDREN BETWEEN 1 AND 14 YEARS (70 pp., 

with elaborate tables). M. G. VARIOT, Doctor of Medicine. 
A REVIEW OF M. PINARD'S REPORT, Sitting of 9th December, 1902. M. PAJL 

STRAUSS. 
GASTRO-ENTERITIS IN INFANTS, AND THE " GOUTTES DE LAIT." A letter by 

DR. E. MATJREL. 

THE MANAGEMENT OF CRECHES (17th December, 1902). DR. DROUINEAU. 
THE PROFESSIONAL CAUSES OF DEPOPULATION (136 pp.). The influences of 

trades and occupations. M. LUCIEN MARCH (Chief Statistician of France). 
STATISTICAL TABLES, received by, or prepared by, the Committee of Studies (56 pp.). 

The members were : MM. LEVASSEUR, BERTILLON, DE FOVILLE, DELAMOTTE, 

DROUINEAU, FONTAINE, MARCH, PINARD, YVES GUYOT. 



178 

INFANTILE MORTALITY FROM BIRTH TO ONE YEAR OLD. It contains 47 pp. 

of close print with many graphs and tables. (The late) PBOFESSOB BUDIN (Member 

of the Academy of Medicine). 

INFLUENCE OF THE FISCAL QUESTION (26 pp.). M. ALFRED DB FOVILLE, Master- 
Counsel ; President of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. 
PUERICULTURE IN ITS INITIAL PERIODS: CAUSES OF FREQUENCY OF 

MORTINATALITY (still-births). PROPHYLAXIS. PRE-NATAL CAUSES OF 

INFANTILE MORTALITY (37 pp.). DB. A. PINABD (Member of the Academy 

of Medicine). 
AGE AT MARRIAGE AND ITS INFLUENCE UPON THE BIRTH-RATE. (The 

late) ABSENE DTTMONT. 
MORTALITY OF CHILDREN RECEIVING PUBLIC ASSISTANCE (55 pp.). DB. 

DBOUINEAU, Inspector-General, Ministry of the Interior. 
THE INFLUENCE OF MILITARISM UPON NATALITY IN THE PRINCIPAL 

COUNTRIES OF EUROPE. M. HONNOBAT and DB. JAVAL (Member of the 

Academy of Medicine). 
MORTALITY IN THE ARMY AND NAVY (223 pp.). MM. LABBE (Senator) and 

LOWENTHAL (Demographer). 
DISCUSSION BY MM. E. LEVASSEUR, J. BERTILLON, AND A. DUMONT, upon 

the Causes of Depopulation. 16 pages. 
ECONOMIC OBSTACLES TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF POPULATION (47 pp.). 

M. YVES GUYOT (Journalist). 

At one of the sittings M. Guyot read an article by Dr. Drysdale, formerly 

President of the Malthusian League. 
ECONOMIC CAUSES OF DEPOPULATION (66 pp.). M. ALFRED NEYMARCK 

(Statistician). 

His concluding words are : " La cause de la depopulation, c'est la sterilite 

volontaire." 
" SOCIAL CAPILLARITY " AS A CAUSE OF DECLINING NATALITY. M. JACQUES 

BERTILLON. 
FISCAL MEASURES, Susceptible in the Principal Countries of Influencing the 

Movement of Population (27 pp.). M. G. DELAMOTTE (Inspector of Finances). 



HOW THE COMMISSION PLANNED ITS WORE. 

892. Translation of part of Statement prepared by M. OGIER, Secretary-General of 
the Commission : 

The Commission Extra-Parlementaire charged with the study of the whole 
of the question of depopulation, and of seeking the most practical means of com- 
bating it, had its birth in the Resolution passed by the Senate in its sitting of 22nd 
November, 1901, upon the proposition of M. Bernard (of the Doubs). 

Constituted by the decrees of 18th and 20th January, 1902, it was installed 
by M. WALDECK-ROUSSEAU, President of the Council, Minister of the Interior 
and of Worship. It had its opening sitting on the 29th January, 1902, under the 
presidency of M. MAONIN. 

It was immediately subdivided into two Sub-Commissions, the one charged, 
under the direction of MM. BEBNABD, President, DELOMBBE, LEVASSEUR and PIOT, 
vice-presidents, with seeking remedies proper to augment natality ; the other 
charged, under the direction of MM. LANNELONGUE, president, BAETHOU, DE FOVILLE 
and PINARD, vice-presidents, with determining the remedies proper to diminish 
mortality. 



179 

These commissions have held, from February to July, 1902, eleven sittings 
devoted to delimiting their field of activity, to preparing their plans and methods 
of work, and finally to elaborating their work. 

893. The subdivisions of the field, stated each in a short sentence, then cover three 
pages. It is an enormous elaboration, upon quite different lines to those of the New South 
Wales Commission, which was appointed in the following year. As might be expected 
from a body of Frenchmen distinguished by absolute proofs of capacity, their combined 
Reports form a document of priceless national and historic value. There does not appear 
to have been any concluding seance, nor can I hear that the Commission has resumed 
its sittings. Of this, some evidence will be seen in the copy of a letter sent to me from 
a member of the Chamber of Deputies (par. 24). A very remarkable omission was 
made, however, both in the preliminary elaboration and in the Reports, namely, no de- 
partment is specifically allotted to an investigation of the physical consequences of sexual 
frauds. That is just the department of the inquiry which was occupied by the New South 
Wales Royal Commission, with acknowledged efficacy. 

894. The natural division of the vast subject is into three parts : Causes, Consequences, 
Remedies. But the French Commission was only charged with the first and third. Practi- 
cally it is a comprehensive statement by individual Reports from eminent men, of the 
whole field of causation. There is little as to remedy, and that is dealt with from the 
political standpoint. What constitutes its chief value is not the range of opinions, but 
the actual information which is necessarily embraced. 

895. It is easy to appoint such a Commission, but the reader will remember that 
just four of the members could, by their own published works, supply a Report upon 
causation and statistical results which would be colossal, overwhelming. MM. LEVASSEUR, 
DUMONT, LTJCIEN MARCH and JACQUES BERTILLON could in those departments hand in 
books that would cover a table. What could not in other departments MM. LEROY- 
BEAULIEU, GUYOT, BUDIN, JAVAL, NEYMARCK, MATJREL and a dozen others, supply of 
ready-made material ? The investigation might break down of its own weight. There 
is no such fear, however, in Anglo-Saxondom ! 

896. To the Sub-Committee on Natality a valuable " Report " was presented on 
3rd December, 1902, by M. GIDE (Professor of the Faculty of Law, Paris University), 
one of its members. These " Reports " are generally in the form of an essay, with a 
subsequent discussion. 



SEXUAL FRAUDS, STILL-BIRTHS, WILFUL ABORTION, INFANTICIDE. 

897. M. Gide shows in paragraph 6 of his report how the mortinatality (rate of still- 
births) of France, is much higher than that of Austria, with a markedly less birth-rate. 
He also shows how in France in 1898, out of 142,500 deaths in the first year of life, 42,500, 
or nearly one-third, occurred in the first month. Of these 30,600, or three-fourths, occurred 
in the first fortnight, and of these again 15,700 in the first four days ! " This last figure 
is truly frightful." It is a proof of racial deterioration largely due to the constant in- 
crease of venereal diseases. 

898. In Great Britain and in Australasia no account at all is taken of still-births 
our legislators, in spite of recommendations by authority, simply do not think it worth 
the trouble. But the evidence, wholly uncontradicted and practically incontrovertible, 
taken by the N. S. W. Royal Commission upon oath, proved that many of these so-called 
still-born children were born alive ; and one of several infants that had lived was sworn 
to, by the undertaker's clerk, to have appeared to be quite two years old and a large child 
at that ! The evidence was shocking, but it did not effectively shock our legislatures 



180 

at all, and much more evidence in the direction of infanticide is available. Evidence 
upon this practice has also been since taken by Parliament, and it could be cited, but 
that branch of the subject, because of space, will not be dealt with herein. Suffice it to 
say that nothing has been done, the whole thing is let slide laissez-passer excepting 
that it is stated that upon the recommendation of a Committee many years ago, of which 
the late MB. JOHN BRIGHT was a member (par. 1304). child-slaying is no longer to con- 
stitute murder. 

In his paragraph No. 7 M. Gide says : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

899. Another character that I have indicated, is that which relates to abortions and 
to genesic frauds. Are they more spread in France than elsewhere? We know 
that abortion is practised in great proportions in France ; recent legal proceedings 
have afforded the proof ; but we are told that abroad, in the United States for example, 
it is practised still more. 

900. As to sexual frauds, we cannot forget that it was abroad where the first leagues 
were formed to which the name Neo-Malthusian was given (although I am fully 
convinced that the Reverend Malthus would have refused to act as godfather to 
them), and that it is thence that the propagandist pamphlets were issued. 

901. It was in London, in 1878, that the first league was created, that of Dr. Drysdale, 
and the second at Rotterdam in 1881. It is true that this fact could be otherwise 
interpreted, and one could say that if societies of this sort were formed in England 
and in Holland, it is precisely because the practices that they recommend were 
unknown there, and that it was thought useful to teach them, whilst if the need 
to impart them had not been felt in France, it was because it was superfluous 
to preach to the converted. Moreover there is such a one now in France, called 
" Human Regeneration," founded some years ago by Dr. ROBIN. 

He treats the question of instruction by Christian Churches against promiscuity, 
sexual frauds and infanticide, concluding thus : 

902. Catholicism and protestantism teach in regard to inter-sexual morals very 
precise and identical commandments : that of preserving chastity outside marriage, 
and, in marriage, that of preserving a relative chastity which consists in only having 
normal relations between the couple. And the infraction of these commandments 
constitutes a double sin. These are called fornication, and onanism. (H s'appelle 
la fornication et I'onanisme). 

I do not need to cite here the texts that are taught to the priests in the seminaries, 
but it suffices to recall the word of the apostle Paul : " All sin is outside the body of 
the man, but he who commits fornication sins against his own body. Now, do 
you not know that your members are the body of Christ ? " I. Cor. vi., 15-18. 

Is it possible that these commandments, when practised in a spirit of sincere 
piety, do not exert an influence upon natality, upon nuptiality, and the other 
demographic facts ? I believe that they do. 

903. In the last number of the Economiste Francais (31st November, 1902), M. 
PAUL LEROY-BEATTLIEU calls attention to a much cited fact, but particularly 
striking just now. There was, according to last year's statistics, in the most 
Catholic department of France the Finistere an excess of 9000 births over 
deaths, seven times higher proportion than that of the rest of France 

904. He ventures the opinion, from personal observation, that amongst protestant 
clergy there are more often large families with the " orthodox evangelical than with 
the party called Liberal." Apparently the clergy of the Church of England and of 
the Nonconformist churches are thus compared, but such conclusions are hazardous 
unless supported by actual statistics. 



181 

905. Monsieur Gide sums up thus : 

All the enumerated causes literature, theatre-plays, licentious iconography 
(pictures), and prostitution tend to lessen natality in the same measure as they 
incite to sexual indulgence. 

They compete in lowering the birth rate : 

(1) By making lust and not procreation the sole motive of the sexual act. 

(2) By suppressing or retarding marriage, which is the most fecund mode 
of sexual union. 

(3) By sterilising the generative power through venereal diseases or by vices 
against nature. 

(4) By suppressing the fruit, whether voluntarily by conjugal onanism and 
abortion, or involuntarily through the procreation of children unfit to live. 

Inversely, all those causes which tend to combat or to oppose immoralities 
such as those we have just defined, must tend to augment the birth-rate in the same 
measure that they succeed in restraining the sexual instinct. 

Amongst the causes are certainly included the commands of religion, and the 
moral doctrines which set up as a duty equal chastity for the two sexes outside of 
marriage, equal fidelity between the couple, within marriage. (Applaudissements). 

AN APOSTLE OF REPOPULATION. 

A few days ago Senator Plot died in his eighty-first year. He was one of those who first raised 
the cry of alarm in regard to the slow progressive depopulation of France. From his entry to the 
Senate in 1897, M. Piot co-operated with the efforts of the statistician, Dr. Bertillon, against the decrease 
of the birth-rate in our country compared with the increase in other nations. He wrote many pamphlets 
and published two books, " Enquiry Into the Depopulation of France " (1899), and " Depopulation " 
(1903). All the acts of his political life were toward a single end, an effort against depopulation. To 
this end he proposed a bill for a special tax on bachelors and childless citizens ; he obtained the creation 
of an extra-parliamentary commission for the study of depopulation, the work of which unfortunately 
was interrupted by the lack of provision for its expenses. M. Piot also carried on an energetic campaign 
in favour of large families, which made him one of the most prominent political characters, and won 
him the title of the " apostle of repopulation." JOTJB. A.M.A., 4, xii., 9. 

Javal, the Infants' Friend. The Voice of Cassandra. 
Dr. JAVAL in the sitting of 2nd July, 1902, said during his speech : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

906. When we began to occupy ourselves with this question of depopulation, 
following BROCA, DE LAVERGNE, and LAGNEAU, we used only to consider the im- 
portance of numbers ; the military point of view guided those who still believed 
that victory belongs to the big battalions. 

Our voice was not hearkened to. In 1908, or later, France will find herself 
in presence of a number of German conscripts twice as great as that of the French 
conscripts. [In point of fact the discrepancy is to-day much greater than this 
forecast]. And, moreover, our soldiers only perform two years of service com- 
pared with three years in the case of our neighbours. Thus we witness we former 
Alsatians the collapse of the ideas which led us into the study of this question 
of depopulation. We lose our footing, all is over, and we shall never again have 
torrential numbers. 

It will be useful perhaps for us to occupy a respected position in the world, 
thanks to the elite of our population ! 



182 

907. Dr. MAUREL, of Toulouse, stated his observations of the effect of heredo- 
arthritism (congenital rheumatism) upon depopulation, with which he had specially 
occupied himself. He supported his views with figures of his own. 

These researches, carried out, as we see, on a number of observations which 
is pretty extensive, have led me since 1896 to this conclusion : there is not a family 
whose fecundity could resist five generations of over-feeding (suralimentation). 



DECADENT REFINEMENT. 

908. Dr. JACQUES BERTILLON in the course of an address, on the same day, upon 
over-refinement of the individual [" affinement," which does not imply elevation or 
superiority of any kind] in relation to remarks by M. HONNORAT, said : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

Permit me only to observe that the thesis developed by Dr. Maurel is not in 
contradiction with my own. This thesis is : that the fact of too much nourishment, 
and especially of eating too much meat, disposes to arthritism (gout or rheumatism) 
and that arthritism itself tends to relative or absolute infecundity. 

I could go further and say that this observation is as applicable to women as 
to men. A Dutch statistician, M. VERRIJN STUART, has established after myself, 
moreover that women belonging to the socially superior classes furnish not only 
fewer births that is a well-known fact but also more dead-born than women 
of the populace. It is a rather singular thing, because a woman who toils from 
morning to evening should present more chances of having a dead-born child, 
than ought a little princess who has only to coddle and fan herself all day long. 

A member. " It is a question of corset !" 

M. Bertillon : Of corset and other things also. People have cursed the corset 
a good deal, and perhaps they have much exaggerated its faults, for nowadays 
it is less severe than formerly. The fact I have just pointed out is beyond doubt 
due to causes graver and more profound. 



MARRIAGE ON THE LEVEL OF CONCUBINAGE. 

909. He deals with concubinage, and denies that it is more frequent in France than 
elsewhere. 

Assuredly there are measures to take to remedy it. From the point of view 
of morals, a marriage that it is voluntarily infertile is hardly above concubinage. 
What must be incriminated in France, is not concubinage, but that too often mar- 
riage is lowered to its level 

910. The man who seeks to raise himself in the social scale by lessening the amount 
of his expenses in lessening the number of his children, is a man who thinks of 
absolutely nothing in the world but himself ; the rest of society is completely in- 
different to him ; his duties towards it he totally ignores ; he has only one thought, 
one goal : to raise himself by walking on the heads of others. 

It might be said that the same ideas existed in any other epoch and perhaps 
it is why, in the ancient civilisations particularly, we see religions and laws give 



183 

so much extension to the duties of paternity. It is not merely a benediction, as in 
the biblical religions : it becomes a duty. It is a duty still with Buddhists and it 
is also with Israelites who follow the pure principles of their religion. 

911. When the individual on the contrary makes of himself his goal, when the thing 
is accepted by all as normal and acceptable, we have good reason to fear that the 
State has become sick indeed ; its ruin is virtually accomplished. 

912. The false ambition of parents for their child, a narrow spirit of mean economy, 
and other analogous causes that are developed by ease (exaggerated prudence, 
fear of new expenses, enfeeblement of initiative, etc.) these are the most influential 
factors in the lowering of natality. 

913. Bertillon's next paragraph contains a truth that is very little understood, but 
which in my present volume has been repeatedly explained. On every hand, we hear 
and read the statement that all civilised countries show a less natality than in former 
generations. It is not true, nor near to the truth. Thus the great demographer and 
statistician continues : 

Their action appears to exert itself more or less in the well-to-do classes of 
our country. However, natality does not diminish, or hardly diminishes, in foreign 
countries [it is to-day in Germany what it was fifty years ago], and the increase 
of population abroad is more and more rapid, whilst in France it has not ceased 
to fall away to the present point, where births are hardly in excess of deaths. 



THE DUTY OF ALL MEN. 

914. Every man has the duty to contribute to the perpetuity of his country exactly 
as he is bound to defend it. Such is the moral truth that the French people have 
forgotten, and which it is a question of inculcating. Fine speeches would be power- 
less to fulfil so enormous a task. To reform upon this point we want palpable 
facts which touch people personally and affect everybody. We must upon all occa- 
sions (these occasions present themselves at every moment) prove to them that a 
large family is to be respected in the highest degree, and that it has a right to public 
recognition and protection. Our civil, fiscal and military laws, our administrative 
regulations of every order, our great public and private administrations (many of 
which have already shown the example) ought to be inspired with this rule of 
conduct. 

915. Six years have elapsed, and the voice of the patriotic physician might as well 
have been silent. No changes have been made in the directions indicated. He still 
pursues his noble work of saving children, and although every life saved must be a joy, 
he has not the satisfaction of hope for his nation. And the British people, Anglo-Saxondom 
generally, are hastening along the same road that shows no returning steps. 

Quia me vestigia terrent 

Omnia te adversum spectantia, nulla retrorsum ! 
Belua multorum es capitum. 

916. The poet of the Augustan age is dealing with the worm-eaten society of his 
day, whose worst and finishing trait was advanced sterility. 

How these tracks terrify me ! 
All looking toward thy den, 
And none returning. 

He changes his figure of speech, and calls the trouble a " monster with many 
heads." As it was then, so it is now. 



184 
ARSENE DUMONT. 

917. No report upon racial decadence, no demographic work would be complete 
which did not give prominent mention to the work of this devoted and excellent man. 
Our nation has suffered, and will suffer still more, from poisonous attacks by atheistic 
philosophers and political economists upon its reproduction. The consequences of their 
work may only be eliminated by the elimination of wide blocks of our race. " Without 
shedding of blood there is no remission of sin." The theologic meaning attributed to 
those words, as implying placation of an angry or capricious deity, robs them of their 
profound significance. Yet the obliterated nations are amongst the evidences of their 
truth. 

918. In Arsbne Dumont we have a sincere patriot, a genius inasmuch as he possessed 
" an infinite capacity for taking pains," a man who laid no claim to philosophy, who 
merely called himself a demographer. He also was a declared atheist, regarding belief 
in Supreme Intelligence as an antiquated absurdity. His range of vision therefore lacked 
in depth and breadth, but his work, his devotion, his aspirations, were nobility itself. 

919. To him, one of the remedies, or at least the indispensable prolegomenon, was the 
removal of all such belief. Chapter XXV. of his magnum opus (" Depopulation et Civili- 
sation, Etude Demographique," Paris : Lecrosnier et Bab4, 1890 ), is headed " Elimination 
Necessaire de la Croyance au Surnaturel." 

These are some of the divisions : ** Croyance au surnaturel, clef de voute de 
tout systeme de reaction ; Sa Fragility ; Absurdite de 1'hypothese Dieu ; Cette absurdite 
peut etre prouvee ; C'est un hypothese que rien ne prouve, qui n'explique rien, qui est 
ou contradictoire en soi ou totalement depourvue de signification ; Progres de 1'esprit 
scientifique, gage de 1'extinction du surnaturel ; Etat actuel des quatre grandes religions, 
decadence du proselytisme ; II ne renaitra pas." 

920. The book was written in 1888, published in 1890, and deals with the figures 
of the census of 1881, the last available, because the results of that of 1886 were as yet 
not tabulated. Its interest for us should be great, for the reason that the civil state of 
France then was closely similar to that of England to-day. It was almost exactly that of 
Victoria now, and was five per cent, better than the position of South Australia at present. 

921. The essential thing in the minds of Frenchmen then, and now, as also with our 
Anglo-Saxon people, is that wealth should accumulate. That men decay, disturbs but 
very slightly our slumbers, and no British Parliament appears to find it worth attention. 
The journals of the medical profession in England have for years demanded an investigation 
into quackery, by Royal Commission. The worst phase of quackery is the teaching and 
practice of limitation of families by the three methods of prevention, abortion and infanti- 
cide. As pathological study is indispensable to the treatment of disease, so the work of 
such a Commission could not fail to present a statement of this the greatest possible national 
trouble, for, according to the " Lancet " (1906, page 1839), " quackery has destroyed more 
in Great Britain than the sword, famine and pestilence united, and never was there a 
period in the history of British medicine at which the force and truth of this opinion was 
more obvious than at this day." 

922. The profession of healing is the tree which brings forth good fruit all the time 
and in the sight of all men. Authoritative declarations from them could not but have 
some effect in awakening the torpid national conscience. Especially if stated in vernac- 
ular language, and published. 

923. My own efforts have been concentrated upon compilation of the work of author- 
ities, and to constitute in so far a text book upon racial decline. An English Com- 
mission would add fresh work and fresh conclusions to stand before the eyes of mankind, 
as the disease progresses, until a change shall come. 



185 

924. It is painfully true that Arsene Dumont died in harness before seeing any fruition 
to his work ; his eyes did not behold Canaan, and he had not the reward that attended 
the devout labours of PROFESSOR BTJDIN, also recently deceased, in his " puericulture " 
and in the " Gouttes de Lait." But we who do not reject the " hypothesis " of God 
believe that Dumont too will have his reward : 

Who in life's battle firm doth stand, 
Shall bear Hope's tender blossoms 
Into the Silent Land. 

925. " I have created," he says, " the expression ' social capillarity,' which is not more 
bold than ' natural selection ' in DARWIN nor than ' methodic doubt ' in DESCARTES." 
It means, in short, struggle for eminence, as water rises in the tubes of vegetation. It is 
convenient, but, like all epigrammatic phrases, easily overstrained. 

926. He mentions in his Preface that the results of the Census of 1881 so struck his 
mind that he " commenced to seek the causes of French oliganthropy." This word is 
more than 2000 years old, meaning scarcity of men, and was invented apparently by 
Aristotle as his term for racial decline. 

927. Quoting mostly his own words, Dumont devoted himself to an intimate and direct 
study of the phenomena of population, acknowledging however the " philosophic sub- 
structions which served as a base for the question of population," alluding to his own as 
" a simple work, accessory and improvised," but well aware of its breadth and consequence 
" It is by no manner of means a pure conception a priori." 

(TRANSLATION.) 

928. From the moment when I began this inquiry into the causes of our too feeble 
natality, I did not seek them only in the books of philosophers and of historians, 
nor in the studies of the demographers. I wished to observe the malady itself 
on the spot, amongst the populations which were attacked by it. Every year I have 
spent from three to five months in visiting, in the greatest detail, commune by 
commune, and village by village, two or three cantons which are as closely as 
possible delimited by Nature." 

He gives a list of them, describes his work, and says : 

929. Since registers of the civil state [births, marriages and deaths] have been 
regularly kept, and that periodical census have been made, sociology holds at 
its disposition resources which no philosopher ever had. Aristotle made a col- 
lection of all the political constituencies which he was able to procure, and the 
curious in comparative legislation still regret their loss. Yet what was this in 
comparison to the exact history during nearly ninety years of these thirty-six 
thousand republics, of varying extent, which are the communes of France ? . . . 

The study of population, treated with sovereign neglect up to the present be- 
cause of preoccupation with financial prosperity, political liberty or military power, 
claims henceforward a place by no means equal but absolutely superior. Its invasion 
into political philosophy modifies to such a degree the solution of all problems 
in the order of the day, that it is impossible to arrive at anything satisfactory if 
it be not constantly taken into account. The reason of this is simple. It is be- 
cause the mind is forced to abandon the narrow individualist point of view, and 
to place itself always in the social point of view, in treating of sociology. 

Which is another way of saying with PRINCE BULOW that we must " conquer 
the Manchester doctrine." 

930. The state of population disquiets sometimes public opinion, even terrifies 
some minds. Unfortunately the causes of the evil are, like the remedies, difficult 
to discover : the subject is ungrateful, obscure, whilst the Press is willing to drop it 
for more resounding, and relatively easier themes of current polemics. 



186 

WORSE THAN THE MOST DISASTROUS WARS AND THE MOST MURDEROUS 

EPIDEMICS. 

031. A couple of hundred people smashed in half-a-dozen railway accidents, causes 

piercing cries throughout the nation and provokes noisy appeals for State intervention. 
The depopulation of the country, on the other hand, costing every year a number, 
perhaps a thousand times greater, of inhabitants, excites indeed a vague disquietude 
for the future, but leaves us, all told, practically dumb. Folk are enthusiastic 
about the least political question ; for the most important of social matters they 
shut their eyes and pass on the other side. 

932. All the same it is a question which surpasses in gravity the most disastrous 

wars and the most murderous epidemics. Such scourges smite with violence a 
single generation, but they never put the existence of the race into serious danger. 
Thanks to their short duration, they engender less of evil than they do of terror ; 
the voids that they cause in the population are quickly repaired, like branches taken 
from a tree full of sap. * The malady, on the contrary, is almost incurable when 
depopulation is of long standing, by an internal vice or by bad government. Men 
have perished by an insensible and habitual disorder, they have often seen them- 
selves destroyed without feeling the causes of their destruction." Such a people 
is a tree whose sap dries up, whose foliage is sere from the beginning of summer, 
whilst no one can tell what remedy to apply. 

The phrase he cites is from MONTESQUIEU, Book XXIII., page 28, and alone should 
make a nation think. 



HOW NATIONS DIE. 

933. History presents more than one example of this sort of social consumption. 
In the midst of peace, of abundance and of security, of all that would appear bound 
to sustain life and vigour, a race sinks to obliteration. It was fecund, it becomes 
sterile ; it was valorous, it becomes cowardly ; it was victorious, and it ends by 
being vanquished. That an enfeebled State should be destroyed by one more 
powerful is surely a simple matter. But a more terrible and more mysterious 
phenomenon is this spontaneous debility, this sort of anaemia which secretly invades 
a people and noiselessly undermines it. It is a spectre ambushed in the shade, 
which kills civilisations and which is waylaying our own ! What cause exhausted 
Greece after the conquest of Asia ? How was Italy emptied of inhabitants after 
having subjugated the ancient world, and how was her population enervated ? 

934. More or less plausible explanations may be offered, but we have not before 
our eyes the disorder from which these peoples suffered ; history gives no reply 
to most of the questions which we pose. That which alone is established, is that 
for nations as for individuals, a bloody death upon the field of battle was only the 
exception, and that, most often, they perished from an internal disease. 



THE POLITICAL ECONOMISTS. 

935. As has been often herein stated, the gospel of race-restriction \ww English, the 
chief apostles were English, the practical instruction was English, the three principal 



187 

inventions for prevention of conception were Engb'sh, and they are used and known in 
France under English names. They have all been conspicuously successful and financially 
profitable. If attacked on the score of morality they have been elaborately and vigorously 
defended by strong English intellects as shown herein the defenders being parliamen- 
tarians and philosophers of a school that is dominant up to the present hour. 

936. Nothing succeeds like success, and the preparation of the articles for child- 
repression is to-day " a perfectly legitimate business " (Pars. 6 e.s.). 

Arsene Dumont proceeds : 

937. Malthus counselled men to restrict the number of their children, and it is 
just in the low birth-rate that resides the most menacing peril for the future of our 
nation. His base was that subsistences increase much less quickly than population, 
and we see in a third of France, the population decrease in presence of an enormous 
development of general prosperity. Time has, all by himself, shown what value 
there was in the previsions and counsels of Political Economy. 

938. It is pretty awkward for a theory, such as that of Malthus, which holds so 
considerable a place in the Credo, to be found erroneous. But what is still graver, 
and of a nature to notably enfeeble the confidence accorded to it, is that disproof 
has been without influence upon the faith of the disciples. Up to recent years, 
in books as in professorial chairs, they have faithfully reproduced the word of the 
master, with the unalterable confidence of the faithful in revealed doctrine. 

939. When JOSEPH GARNIER published his work upon the principle of population, 
the departments of the Calvados and the Eure were then in full progress in respect 
of wealth and agriculture ; in full decadence in respect of population. What 
account did he take of that ? None at all. Neither in the first edition of his 
book in 1845, nor in the second in 1852, do we find the least allusion to this fact 
which ruins his theories. 

My copy is of the edition of 1885, amplified by DE MOLINARI, and the remark 
still holds good. 

940. STUART MILL, in spite of his virile judgment, and the effort of personal reflec- 
tion which has visibly presided in the composition of his " Treatise upon Political 
Economy " reproduced purely and simply, and that up to the very last editions, 
the theory of Malthus. Did he ignore what has happened in our richest departments, 
or did he misunderstand the importance of it ? It is more likely that he was carried 
away by the habit of a priori reasoning and by the routine of the School. 

It is impossible to follow Dumont at length, but it is hard to refrain from repro- 
ducing the judgment, as cited by him, that was delivered ex cathedra by M. LEROY- 
BEAULJEU, Professor at the College of France. 



FALSE PROPHETS. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

941. "We have arrived," says Leroy-Beaulieu, "at the conclusion that almost all 

the accepted doctrines in Political Economy upon the distribution of wealth have 
to be recast or at least rectified. 

"The celebrated theory of Ricardo upon the rent of land has no application 
whatever at the present time ..... 



188 

942. "The still more celebrated law of Malthus upon population finds hardly an 

application in a world which is half inhabited, where the circulation of people and 
products becomes more and more easy, less and less costly, and where the production 
of subsistences increases to the point when the price of the chief staples has much 
more tendency to drop too low than to rise. 

" The classic image of Turgot about the rate of interest is either erroneous or 
incomplete. 

"The reflections of Adam Smith, of Turgot, of Ricardo, of Stuart Mill upon 
'natural wages,' upon the 'wages fund,' upon the reciprocal power of masters 
and workmen, deserve no credence at all, and are denied by all the facts of contem- 
poraneous history. 

*' The celebrated * iron law,' which served as the habitual theme of the discourses 
of the German Socialist Lassalle, has never had an existence except in the imagination 
of Lassalle and in that of Ricardo and John Stuart Mill. 

"In short, all that classic Political Economy has written upon the division 
of wealth, when it is submitted to attentive examination, vanishes. 

" It is unfortunate that the majority of the Economists have adopted as postu- 
lates propositions so hollow and so devoid of demonstration." 

It may be added that having neither laws, nor constant progressions, nor a 
proper method to assure them, Political Economy presents all the characters of the 
systems of philosophy and not a single one of those of science. 

843. Thus we have, from giant intellects of our own day, utter and unreserved con- 
demnation of our vaunted Political Economy. Let us here record just one prophecy : 
it will evoke from succeeding generations of the prolific of our race, bitter scorn punctuated 
by curses both loud and deep. 



GRUNDLEGUNG DER POHTISCHEN OEKONOMIE. 
ADOLPHUS WAGNEK. LEIPZIG, 1893. 

Cited by F. S. Nitti, p. VII.- 

944. Where are the laws which regulate the distribution of wealth and which can 

be accepted without essential modification or change? Turgot 's classical figure 
about the rate of interest is anything but exact ; Ricardo 's theory on increase has 
at least as many opponents as upholders ; Lassalle 's iron law about wages is now 
repudiated even by Socialists ; Malthus' hypothesis is belied by a century of research ; 
the deductions of the new Austrian school are in truth a building upon sand ; the 
other theories of Turgot, Adam Smith, Ricardo and Stuart Mill are either false or 
incomplete. 

Among all these problems still a prey to prejudice and error, the most important 
of all is doubtless that of population, from which it would seem as though every other 
were derived. 

The above dates 18 years back. It should be enough to make us rub our eyes, 
without citing more of the condemnation. 



139 

APPRECIATION OF DUMONT. 

945. SENATOR BERNARD, President of the Sub-Committee upon Natality, addressing 
his colleagues therein upon the work of the recently deceased ARSENE DUMONT, said, 
inter alia : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

Arsene Dumont consecrated his existence to demographic studies. But 
what distinguishes him from others who have investigated the movement of popu- 
lation is the method that he followed and of which it might be said he was the 
initiator. 

946. Abandoning the study of general statistics, Arsene Dumont applied himself 
to analyse upon different points of France, in strictly localised parts of the territory, 
the movement of population by separating mediate and immediate causes which 
had influenced the fluctuations in the number of inhabitants. Following up this 
minute inquiry, sometimes in Brittany, sometimes in the South- West, sometimes 
in Normandy, studying each in its turn the most diverse populations in respect 
of their nature, he published in numerous essays at the Anthropological Society 
or the Association for the Advancement of Science, the result of his patient re- 
searches. His works, as much by the originality of the method as by their intrinsic 
value, constitute most precious contributions to the study of the demography 
of our country. 

His place was well marked in our Commission. He brought hither, with the 
faith of an apostle, a profound knowledge of the questions which ought to be dis- 
cussed 

947. Dumont himself claimed to have devoted fifteen years of his life to the exhaustive 
study of French racial decline. Patriotic Frenchmen, and Britons who truly love their 
own race and country, may well lay wreaths upon his tomb. 



COMMISSION EXTRA-PARLEMENTAIRE. 

Sitting 12th March, 1902. 
THE NATION'S SOUL UNDER THE DOCTOR'S MICROSCOPE. 

Monsieur JACQUES BERTILLON : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

948. It is possible to enter still more into details, and that is just what I did by an 

inquiry made through a large number o! doctors. My object was to penetrate as 
far as possible into the soul, so to speak, of French people, to ascertain the 
psychology, both of farmer and townsman. 

It seemed to me that my colleagues, by the nature of their vocation, wer<3 
bound to know under the seal of professional secrecy many things which escape 
us, and were specially qualified to inform me in this regard. They replied of 
course under the seal of secrecy, and thus I have been able to collect a host of 
facts to which I shall refer as the occasion presents itself. They added to 
these observations a certain number of psychological ones, and more particularly 
local proverbs. You will recognise with me that if it be an exaggeration to say 



190 

1 

that proverbs are the wisdom of nations, we can conclude at least that they are 
rather closely their psychology. Here, then, are some of the proverbs that my 
colleagues have passed on to me : 

" A couple is better than a dozen." 

" The King's wish a son and a daughter." 

Those two are Norman proverbs, and they pretty well summarise the local 
morals upon the point. 

" Very often the grand-parents speak of the limitation of the number of children 
as an act of high reason and virtue. They look upon fecundity as awkward and 
absurd " a doctor of medicine in the Orne writes to me. 

Folk say about a couple having several children, " She is pregnant again, 
what horrid luck ! These people they're worse than animals ! ' * writes another 
physician of the Orne. 

In the Cote-d'Or, there is never a case where the third child receives the name 
of Desire. M. Arsene Dumont will tell you that in the other regions of France, 
this name of Desire is given in derision to a third child, so as to mark the displeasure 
caused by its arrival. 

" Femina est prima ne liberi nascerentur, " * a doctor writes to me, who expresses 
himself elegantly in Latin. [The woman is the first not to want to have children] 

In the Lot-et-Garonne a second pregnancy is considered a disgrace (Pars. 1633 
e. s.). The man who has children is despised even by the women. (Smiles in 
the Commission). 

Another confrere writes that "when a couple have a second child people do 
not go and congratulate them, they pay a visit of condolence." Excuse is even 
made for the husband : " Poor man, he doesn't feel it !" 

Other times, the parents-in-law get angry and go and overwhelm their son-in- 
law with the foulest reproaches (reproches orduriers). They consider it their 
duty to instruct their daughter or their son-in-law in what they are to do to avoid 
having children. That is in Lot-et-Garonne. 

You will observe that my inquiry was addressed to 152 physicians, and that 
each of them has supplied as the result, a considerable number of observations. 

949. In the Orne one of them writes to me that " conjugal onanism naturally leads 

to the disgust of the spouses each for the other and conjugal infidelity is the con- 
sequence of it " (Pars. 1097/9). Criminal means (abortion) to success in not having 
children are said to be taught by "provident " parents. Cases are even quoted 
where they were indicated by the family doctor, under the pretext of healfo, and 
even without any pretext. 

Correspondents quote to me numerous examples of couples who have remained 
sterile during several years and become again suddenly fertile after the death of 
a first child, when it was a question of replacing it. So it happened, in a village 
of the Cote-d'Or, that an epidemic having carried off fifteen children, all were re- 
placed during the following year. 

Many of our correspondents insist upon the well-known fact that it is especially 
in the fear of dividing his fortune at death, that the farmer only desires to have 
one child. " He loves his land more than his family ' ' said a doctor to me. Another 
thus depicts the farmer's soul : " a solitary heir married to a solitary heiress, 
behold his dream !" 

The farmer, says a third, accepts very readily that his name shall disappear, 
and easily resigns himself, even if his child is a daughter, to have no other heir. 
This mentality is to be found translated into various proverbs which we have 

NOTE. In less elegant Latin a close observer, VAN HELMONT, wrote : " Procter solum utemm mulier est, id auod est." 



191 

noted. For instance in the Orne they say " One calf is enough for the grass ; the 
land is already too much divided." 

950. Several correspondents, however, declare that these morals do not reign amongst 
certain religious families. 

951. I have made it a point to submit to you these psychological observations, 
taken from the living subjects, by doctors practising in the most diverse districts. 
To recapitulate : all these reports which have been communicated to me converge 
in the same direction, and prove that if a well-to-do man restricts his family it is 
because he wants to leave a property to his child and the largest possible. His 
dream is to marry his only son to an only daughter, because he has the ambition 
to see his family raise itself progressively. I think these observations ought not 

to be ignored The French have certainly forgotten the imperative 

prescriptions of vanished civilizations . . . and it is also quite certain that 
France is in a fair way to disappear. 

We must therefore react against this state of mind, and under all circumstances 
recall our countrymen to the social duty which they have to fulfil. We must take 
the most energetic measures to arrive at this result. 



A MALADY WORSE THAN FIRE, SWORD AND PESTILENCE. 

952. M. ARSENE DUMONT will tell you that in certain districts bordering on the 
Saone in the department of the Rhone, for instance, as also in the Manche 
you may see villages falling into ruins to such a degree that if conflagration, plague 
and war had passed over them there would not have been caused greater ravages. 
And yet each of the individuals who has lived there was perfectly happy ; that 
lamentable state of things is simply and solely the result of Malthusianism practised 
for a long time. The people did not have children ; they did not suffer by it : 
it is a social malady, but there were no individual ills. 

953. Here the demographer falls out of his role as an authority, and states a conclusion 
for which he offers no proof, and could indeed offer none. He did not know and could not 
tell what these extinct people had suffered, in a thousand ways, for the grave is ever 
silent. Proof by analogy we seek elsewhere, and shall find, from unquestionable author- 
ities. A mile or so from where I write is a large public hospital in which physicians and 
sisters have relieved thousands of cases of suffering from induced abortion. You may 
see every day, a large ward where each case is from the one cause, and we have had evidence 
from the hospital surgeons, upon oath, before the New South Wales Royal Commission. 
These surgeons are most properly under the seal of professional secrecy. You may visit 
that splendid institution and you will see and know nothing of the truth. You ought 
not and must not, for the creatures have to be relieved and saved as far as possible from 
the consequences of cruelty, infamy and child-slaying. No questions are asked, but for 
all that the gynaecologists are not deceived. Neither are there any statistics for publi- 
cation. True, the Royal Commission got them, but there was and is nothing to be seen 
by the casual inquirer of the misery, woe and death consequent upon extensive homicidal 
practices. Our country villages, like those of the Rhone and Saone, are short of the double 
lives tens of thousands of them but from the mere void itself we could not justifiably 
deduce anything about happiness or misery. [Vide Bergeret, pars. 1015 et seq. Also 
pars.1129 e. s. ]. 

954. You therefore see, Messieurs, the great influence of selfishness and ambition, 
from the point of view of the phenomenon which we are studying. That is where 



192 

the contradiction comes in between the interests of the country and those of the 
individuals, as the latter understand them. Just in the same way each soldier 
in a battle might think it was his interest to escape, but the interest of the army 
is the direct opposite. (Vide par. 269.) 

To raise natality is very important to the nation, but not to the individuals. 
Hence it is that it behoves society as a whole to intervene in order to make sure 
that large families, far from being crushed by the burden they have assumed, shall 
be assured, on the contrary, of public protection and consideration. 

955. A very long consideration was given by the demographers of the Commission 
to the " cause " of depopulation which we denominate " thrift," but which our French 
friends call " epargne " savings. A vast deal has been said and written upon the sub- 
ject, until we are asked to regard this supposed self-denial as an extenuation for child- 
repression all round. Thus M. YVES GUYOT, who has occupied the antithetical positions 
of Vice-President of the Malthusian League of France and that of member of the Extra- 
Parliamentary Commission upon Depopulation, suggested in the Commission that this 
spirit of saving was one of renunciation. It might be or it might not. But another 
member of the latter body, M. GIDE, who has devoted much time and thought to the 
subject of racial decline, made the following startling declaration, following M. Bertillon's 
remarks. The truth of it is very impressive. 

MONSIETTB GIDE : (TRANSLATION.) 

956. I am thoroughly astonished to hear thrift considered as one of the causes of 
depopulation. It does not appear to me to be proved. I cannot quote the figures 
of the savings banks. of Europe, but I believe that France from this point of view 
stands in the seventh or eighth rank. 

Moreover I do not believe that the spirit of thrift has increased in France during 
the last twenty or thirty years, and if I may rely on my personal experience, it was 
much more the last generation that saved, whilst the children spent the money so 
painfully amassed by their predecessors. Now it was in this same period that the 
natality diminished. Here then is an antagonism between the two facts : thrift 
is not a cause of depopulation. 

Further, I cannot see why it should have more influence upon the decline of 
the birth-rate than the desire to spend money. Those who want to spend money 
will always look out not to have children. 

The Chairman (SENATOR BERNARD) : In such conditions, if the spirit of thrift 
and providence must be regarded as a cause of depopulation, the logical conclusion 
is that we ought not to encourage either the one or the other ! 

M. DE FOVILLE : We have encouraged thrift out of all reason. So far as 
I am concerned I accept the conclusion of the Chairman we have overshot the 
mark. 



CAUSES OF FRENCH DEPOPULATION. 

(Causes de notre Depopulation. Relevement de notre Natalite. Secours 
a la Vieillesse). By DR. E. MATJREL, Chief Physician of the Navy Reserve, Pro- 
fessor of the Faculty of Medicine at Toulouse. 

957. DR. MATJREL was a prominent member of the Extra- Parliamentary Commission, 
and wrote a little book of 110 pages upon the above subject. 

On the opening page he says : 

We can no longer preserve the illusion, either of the existence, or of the gravity, 
or of the imminence of our danger. Henceforward this conclusion is forced 



193 

upon us, that if by prompt and energetic measures inspired by the nature of the 
evil itself, the State does not succeed in arresting it, France must expect to lose 
all her prosperity and consent to submit to the humiliating yoke of her enemies. 

On page 13 

Let us not forget that numbers make strength, and that in international rela- 
tions, more than ever, might surpasses right. 

958. There is no fresh contribution in the book, his curative proposals being solely 
pecuniary. He would purchase motherhood by State subsidies, and even award gold 
medals to parents of many children. The latter should be treated as a jest. As to honours, 
subsidies, inducements and compulsions, no greater man has arisen during nineteen 
centuries than Octavius Caesar, called Augustus. He introduced and tested those 
methods effectively, but he failed utterly. There is no cure for corruption. 



HOW GOVERNMENT MAY DO JUSTICE TO CHILD-BEARERS. 

959. In a report prepared by M. DE FOVILLE on the 23rd March, 1904, for the Com- 
mission Extra-Parlementaire : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

When in order to explain the malady with which France is attacked we hear 
these facts blamed : 

Either the progress of individualism ; 
Or the weakening of religious beliefs ; 
Or the immoderate love of wealth and property ; 

Or finally, current immorality, that which advertises and that which hides 
itself, 

I quite believe that we have there, effectively, the essential factors of the 
problem. Only it is pretty clear that such influences as these cannot be conjured 
away in a hurry. But we can oppose them. And yet those are currents which 
date from a long while back, and over which our country, even if it had a strong 
will, could only become master after many efforts and much time. It is a different 
thing with fiscal matters. 

960. Then he shows at length how the various kinds of taxation, especially internal, 
oppress parents. He sets forth in detail the very numerous concessions that the laws 
of Germany, Austria and Switzerland make to large families. 

I don't wish to multiply citations. What is important to remember is that 
in Germany you see a country whose population progresses with leaps and bounds, 
and which consequently, not finding any need to accelerate the movement, never- 
theless grants a sliding scale to large families because, even if not necessary, it is just. 

In Berlin, last September, a high functionary of state said to me : " Do tell 
me how it happens that in Fiance, where you complain of not having enough 
children, you refuse those who do have them the advantages that Germany concedes 
to such citizens, where we bave almost too many ?" And I confess that the ques- 
tion was rather disconcerting. 

Towards the end of his essay, speaking of proposed taxation of bachelors, de 
Foville says : 



194 
TAX BACHELORS, NOR SOCIALISE THE BABY. 

961. I shall never be amongst those who want to put them in the pillory a 
PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT recently suggested to inflict fines upon them, or to 
smite them pecuniarily as was formerly done in Imperial Rome. If anyone pro- 
poses a tax on bachelors I shall vote against it without hesitation. 

Neither do I ask that the State at the general expense shall charge itself with 
feeding, clothing, lodging and rearing the children of those who do have them, 
even when they have plenty of them. The " assisted child " would never be 
my ideal. 

962. In the Chamber of Deputies an orator whose philosophy appears to me mighty 
blind, had the temerity to shout, *' Children belong neither to the father nor the 
mother. They belong to the collectivity !" Gentlemen, that is a principle which, 
once it prevailed, would quickly give France the finishing stroke so far as births 
are concerned. Bear children for the collectivity ? Charming perspective I 
Do you think the collectivity will suckle them, cuddle them, love them and make 
itself loved ? I utterly defy it ! What contempt for Nature, what sophistry, 
and what Utopia ! 

963. Oh, no, we don't ask that the State take our babies in charge. The remedy 
would be worse than the disease. All that we ought to ask, but we must demand 
it straight away, is that celibacy and conjugal sterility, voluntary or otherwise, 
shall not remain a cause of relative immunity, a cause for privilege in the matter 
of taxation. What we are bound to demand is that the contribution of each shall 
be proportioned to his true contributive capacity, and that in the calculation in 
estimating this contributive capacity of the citizen there be taken into account 
those family expenses which restrict it. 

964. Here we have a paterfamilias and an old bachelor ; the latter perhaps quite 
as estimable, every bit as sympathetic as the former. Sometimes he is more so. 
But, as regards the State, as regards the country, the father of a family just because 
he rears children by the sweat of his brow, has already paid an onerous tribute 
to the national interest, and it is inadmissible that this first sacrifice should become 
the pretext for severities which are at the same time downright extortions. 

Then give to large families or rather obtain for them concessions and com- 
pensations which are their due. Even if against all probability the birth-rate 
should not feel it, you will have no reason to regret your intervention, since you 
will have performed an act of humanity, wisdom, and justice. 

But, for my part, I am convinced that natality would respond. 

965. Nothing new in that proposal, for it is merely copying ancient Teutonic morality. 
It is hardly conceivable that it would appeal to the average British politician otherwise 
than to excite his jocularity. Only, it is just worth observing at this point of time that 
it is the ascendant nations who take on the burdens of the proletarii the child-bearers 
and it is the decadent peoples who deride an " act of humanity, wisdom and justice." 



AFTERMATH OF THE COMMISSION. 

966. In "La Revue Hebdomadaire " (The Weekly Review), Librairie Plon, Paris, 
is being published a series of articles upon " Le Depeuplement de la France," commenced 
1st May, 1909. 

967. The first is by M. ALFRED DE FOVILLE, in which he narrates unreservedly the 
(ate of the work of the Commission. Carefully studying the first three articles, we find 



195 

little or nothing of added knowledge as to the disease itself or its supposed remedy. They 
are mere repetitions of what has already been included in this Report. Here and there, 
however, is a phrase worth memorising or an illustrative anecdote. " In some of our 
mayoralties the register of births is only a docket of blank papers !" " France has become 
richer in aged persons and poorer in adolescents, than any other European nation." 

968. As to hope of reform through the making of laws, " there is little echo in the 
governmental and parliamentary world. That is indeed the world which, of all others, 
it is imperative to stir up, but it remains quite cold. With a political regime which 
permits only temporary mandates, not a soul possesses the quality of making himself 
-advocate for the future, and very many of our representatives are only interested in what 
concerns the essential problem of their re-election. All the same, they cannot disguise 
to themselves the fact that the examination of conscience to which the country is being 
urged will not redound to their honour, and they would prefer that the question be not 
posed." It might be a good thing for our British legislators to look squarely at the mirror 
of the patriotic French savant, for our own hope of an echo is equally fault. M. de 
Foville continues : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

969. Nothing could better show the dread in which our masters hold some plain 
truths than the short history of that great " Commission Extra-Parliamentaire 
sur la Depopulation" which was formed seven years ago by M.WALDECK ROUSSEAU. 
then President of the Council and Minister of the Interior. It was one of those 
good movements which Talleyrand advised politicians to keep clear oi. The com- 
position of this committee of studies was, as the case required, very eclectic. Upon 
the list, which was long, figured the names of senators and of deputies, of directors- 
general and of magistrates, of members of the Institute of France, of professors. 
of moralists, of economists, of financiers, of statisticians. We don't very well 
know now who the President was, because since the opening sitting we never again 
beheld that high dignitary. But in the two Sections which were constituted 
straight away, those of Natality and of Mortality, goodwill was on a par with 
competence, whilst the bulk of us can do ourselves this justice, that we set to work 
with veritable ardour. 

970. Sittings followed one another quickly. A string of ciiosen contributors brought 
in their reports, and submitted to the judgment of the groups the results of their 
meditations and their resolutions. These were worthy of the full attention of the 
public powers, apart from our exchange of views. Let us also acknowledge that 
from the start the Administration was not niggardly with its precious co-operation. 
It got us on paper to its level best. It took down in shorthand our smallest words. 
It busied itself in supplying to the Press a faithful resume of each of our deliberations. 

971. But this honeymoon was all too soon on the wane. They considered us too 
zealous and too sincere. To M. WALDEOK-ROUSSEAU succeeded M. COMBES, who 
had his own settled ideas, and to whom everything else was a nuisance. Our con- 
venings, under divers pretexts, were at longer intervals. We saw the printing of 
our Reports and of our Minutes of Proceedings, fall away hugely. " We've got 
no money !" said the secretaries by way of excuse. 

972. Whether right or wrong, this explanation gave rise to a characteristic scene. 
One of our most assiduous colleagues was the late DR. JAVAL, formerly a deputy 
for L'Yonne. [His is a name honoured and beloved wherever the art of healing 
is known]. This gallant fellow had had the misfortune to lose his eye-sight, but 
physical blindness neither impaired his intellectual perception nor the ardour of 
his patriotism. When the lack of funds had been alleged by those con- 
cerned, the good doctor asked leave to speak : " Since we only need three or 
four 40 notes (billets de mille francs) to assure the necessary publicity to our work, 
it will be a pleasure to me," he said, " to offer the amount." 



196 

973. All difficulties seemed to be removed. But this time it was ARTAXERXES 
who refused the presents of HIPPOCRATES. With a presence of mind for which we 
are bound to give him credit, the Minister in his message declared that " the dignity 
of the Administration did not permit him to accept the pecuniary co-operation of 
an individual." So the incident was closed, no other course being open. 

Nor did they seem, in high places, in any more of a hurry to know and to make 
known to the public, the views expressed by the Commission. Four years passed, 
four long years, without its being even set to continue its work. They never 
dissolved it, but neither did they permit it to meet again. 

974. Meanwhile the demographic position of the country goes on all the time from 
bad to worse. When the lamentable results of the year 1907 were published 
less births than deaths the Government happened to remember this poor Com- 
mission which for four years they had kept asleep. Orders were issued to interrupt 
its slumbers and make it fix up with all haste its last will and testament. Very 
much as the governors of gaols, when the hour has come, go and wake up prisoners 
condemned to death. 

975. We really were entitled to a little more courtesy, even if we had declared our- 
selves powerless to fight an incurable evil. But no : without setting up for ourselves 
too many illusions as to the efficacy of our efforts, we had been almost unanimous 
in judging that for the governing powers there was a whole series of measures to 
take. Measures so much the more desirable because, irrespective of their reflex 
action upon the movement of population, they were bound to be of service to morals 
and righteousness. 

M. de Foville then reviews once more the situation but we cannot follow him. 



SECOND ARTICLE. 



IS THERE ANY REMEDY FOR THE DEPOPULATION OF FRANCE ? 

976. M. CHARLES GIDE, Professor in the Faculty of Law, University of Paris, in answer- 
ing his own question on page 145 of the above-named Review, 8th May, 1909, says : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

The middle class (la classe bourgeoise) should do what species and races do 
whose very existence is threatened -for example the Poles in Prussian Poland 
they should multiply themselves so as better to conquer their adversaries. They 
ought to profit by the improvidence of the Socialists and Anarchists who, in con- 
stituting themselves now-a-days the propagandists of Malthusianism, do not perceive 
that they are lessening the future contingents of their forces, and that consequently 
they are preparing for themselves a sure inferiority in that class struggle which 
forms the essential article of their programme. 

977. Any such " cure " as that indicated is clearly hopeless. It is quoted to show 
the Malthusian tendencies and the race-destroying influence of destructive Socialism. 
Socialistic milk-depots, socialistic puericulture of the good doctors BUDIN and JAVAL 
are quite an opposite sort of socialism, and serve to demonstrate the extreme lack of 
definition in that word. KARL MARX was the first representative person to drop the word 
" Communist " because of the ill savour that came to attach to it. The greater is the 
pity that so noble a word as social, socialist, socialism, should have been adopted by him 
and his school, because controversies are set up over it and confusion arises. 



197 

978. Thus the preaching of race-restriction by some or many of the Communist 

school is called Socialistic, whilst the opposite inculcation that of race-saving, spreading, 
strengthening is also claimed as socialistic. The latter is indeed social, but not in the 
political sense. Whatever difference there may have been between Political Economists 
and Socialists fifty years ago, upon the question of child-suppression as urged by the 
former, there is little or no difference now, so far as literature and exacting inquiry can 
reveal it. 



THE SCOURGE OF DEPOPULATION. 

979. In the third article (May 15th) the Bishop of Versailles, MONSEIGNEUB, GIBIBB, 
under the above heading describes, and prescribes for, the malady. 

(TRANSLATION.) 

We dread cholera, the plague and tuberculosis ; we search for remedies and 
checks against these destructive scourges and with good reason. But a hundred- 
fold more murderous are the effects of the social scourge which we call depopulation. 
It contains the principle of more destruction than could be effected by plague, cholera, 
famine and tuberculosis combined. Long ago BOSSUET exclaimed "May those 
marriages be accursed by God and man in which children are not desired, and whose 
vows are for sterility !" That those unions in which they do not want children 
are accursed by God, is clear enough, since these unions go directly against the 
most important command that God has given to humanity, when he said to it : 
" Crescite et multiplicamini et replete terram. Increase, multiply yourselves 
and fill the earth." That these unions deserve the malediction of man is no less 
clear, because they terminate inevitably in the ruin of the home and the ruin of 
the country. 

With everybody, then, rests the right and the duty to study the terrible scourge 
of depopulation. 

Again, we cannot follow the Bishop in his teaching, which is throughout lucid, 
positive and humane. Space alone prevents. But I am constrained to translate a few 
sentences : 

980. The family is the granite base of the world. It is the healthy family which 
restores exhausted nations and revives crumbling peoples. Now, from the simply 
financial point of view, depopulation is a veritable plague. During the Reign of 
Terror, MADAME DE CUSTINE was surrounded by the knitting-women who had 
just witnessed the execution of her husband, and these women having acquired 
the taste, wanted to have also the head of the handsome, aristocratic wife. A 
woman who was carrying her child beside her put him in her arms and said, " With 
this child you are saved !" She was saved. I apply this anecdote to the present 
subject, and I declare that children are the salvation of a married couple. . . 

981. Is it not a matter of common experience that the more numerous the family, 
the more united do the members of it become ? They adjust themselves, spontane- 
ously and almost without thinking of it, to mutual sacrifices, to contradictions, 
to exchanges of ideas and sentiments which soften the characters and fuse the 
souls. With a home peopled by many inhabitants the father and mother have 
doubtless much more work and worry, but also much more merit, consolation 
and true joy. The child's smile is like a ray of sunshine in the house, and the more 
smiles there are, the more resplendent is the home. 

982. " Behold my jewels !" said a noble Roman matron, as she showed her children. 
In a large family, if death passes through, he leaves besides the flower harvested 
too soon, other flowers to embellish and console the household. If a child forgets 



198 

himself, it is a very rare thing that another does not set himself to comfort the 
hearts of the parents. There is every chance that amongst several scions there 
will be found one or two more especially energetic, more vigorous, who will raise 
the level, the prestige, the prosperity of the family. Glory to large families ! 
They have an indescribably attractive charm which conciliates for them the sym- 
pathy, admiration and assistance of generous hearts. Glory to large families ! 
There are in them not only beings to people Heaven, but also citizens to elevate 
society, soldiers to serve the country and pioneers to possess the earth. . . . 

983. Look at the German race ! Its rising flood disquiets Europe. Its industry 

and commerce disturb England itself. The Germans have become a power with 
wliich the United States of America have to reckon. There are 300,000 of them 

in New York against 10,000 French Germany gains every three years 

the equivalent of an Alsace-Lorraine. Marshal VON MOLTKE said, " The French 
lose a battle every day." In fact, every day Germany gains 1,700 more inhabitants 
than France. [The true figure is about 2,500 a day]. Deputy MESSIMY, Com- 
missioner upon the law of cadres [skeleton army-corps], calmly tells us that in 
fifteen years Malthusianism will have annihilated five of our army corps, and that 
in place of our nineteen corps of to-day we shall have no more than fourteen. 
This diminution means a serious and profound attack on our military power. But 
M. Messimy is not a bit alarmed. He suggests, to remedy the evil, these astounding 
measures : (1) a return to the system of mercenary troops, by means of high pay 
and premia for engagement and re-engagement ; (2) the incorporation of Algerian 
and Tunisian Arabs in the national army. Thus the descendants of the French- 
men who closed our country to the Saracens and also defeated then at Poitiers, 
would reopen our frontiers to the Mussulmans who are to fill the gaps in our armies ! 
This project of enrolment of the Arabs reminds us of the time when the Greeks 
of Byzantium, lacking soldiers, or refusing themselves to serve, entrusted to the 
Dacian, Pannonian and other barbarians, the defence of their frontiers. We know 
what became of the Empire when protected by troops of that sort ! . . . 



THE BISHOP'S REMEDY. 

984. The remedy, the true, the grand cure for depopulation, is this : 

We must believe in GOD ; 

We must fear the justice of GOD ; 

We must have confidence in the goodness, the mercy, and the providence 
of GOD ; 

We must seek firstly and above all the Kingdom of GOD by observance of 
His law, and believe that the rest will be added to us. Quaerite primum 
regnum Dei. This precept of the Gospel ought to serve as motto for 
all treatises upon social economy, for it is of an exactitude almost mathe- 
matic. No use saying that religion has nothing to do with economic 
science. It preserves the latter from error, enlightens, regulates, and 
leads it to fruitful results. In short, the evil of depopulation can only 
be cured by a genuine return to the religious idea, to the faith of the 
Gospel. 

985. Imagine that sort of thing in the mouth of an English Political Economist ! 



199 

986. Bishop Gibier proves again at length, what has been already set forth herein, 
that celibacy and chastity from religious principle or vocation does not tend to diminish, 
but rather to encourage, sanctify, and enhance the general procreation and nurture of 
children, in ordered social relations. A brutal bigotry and hypocrisy on the part of 
Malthusian and other writers has pretended the contrary. When a family tree makes 
sacrifices of the devoted lives of its loved and best be they of the Greek, Roman, Protes- 
tant Evangelical, or Jewish communion it will still bear choice and abundant fruit. 
The whole ghastly mischief proceeds from selfishness and not from self-dental. 

We must reluctantly conclude these extracts by translating from his pages the 
following simple anecdote : 

987. A paterfamilias who has twelve children and is proud of his family, recently 
explained to a journalist how he brought up his sons and daughters : " My eldest 
girls have married exceptional husbands. One of them has found something still 
better : she has become the spouse of CHRIST and servant of the poor. That is 
GOD'S share. The sacrifice was hard to us, for she was the gayest, the most loving 
and the most beloved, in so far as it is possible to love one of them more than the 
others. But we thought that GOD had so loaded us with benefits that we could 
generously accord Him the tithe of our happiness. So the dear child has left us, 
has gone to seek ' the better part/ and has taken with her also the better part of 
the heart of her old father, to whom she was already pretty nearly ' the Sister,' 
so thoroughly did we understand one another. And now, if GOD also wants one 
of my Benjamins for His altar, let Him call and the lad will be given to Him." 

And the journalist who gave us this touching recital added : " Thus the maa 
spoke to me. His voice quivered and his eyes filled at these last words. Since 
then I am one of his numerous admirers. May GOD give France many of his sort !" 

988. To that concluding prayer a multitude of unsoiled British hearts will fervently 
add, So mote it be ! And the reader is requested to turn to paragraphs 249 e. s. so that 
he may realise the tremendous gulf that is fixed between Christian practice, and the practices 
ordained by the authors of the Malthusian apostasy. It cannot be too often repeated, 
and it must never be left out of sight, that such practices were identical with those from 
whose contamination through the heathen, the Hebrews and the early Christians were 
commanded to come out. Contamination meant worse than death : it meant racial 
ruin and extinction. 

The Bishop concludes : 

989. The first Christians did not limit themselves, as is too often believed, to living 
in the catacombs and awaiting martyrdom. Let us read again the celebrated 
phrase of TERTULLIAN [about 198 A.D.] in which he describes them refilling and 
renewing the cadres of the old pagan society exhausted by divorce, by concubinage, 
by unnatural vices and by voluntary sterility. "Let US give up searching for 
little comers where we can reunite until the storm passes over. Let us have a 
generation rich in men, much more than rich in money." Those are noble and 
virile words. Let Christians but have the courage to be inspired by them, and 
nobody can have any longer a pretext for saying that religion is powerless to arrest 
the scourge of depopulation. 

990. DIONYSIUS of Halicarnassus, contemporary of Augustus, reports that in his time 
many of the towns of Italy were uninhabited. 

991. SUETONIUS informs us that at the end of Augustus' reign it was necessary in 
order to complete the legions to cause slaves to enter the ranks. They received pay. 



200 

just as the Arabs will receive pay from the French, or as the Pannonians did from the 
Greeks. Necessity knows not amour-propre. Then, as now. 

992. On the other hand, LEIBNITZ, when consulted upon the point as to whether 
Prussia possessed a sufficient population to render its sovereign worthy of assuming the 
royal crown, expressed the opinion that the power of a kingdom consists in the number 
of its inhabitants. 

993. And he added by way of aphorism : " Ubi enim sunt homines ibi substantiae 
et vires." [Assuredly where men are, there are wealth and strength]. 



In June, 1908, a contributor writes in the " Medical Press and Circular " : 

" In your valuable paper ' Veritas ' discusses the question of the ' Marriage of the Unfit,' and 
the duties of the profession in view of the recklessness with which many of these unions are brought 
about. This question is important, bat sinks into almost complete insignificance in presence of the 
new development of the population question as a whole. Within the past few days there have been 
published the quarterly returns of the Registrar-General, and these show once more the lowest birth-rate 
on record. If this fall continues at the present rate, in a very few years the population of these islands 
will have become stationary in numbers, so that, unless a change speedily takes place, the decline and 
fall of the British Empire will soon be well in sight without the aid of the prophet's telescope or any 
scientific demonstrating apparatus. The last census showed that the whole Empire, including India, 
contained only 55,000,000 of people of European blood. The birth-rate in moat of our colonies is 
falling as rapidly as that at home, and we shall in a few years have no men to send to these vast domains, 
three of them Canada, Australasia, and Africa being each equal in extent to Europe, and each capable 
of supporting in time populations of hundreds of millions. In the meantime, Germany has 64,000,000 
fit home, besides at least a few more millions in her colonies and in other lands, who still retain their 
attachment to the Fatherland, and her population is increasing by nearly a million a year. France, 
whose pernicious example we have copied, makes no increase ; she remains at 38,000,000, plus a few 
hundred thousand more or less really naturalised Swiss, Italians, and Germans. Without allies she 
would be at the mercy of Germany. The French are always declaiming about their patriotism, and 
yet the whole people, with very rare exceptions, although fully aware that their safety and existence 
as a free nation depend upon it, refuse to make what they regard as the sacrifice involved in rearing 
a family of more than two or three children. The motive is not prudence the wealthiest and the best 
educated are the worst offenders but pure egoism, the cult of ease and luxury. The French are a 
decaying race, in spite of their magnificent gifts ; and the same will soon be said with justice of the 
British. The example of restricting the number of the children has been set by the wealthy and well- 
to-do, not by the poor, who might plead some justification ; and it is one sign among many others of 
the moral decay of this erstwhile mighty people. The nations of to-day, if they go to ruin, will go with 
eyes open. Every man of intellect can see whither the vices of civilization must lead ; and if the 
people will not listen to the latter-day prophets who reason from the basis of scientific fact as well all 
from the testimony of history ; if they will not listen to the preachers who exhort them to strive for 
high ideals, nothing seems possible to save them from the doom which from similar causes overtook as 
the not less mighty peoples of antiquity." 



THE FALLING BIRTH-RATE. 

The Registrar-General's return for the quarter ending September again records a decreased birth, 
rate for England and Wales, the proportion being 25.4 annually, which is 2.5 below the average for 
the ten corresponding quarters and is the lowest for any third quarter of the year since the establishment 
of civil registration. JOTJR. A.M.A., 27th Nov., 09. 

For several years the above lines could have been kept standing, with an alteration from time to 
time of only figures and date. If the mean expectation of life, at birth, be 45J years, then the line 
of dissolution is 22 births per 1000 of population. Now 25.4 ia getting very close to 22. Arithmetically, 
a few more years will put hope beneath the horizon. 



DIVISION IV. 



PATHOLOGIC CONSEQUENCES 



203 



PATHOLOGIC CONSEQUENCES. 



FRAUDS IN THE FULFILMENT OF THE GENERATIVE FUNCTIONS. 

CAUSES, DANGERS AND TROUBLES FOR INDIVIDUALS, THE FAMILY AND SOCIETY. 
REMEDIES. By DR. L. BERGERET. 17th Edition, Paris, J. B. Bailliere et Fils, Rue 
Hautefeuille, 19 pies du Boulevard Saint-Germain, 1904. 

994. This invaluable work, written in plain language that may be understood by 
persons of average education, deals with the practices recommended in detail by Malthusian 
Economists in their public lectures, their standard works, and their multitudinous writings 
aimed at instructing educating they call it the public generally, and the female sex 
in particular, in conjugal frauds. The spores of the leaven thus sown spread with amazing 
celerity. In other words, women constitute themselves apostles of the creed, and in all 
Anglo-Saxondom the cult is privately taught. It must be a very isolated and a very rare 
case where a married woman has never been recommended by the women of her acquain- 
tance, or by strangers, the use of the means to prevent conception. That is the belief 
of medical men in ah 1 English-speaking countries which I have visited. We have also 
the statement of Malthusians that " very little is left to be desired in that respect." They 
lament, indeed, that it is not so with Continental nations, excepting only France. (Vide 
pars. 138 e. s.). 

995. I consulted the administrator of a great archdiocese and desired his serious counsel. 

A. What is it you want to know ? 

Q. I want to ask if, in your judgment, there is any danger of teaching inno- 
cent and ignorant women mischievous practices they know nothing of, by exposing 
the current villanies which are making such quick and unchecked progress ? 

A. You could teach them very little ! In my opinion you could teach them 
nothing. They are experts at it ! I will tell you how a great deal of good can be 
done. Have no fear of teaching anything in that way, but show those people, 
men and women, what the physical consequences are to themselves. Let them 
know the dangers and injuries to their own persons by these acts. More good 
can be done in that way than in any other. 

In like manner I have consulted archbishops, bishops, laymen who were earnestly interes- 
ted, leading medical men, lawyers and others. In each case the answer has been in the 
same direction as the above. Often the opinion has been spontaneously expressed. Even 
a child warned against poisonous berries is less likely to eat them. 

996. But, for politic reasons, there is a restraint upon writing when it is decency 
that has to be defended against the unrestrained teaching of indecency. These publi- 
cations, " Every Woman's Book" and a hundred others, printed and illustrated without 
reserve, advertised in English and colonial papers, puffed in the family journals intended 
for our women and girls, scandalously prominent, as denounced by the medical serials 
quoted in Volume I. these books deal with sexual details and recommend malpractices 
which will not even be mentioned here. The names and the methods of application of 
these very things are stated by Malthusians that which we cannot even mention ! But, 
within the limits of decency, where none is observed by the assailants of the normal and 
the natural the moral, in short we must state some of the consequences. It is not 



204 

likely that those who have abandoned the ancient faith in purity to take up these Mal- 
thusian frauds whether preventive or homicidal or both will discontinue them, for 
there are two parties to the bargain and one will hold back the other. But there always 
remain thousands in Israel, Christian and Jewish, who have not bowed the knee to Baal. 
Their numbers are perhaps fewer than ever, but there are always some. It is not merely 
important, it is everything for this nation that those citizens be preserved from the blight. 
The decline shown by our national statistics cannot be arrested now ; that decline must 
necessarily proceed, but we have to think of the descendants of the clean-living, who are 
sure to be a very fine race, and not the less because they have to face a clouded future. 

Dr. Bergeret begins : 

(TRANSLATION.) 

997. One of the most powerful instincts that nature has placed in the heart of man is that -which has 
for its object the perpetuation of the human species. But this instinct, this lively attraction which 
draws one sex towards the other, is liable to go astray, to be perverted, to deviate from the 
way which nature has traced for it. Thence result a great number of fatal aberrations, functional 
abnormalities, which produce consequences at first hidden but very soon manifested by their general 
action, and which exercise a deplorable influence upon the individual, upon the family and upon 
society. 

998. Numerous writers have signalised the many evils which this deviation from the generative 

instinct engenders and which consists in But how much more pernicious are those 

refinements of sensuality, those manoeuvres of all sorts that are invented by the ill-regulated passions 
of two individuals of opposite sexes who desire to avoid the natural consequence of sexual com- 
munication ! How much more must the excitation of the nervous system, the shock which result? 
from it, be violent at the contact of two persons who mutually excite one another I Is it surprising 
that grave disturbances so often result ? [Vide pars. 1240 e. s.]. 

999. Various authors have spoken of the vice that I am attacking and have applied to it a name 
conjugal onanism [par. 127]. But this expression does not seem to me comprehensive enough, 
and does not include all the frauds which are employed to corrupt the sexual relations and to distort 
nature .... 

1000. Firstly, the word conjugal appears to imply the idea that it is solely a question of an unnatural 
practice between a man and a woman united by the bonds of marriage. But frauds applied to the 
generative functions are frequent between persons of different sexes that form liaisons outside of the 
law, who live in illicit union, and who, actuated by all kinds of motives not to have children, use every 
sort of means to elude the fecundation of the woman. 

1001. The origin of the word onanism will be found in Genesis, chapter 38. [For a defence of this act 
by the Political Economists, see pars. 1231. The measure of precaution taken by Onan is only one 
of the numerous frauds practised to elude the natural consequences of the approach of the sexes, 
and is perhaps, of all those invented by human perversity, the least opposed to nature. But it is often 
abandoned, for it sometimes happens that the precautions taken by the man, in this way, do not 
preserve the woman from fecundation. It is then replaced by manoeuvres still more odious and more 
monstrous, such as .... There are many others upon which I wish to speak emphatically, 
because I have often seen the gravest misfortunes result from them. 

1002. I must establish a distinction upon the subject of the different kinds of artifices employed by 
those who wish to frustrate the designs of Nature . . . The facts I am about to narrate are bound 
to have been observed by all physicians whose practice has been large and extensive. But I have 
observed such sad examples, I have been so struck with their disastrous consequences, that I cannot 
repress the desire to give them publicity. 

1003. This work will be divided into five parts ; in the first part I shall treat the causes of the evil : in 
the second part will be comprised the facts intended to throw light upon the evils which are engendered 
by the frauds of individuals of both sexes ; in the third part I shall endeavour to prove their damaging 
influence upon the family ; in the fourth part I shall study the ravages and troubles to society from 
these frauds ; in the fifth part I shall indicate under the form of conclusions the principal remedies 
to be applied. 

In Part I., chap. I., he says : 

1004. The prime cause is the enfeeblement of religious ideas, which severely prohibit this sort of practice. 
In fact, the evil is not so profound amongst the people who have preserved more purely the religious 
sentiments. Thus with the Israelites marriages have preserved their ancient fecundity. Mussulmans, 
in spite of their polygamy, which is a cause of inferiority for fecundation, show in their marriages.* 
fairly high number of children. 



205 

1005. It is not without grave motives that the Catholic Church also forbids all kinds of frauds in the 
exercise of the generative function. In this matter, as upon so many other points, moral prescriptions 
are in perfect harmony with natural laws, with the teachings of philosophy and the rules of hygiene. 

CHAPTER II. 

The second cause is the increase of general ease, of wealth. 

1006. The abolition of the law of primogeniture did not destroy the absurd vanity which had inspired 
the creation of that iniquitous privilege. Those men who are obsessed by the pride of wealth, unable 
to habituate themselves to the thought of seeing their property divided up, their chateaux sold by 
auction, try to replace law by fact ; that is to say, they stop the procreation of children from the 
moment that a son is born to carry on their name and to concentrate the whole of, or at least the 
greater part of, their fortune. Thence they give themselves up to the practice of fraudulent relations 
in order to avoid a too numerous line. But it often happens that such odious calculations of pride 
and selfishness bring with them, later on, bitter deceptions. (Vide Observation LV., paragraph 1071)^ 

People are generally inclined to think that these hateful reckonings of egotism, these refinements 
of debauchery, are almost solely met with in great cities and amongst rich families ; that small locali- 
ties and rural districts still exhibit in large measure, in this respect, the simplicity of manners that 
is attributed to primitive times, when parents of families displayed with pride their numerous descen- 
dants. 

1007. " Rich people," writes GEIMAUD DB CAUX and MARTIN SAINT- ANGE ( " Histoire de la Generation"), 
" are driven to it by the fear of having a more numerous family than would permit the ease and luxury 
in which they desire to spend long years. But this selfish calculation is very badly founded ; for as a 
general thesis it must be said, large families are oftener elements of prosperity and good fortune for 
their heads than causes of decadence and misfortune. How many rich heirs could be quoted who 
did not show in their maturity traces of the effeminacy in which they spent their youthful years, 
thanks to the idolatry of their parents ? Great men have very rarely been only sons ! 

" The poor do not make such stupid calculations and their life is not a bit the worse for it. They 
go straight on their road and seldom turn from the laws of Nature. And what conies of it ? If the 
family is large, it is seldom that it does not contain hi one or other member of it sure elements of a 
future rise." 

1008. TOUBDKS remarked also that, " The influence of these frauds is much more manifest hi the 
towns than in the country. Marriages are more fecund in the rural population, for statistics leave 
no doubt in this regard. Immorality in the towns is not the only cause of this difference ; marriages 
there are later ; a population which is less vigorous, degenerated by various causes, produces scions 
less numerous and less healthy. If the farmer fears the division of his property with the increasing 
cost of labour, he values the services of his children's hands ; and his true interest is here in accord 
with the laws of Nature and morality." That is a mistake. I want to show that those who have 
confidence in the patriarchal habits of our countryfolk and of our poorer citizens are under the most 
complete illusion. The artisan, the farmer, the retired shopkeeper, have little notion of creating hands 
thus destined to sustain them in their old age. They love very much more to enjoy in selfishness their 
acquired positions than to give themselves the trouble of rearing a large family. 

1009. Nowadays frauds are practised by all classes of society (Pars.1818 et. seq.). 



1010. CHAPTER HI. INFLUENCE OF THE MALTHUSIAN DOCTRINES. 

Here Dr. Bergeret describes at length how " a celebrated school of Economists, 
who recognise MALTHTJS as their head, profess that progression in the production of food 
follows an arithmetical proportion, one, two, three, four, etc., and that population follows 
a geometrical proportion, one, two, four, eight that is to say, when the population will 
be 8 the production will be only 4, and there will be as an inevitable consequence 4 individuals 
who will have something to subsist upon and 4 who will have nothing to subsist upon." He 
then quotes various authorities of the Liberal Economist school who have set forth this 
doctrine of child restriction as the great complementary article of their fiscal faith. We 
find the same displayed by all demographers and by the Economist authorities themselves, 
at first hand, as abundantly quoted herein. Bergeret, however, is here only concerned 
with the debasement and degeneration mental, moral and physical of individuals 
and of society, consequent upon the practices inculcated in general or in particular by the 
Manchester school of English Economists. 



206 

1011. A few pages previously, in describing some of the obscene methods employee 
by the French population to thwart the designs of Nature, he says : 

I ought to establish an important distinction upon the subject of the kind of artifices ued by 
those who intend to disappoint the designs of Nature. In this relation there is a notable difference 
between the working classes and those whom wealth permits a resort to all sorts of refinements. 

[He mentions that practice which is commonest amongst the less well-to-do, and adds :] 

The people know little of the use of the invented by Dr. CONDOM and which has preserved 

his name. Amongst the rich, on the contrary, the employment of the is general everywhere. 

It favours frauds by rendering them easier ; but it inspires only a perfidious security, and I have 
seen, by the recital of accidents which have barely missed being tragical, serious troubles caused by 
its use. 

1012. To British people who still cling to the ancient ideas of morality and to religious 
faith, it is no subject of pride that our countrymen have not only confirmed the French 
in the general gospel of child-restriction, but have invented and transmitted to them the 
instruments of sexual perversity. The article invented by the English doctor Condom 
is manufactured in Great Britain and Australia, as well as sold openly by chemists, hair- 
dressers, sexual specialists, and some booksellers, throughout Great Britain and Australia. 
Several kinds are placed in shop windows, at various prices, and with ordinary hand- 
written or printed tickets upon them. Variations are made in them, handbills are printed 
to sell them, newspaper advertisements, as fully shown in Vol. I., announce them, and 
they are transmitted everywhere by His Majesty's mails. Vide pars. 1388, 1822, (232, 1005). 

1013. He then enumerates and describes social causes, all of which are elsewhere herein 
mentioned and are therefore here omitted. 



Chapter IV. PRETENDED TROUBLES FROM FREQUENT PREGNANCIES. 

1014. An objection which emanates from women against the procreation of a somewhat numerous 
family is, say they, fatigue and exhaustion caused to mothers by multiplied accouchements, spoiling 
the figure, etc. That idea is absolutely false : accouchement is a natural function. 

And these same women, forgetting the noble intent of their organisation, have no other thought 
than to devote themselves with fury to the excitement of lust and to the pleasures of the voluptuary. 
What they call pleasure is almost always a loan that must be dearly repaid out of capital, whilst 
nature has placed on the side of maternity the strongest chances of health and longevity. (Vide 
HTJFBLAND'S " Art of Prolonging Life.") Fecundation and pregnancies strengthen women, whilst 
sterility causes them to fade and wither, and the mother who has given birth to eight or ten children 
will appear young beside the woman who has spent only a few years amongst foolish extravagances 
and luxury. 

Part n., Chapter I. LOCAL ACCIDENTS WITH THE WOMAN. 

1015. Genesic frauds may provoke in her case all the maladies of the generative apparatus, from a 
simple inflammation up to degeneration and to the gravest disorganisations. (Vide FLEET WOOD 
CHURCHILL'S " Practical Treatise upon the Diseases of Women.''). Amongst the diseases of the genital 
organs of the women who were confided to my care, more than three-quarters of these coincided with 
frauds practised in the exercise of the generative functions, and most often they could be legitimately 
attributed to the latter. 

Like ourselves, Dr. KICHARD (" Les Rapports Conjugaux") and DBVAY (" Hygiene des Families ") 
threaten the woman with the whole cortege of the uterine affections. 

ACUTE METRITIS. (Inflammation of the Womb). 

1016. A distinction can be made according to the age of subjects as to the facility with which acute 
metritis can be consequent upon repeated frauds in the sexual relations. The young woman is less 
exposed to it than older women. I have, however, seen cases of acute metritis with women in whom 
the vigour of youth might have been expected to give impunity. 



I 



207 

1017. Thenceforward, throughout the book, the gynaecologist supplies cases taken 
from his own case-book no names, of course illustrative of the various troubles ensuing 
from Malthusian practices. There are quoted in all one hundred and twenty-eight cases, 
only part of which can here be supplied. They form perhaps the most valuable warnings 
to be found in current literature, but the antidote does not reach the public with the poison ; 
hence it is sure that the wreck and ruin will proceed and in ever widening circles. If the 
damage were to farm animals " the law " would quickly be adjusted and applied. But 
as the immoral filth and the physical suffering are those of human creatures, the law is 
supine. Nee vitia nostra, nee remedia, pati possumus ! [We can neither endure our 
vices nor their remedies]. 

1018. Observation I. Girl of twenty years. She took to her bed with severe pains in her abdomen 
and all the signs of acute metritis, violent enough to provoke an intense fever. There was no particular 
accident which could explain the invasion of the malady. I interrogated the man. He confessed 
to frauds. 

1019. Observation U. Woman of twenty-eight years, having had a child five years ago. Since 
that time repeated fraudulent practices. To-day atrocious pains in the abdomen, high fever, uterus 
tumefied (tumours formed), severe haemorrhages. The first pains had occurred after fraudulent 
procedure. 

1020. Observation HI. Girl of twenty-one years, with a wonderful freshness and blossoming health. 
After fraudulent proceedings, shivering, sharp pains in the hypogastric region (abdomen), vomitings, 
fever. Excessive heat and swellings. [Other distressing details, which, as in almost all cases, will 
not be translated]. Long convalescence. 

This young woman, who before her sickness would be accounted a type of beauty and health' 
remained pale, etiolated, like a flower withered upon its stem. She never recovered her brightness 
and youthful freshness. 

1021 . Observation IV. Young woman of twenty-five years. [History of mutual depravity and frauds.] 
Very painful metritis, accompanied by severe reaction and above all characterised by a complication 
of cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) which used to provoke at every instant vesicai tenesmus 
(ineffectual and painful straining to urinate) which caused her to utter screams. She attributed 
positively her malady to the practices of debauchery. 

1022. It must be repeatedly stated that these practices, as declared by the patients, are 
those counselled by the Malthusian literature, and described in detail in the books and 
pamphlets issued by the Malthusian League, formerly sold by MR. BRADLAUGH and MRS. 
ANNIE BESANT, and mentioned by the authorities herein quoted. Literature particular- 
ising these genesic frauds, primarily for women, is advertised and kept on sale freely in 
England and Australia " on an enormous scale " (vide pars. 232 e. s. of 1822). 

1023. Observation V. Woman of twenty-nine years. [Impossible to mention the acts and agonies 
of which this woman was the victim, in one sense voluntary]. During several days she was a prey 
to the greatest suffering. Her health was profoundly altered acute metritis (inflammation of 
womb) resulting from the abnormal state of the generative organs provoked by frauds, may sometimes 
acquire much gravity by spreading to the peritoneum. I have seen two sisters die from it. 

1224. Observation VI. [Is that of the two sisters, each of whom was a mother and each looked upon 
her child as an embarrassment. Both practised sexual frauds. Their cases, sufferings and deaths 
are frightful, but cannot here be more than cited. The author concludes the Observation with the 
remark :] Whilst occasionally a young woman may support for quite a long time excesses of this 
kind without experiencing grave trouble, the woman more advanced in life, whose organs have lost 
their juvenile aptitude, their vital resistance, suffers more than another from the consequences of 
an excess which is less proportioned to her age. 

1225. Observation VII. Woman of forty-three years, of a very strong constitution. Had not had 
a child for seventeen years because her husband was Malthusiau. She was attacked by acute metritis 
with all its accidents, which extended to the peritoneum. Eetention of urine, swellings, retroversion 
of the womb. During fifteen days, pulse 126 to 130, state very grave. Thanks to her strong 
constitution she survived. 

CHRONIC METRITIS. 

1026. More frequently still than acute metritis, chronic inflammation of the uterus appears to put in 
evidence the revolt of the organism against these Malthusian practices, which are a violation of the 
natural laws. I have attended a great number of women whose sufferings proceeded from similar origin. 



208 

1027. Observation X. A married couple belonging to two families of well-to-do vineyard proprietors. 
They were both pale, emaciated, languishing. The physiognomy of the husband recalled that of the 
blonde children of Germany, blue-eyed but passionate. The wife had a pale tint naturally, dark eyea, 
and was a specimen of the ardent daughters of the south of France. 

They had been married six years, had had two children pretty soon, then in order to avoid others 

they had recourse to conjugal frauds They had made use of these things for some months 

when their health had become deranged 

This is to-day the woman's situation : she complainn of internal pains in the abdomen and 
kidneys. These pains disturb the functions of the stomach and greatly irritate the nerves. Her 
sufferings are accompanied by profuse leucorrhoea and exhausting haemorrhages. I found ex- 
cessive heat, extreme sensibility to pressure, and all the signs of chronic metritis. The sick woman 
very positively attributed the mischief to the abnormal approaches of the husband. 

The latter did not seek to exculpate himself, because he also was suffering greatly. But it 
was not locally that these morbid disorders showed themselves. They attacked his health generally, 
and principally the nervous system. It is apropos of these general accidents that I shall give his 
history. (Vide infra Obs. XCI.). 

1028. Observation XI. Woman of twenty-five years. I had attended her mother twenty years 
before for metritis resulting from conjugal frauds. The daughter was brought to me by her mother 
because of accidents analogous to those she had experienced herself. 

She was married five years ago to a vigneron, a widower, who was already provided with a child 
by his first marriage, and who declared that he would by no means have a second. This young woman 
had submitted, on the part of her husband, from the beginning of the marriage, to fraudulent relations 
only. 

She experienced, after the first eighteen months, all the symptoms of very intense chronic 
metritis, severe pains, above all when attending to her work. Her married life was insupportable. 
Continual flow of pus, often sanguinolent, haemorrhages, extreme sensibility in the hypogastrium 
[the abdomen], frightful uterine displacement. This was caused by intumescence of the uterus, 
which increased its weight, the contractions of the abdominal muscles causing compression of the 
entire abdominal mass [with extreme sufferings and damage described in detail]. 

Interrogated as to the motives which turned her husband aside from having children, she replies 
that he is an egotist who lives only for himself, and does not want to have children, so as not to be 
bothered to earn their subsistence. 

1029. Observation XII. Woman of 30 years, married at 22. First of all, two children, one after the 
other, then conjugal frauds. 

Chronic metritis of very long duration, obliging her to keep her bed in consequence of intolerable 
pains which she felt in the thighs when assuming the vertical position. Her moral state was desperate, 
inasmuch as her mother had died of uterine cancer at the age of 42 years, and had often told her that 
it proceeded from the same cause. The daughter suffered a very long time from her metritis and her 
existence was poisoned by it. Some married women, taking advantage of the absence of their hus- 
bands, deliver themselves up to lovers who also use frauds, and in these disordered passions the organs 
are rapidly affected. I have attended many cases of grave and prolonged metritis of which these 
disorders were the origin. 

Other times the habit of these frauds by creating facilities of sensuality which they abuse, entrain 
maladies by monstrous aberrations. 

1030. Observation Xlll. relates the ruinous but uncitable consequences which followed 
upon the advice of a mother of three children who had married a second husband of much 
less age than her own. She had often told her married daughter that she herself had 
stipulated that there must be no children. This mother gave both her husband and her 
daughter instruction, as it is publicly, energetically and successfully promulgated by 
the Neo-Malthusians, in prevention of conception. Pharmacists generally in England 
and Australia supply various kinds of preventives, with instructions if needed. They 
are well advertised and displayed in London at Leicester Square, Shaftesbury Avenue, 
Charing Cross, London Bridge, and very many other places, and in the Australian cities. 
The means are there, always at hand, the law is supine, but the consequences can be 
only partially unfolded. The most striking warnings must be withheld. But the philo- 
sophy quoted by a writer in the British Medical Journal has stood the test of age, " Be not 
deceived ; God is not mocked, for whatsoever a man (or a nation) sows, that shall he 
also reap." It must be always remembered that not only did our own nation first pro- 
pound and amplify into a school the false philosoi>hv to which the name of MALTHUS 



209 

is attached by the other nations, but we also invented and placed upon the market the 
three principal articles which are used for the purpose of frustrating nature. And to 
each of these three things the name of an Englishman is attached. A mention of the 
chief of these will be found on page 9 of Bergeret's book, and it is much recommended 
under its name by the publications of the Malthusian Economists. The inventor was an 
English physician, as stated by Bergeret, and that name is of course well known in the 
library of the Royal College of Surgeons, but although search has been made, as the li- 
brarian informed me, nothing is known of his private history. 

1031. Observation XIV. Madame . Married young, she bore a boy in the first year. The 

father declared that he wanted the son to be rich and the sole heir of his fortune, so that he might 
perpetuate the traditional ostentation of the family. Thence he employed fraudulent methods. 

Five or six years passed thus without the woman complaining, but towards the age of thirty 
years she began to experience heavy pains in the loins and abdomen. Soon these pains became con- 
tinual, intolerable. She could not endure her husband. She passed nearly all her time in bed. Her 
existence was miserable, her nerves irritated, her mind profoundly affected. After long treatment 
which had somewhat modified her state, she profited by the fine season to go to the waters of Plombieres 
and returned in quite a satisfactory condition. I counselled a pregnancy, which passed very happily. 
After her accouchement she recovered perfectly, and all accident disappeared so far as the uterus was 
concerned. Later she had two more children and her health remained flourishing. 

We see fathers and mothers, who have been widowed, marry again at an advanced age, after 
having made agreements not to have a child. In order to keep their promise, they have recourse to 
conjugal frauds. I have attended medically several women tormented with chronic metritis while 
living in such conditions. 

[" Advanced age" means that of marital life, say from 40 to 55, not that of the whole human 
life. The conceptive period is regarded as from 15 to a maximum of 50.] 

I am now about to cite a case of chronic metritis whose origin might very legitimately be attribu- 
ted to conjugal frauds, and which appears to me worthy of interest because it gave place to a regrettable 
diagnostic error. 

1032. Observation XV. Woman 42 years old. Her husband was a perfect satyr. Uterine suffering, 
violent colics, shooting pains which made her cry out, hard and tumefied womb. A sufficiently long 
treatment not having resulted satisfactorily, I demanded a consultation, to which came PROFESSOR 
CORBET, of Besan9on. The latter physician was struck by the emaciation and the yellow tint of 
the patient ; after examination he announced to the horrified husband that his wife was attacked 
by mortal disease, cancer of the womb. However, after lingering a long time, and suffering almost 
without truce, nearly until the critical age, she recovered perfect health at 45 years. 

1033. The whole subject is of such extreme delicacy and awkwardness that it is very 
difficult to select any cases at all, which would mean leaving the whole field to the Mal- 
thusian invaders of the citadel of life. Although exhibiting some of the results of these 
distortions of nature, in the punishment of the guilty parties, the guilt is by no means 
always equal. Many of these cases are infinitely pathetic, and the good work done by 
the doctor in simply directing his patients back to nature and moral decency is more 
touching than the most imaginative romance. Many of the cases illustrate the last 
extremity of human sorrow, misery, depravity and torture, all from the one cause, but 
we cannot report them. 

LEUCORRHCEA. 

1034. Sometimes the membrane which lines the interior of the genital organs is alone affected by 
fraudulent manoeuvres, and there results from it copious leucorrhcea which exhausts the woman and 
more or less profoundly alters the whole of her health. 

1035. Observation XVTI. Woman of 25 years. Seven years of marriage. An only child in the be- 
ginning, then six years of frauds . . . Very severe pains in the kidneys, starting from the womb, 
which, however, is not tumefied [no tumors], nor sensitive to pressure : but she experiences an ex- 
tremely profuse leucorrhoea which exhausts her. Continuous eczema pudendi, most intense and 
very painful. 

True as it is that fraudulent manoauvres may be the point of departure of extremely painful 
uterine catarrhs, yet I have known pregnancy to end them in the following cases : 

1036. Observation XVm. Woman of 32 years. 

Abundant uterine catarrh which much weakened her. After having vainly made use of all kinds, 
of remedies, and having ascertained that she had a defrauding husband, I ordered a pregnancy. Im- 
mediately after conception, the uterine flux stopped completely and her health improved in a very 
notable manner. 



210 

1037. Observation XIX. Woman of 26 years. 

Married at 19 years, she had had only one child in the beginning of the marriage. Sterility through 
frauds, debilitating leucorxhoea ; neck of the womb inflamed as also the interior ; very severe gas- 
tralgia (pains in the stomach). All these troubles disappeared during the pregnancy. 

1038. Observation XX. Girl of 19 years. 

The fraudulent manoeuvres of a lover promptly blighted her, by provoking superabundant 
catarrh of the womb and a profound derangement of the digestive functions. 

I severely proscribed irregular relations, and told her that they are the cause of the grave alteration 
which has occurred to her health. 

The young people married ; pregnancy ; cure. 

1039. Some of the cases are of the gross profligacy which may be read of almost any 
day in our newspapers, and of which so much imaginative narration is supplied in the 
literature of our bookstalls, and in the favourite dramas of our theatres. No doubt it 
would be salutary to look beyond the surface to see the effects of these sexual compacts, 
made with or without the form of marriage, and in which it is intended to " defraud the 
vow of Nature " by excluding children. We shall see the consequences quite effectively 
without turning over the reeking mud of ZOLA, IBSEN, DB KOCK, and the rest of the 
" realist," the " naturalist " novelists and playwrights. Therefore the details of im- 
moral deformities necessary to the physician's case-book, or at least to his memory of 
cases, are chiefly omitted herein. Yet they may well be deterrent to those who are still 
clean, but tempted to fall in with the corruption which surrounds them. We must again 
lament the national misfortune that the antidote cannot reach the people at the same 
time as the poison. There is money in the latter, but none at all in the former, and British 
legislatures are supine. 

1040. Observation XXI. (The note on this case of two women sufferers is as follows) : When the woman 
is already advanced in age, the fatigue caused by frauds provokes still more promptly an uterine 
catarrh intense enough to demand the intervention of the physician. It is often accompanied by red 
granulations of the entrance of the neck of the womb. Many doctors consider themselves obliged to 
cauterise these granulations, which are, however, in most -cases merely an effect, an expansion of the 
malady similar to the redness, the eczematous crusts, which appear at the entrance of the nostrils 
of patients attacked by coryza. 

1041. Olservation XXEL Woman of 36 years. 

After cauterisation with acid nitrate of mercury she had been seized with fearful colics, and 
as they could not find the regular family doctor, who had used the cauterisation, they had recourse 
to myself. 

Her pains made her cry out. She was seized with a violent shivering followed by all the symp- 
toms of a metro-peritonitis (inflammation of womb and peritoneum) which demanded very active treat 
ment. Besides her lascivious and defrauding husband, she had a lover who . ' . . She acquired 
an uterine catarrh which exhausted her, and which caused granulations of the womb that they sought 
to destroy by cauterisation. 

I prescribed first of all to this woman to live more wisely ; she followed my counsel ; her 
leucorrhcea became insignificant and the granulations of the cervix disappeared. 

Uterine catarrh provoked by frauds is much more troublesome with women advanced in age 
than with young women. I have treated a great number of libidinous women who thus expiated, 
by severe suffering, the errors of a temperament which they could not control. 



MENORRHAGIAS, METRORRHAGIAS AND HAEMATOCELES. 

1042. For the present purpose, these may all be called forms of haemorrhage from 
the womb. The last-named is an effusion of blood under one of the membranous coatings 
of the generative organs of the female, forming thus a distended sac, varying in size, filled 
with blood. 

These three orders of accidents present many analogies. 

The organic apparatus destined to receive the human germ and to develop it. is endowed with a, 
vascularity [abundant supply of blood vessels] proportioned to the importance and the special nature 



211 

of the functions which are designed for it. Is it surprising that the missing fecundations, which haw 
had the effect of calling in abundance towards the generative apparatus, the blood intended to develop 
the germ which ought to have been deposited there, are followed by grave disorders in the circulation 
of these organs ? 

The afflux of blood under the influence of repeated frauds may be such that the woman is at- 
tacked by a terrifying haemorrhage. That is what happened in the following case : 

Observation XXIV. A young woman of 22 years, delicate. 

1043. The case will not be given, but it illustrates a serious risk taken by women in 
these departures from the rule of nature. " The woman was in a state of profound syn- 
cope " and she had lost a great quantity of blood. Although the warning put an end 
to their frauds the woman remained sterile. 

Sometimes the excessive afflux of blood, provoked by these frauds, betrays itself otherwise 
than by a more or less abundant flow through the natural avenues. It may cause a vascular tearing 
upon one of the points of the generative apparatus which does not communicate with the uterine 
cavity. Then the blood, not finding an issue so as to leave the body, concentrates at one spot by 
forming the tumour which is indicated by the name haematocele (see upon this subject AUGUSTS 
Voisnr, " De 1'Hematocele retro-uterine et des epanchements sanguins non enkystes." Paris, 1860). 

Illustrative cases are then given, the troubles arising from the unnatural pro- 
ceedings which form a violation of the law and course of Nature. 

FIBROUS TUMOURS AND POLYPUS. 

044. Sanguineous congestion resulting from repeated frauds, in place of provoking morbid fluxes 
by the natural passages, or by periuterine effusion, may determine the same accidents in the thickness 
of the uterine walls. They then form sanguineous collections of which the serous part disappears by 
absorption, whilst the fibrine takes on such density as to form either those fibrous tumours which 
are so common in the thickness of the uterine body or a polypus that the uterine contractions have 
caused to leave its cavity, when the sanguineous effusion which served as point of departure for 
the formation of the polypus, occurred in the vicinity of the internal wall of the womb. 

The greater number of the women that I have attended for this kind of disease had relations 
with defraudera. 

1045. It is to be remembered that the articles employed by defrauders are usually 
septic when applied to the os uteri, with consequences that cannot be traced to their 
origin. 

UTERINE HYPEEESTHESIA, HYSTERALGIA, COLICS AND UTERINE NEUROSES. 

(Excessive sensibility, pains in the womb, nervous diseases of the womb). 

1046. Fraudulent manoeuvres do not always have for their consequence the determining of material 
alterations in the different parts of the generative apparatus. They limit themselves often to the 
causing of profound nervous disturbance ; hence result habitual sufferings, local hyperesthesia of 
painful character, neuralgias and severe colics. 

Observation yxlX. Woman of 29 years. 

Had had a child several years before. (Then Malthusian practices. Troubles described at 
length). I counselled a pregnancy, which put an end to her sufferings naturally. These were only 
a revolt of defrauded nature against the frauds of which the young people had made misuse. 

Observation XXX. Woman of 30 years. 

Had a fraudulent husband. Sensibility and lively pains in the abdomen, shooting pains which 
made her quiver from head to foot. Nothing organic. I advised pregnancy and more correct conduct. 
The woman followed my advice and told me later that her health was much improved. 

1047. Observation XXXI. Two women, married, each aged about 40, came to me in the same week 
complaining of acute pains after frauds, without appreciable lesion which I could discover. Because 
of the general painfulness, examination was almost impossible. I have known many women, afflicted 
with similar accidents, to place themselves in the hands of certain specialists, who used to treat them 
during weeks with cauterisations and local medicaments variously applied. They found their health 
improved and were satisfied with the treatment. I have seen, for my part, cessation and repose bring 
satisfactory results. My opinion was so far founded that the malady used to reappear sooner or later, 
if the wrong practices which had engendered it were again resorted to. 

1048. Observation xxxm T Young woman of 19. Cruel pains on one side of the pelvic cavity ; 
sensations of burning ; emaciation ; pining away. Had been previously healthy. 

Often, women who had never experienced pains before their marriage have been seized with 
frightful pains after a series of conjugal frauds. Nothing is more common with young wives whose 



212 

husbands are determined to avoid having children. The uterine functions, not following their normal 
course after these fraudulent approaches, conception not being the consequence, the uterus finishes 
by suffering from them as does the stomach of which the digestive faculty is applied to bodies that 
are wholly indigestible (Vide CHUKCHTLL, " Practical Treatise on the Diseases of Women," 3rd edition, 
Paris, 1881). These uterine colics are sometimes extremely painful by their duration. 

1049. Observation XXXVI. Married woman of 34 years. [Case and treatment described in detail]. 
Colics of such violence that she rolled on her bed uttering piercing cries. No sign of metritis. Pulse 
normal. I advised a pregnancy to the couple. As they feared a return of the sufferings, this appre- 
hension was for them a salutary restraint : initium sapieutia? timor [fear is the beginning of wisdom]. 
The woman became enceinte and the pains never returned. 

NEURALGIAS AND MAMMARY ENGORGEMENTS. 

1050. Genesic frauds have sometimes a very painful reverberation towards the mammary glands 
(breasts) by reason of the sympathy which exists between them and the uterus. (Vide FLKBTWOOD 
CmmoHiLL). There result from it engorgements which assume the physiognomy of what SIR ASTLBY 
COOPBB used to call " painful tumour of the breast." 

I have attended several cases of this class which only yielded to treatment after cessation of 
fraudulent relations. 



CARCINOMA AND SARCOMA. 

1051. Then arises a subject of vast importance and difficulty. In all the world, in 
all life and death, there is nothing which so keenly interests civilized mankind. And 
into that realm of anxiety not a ray of light has fallen. 

CANCER RESEARCH. 

1052. At the annual meeting of the court of governors of the Middlesex Hospital (the only general 
hospital in London which has special wards for the reception of patients suffering from cancer, and 
also cancer research laboratories), Dr. Lazarus Barlow described the work done in the laboratories 
since their opening in 1900. Here ten highly qualified pathologists are constantly working at cancer 
research at a cost of 2,500 per annum. The examination of the records of 8,000 cases of cancer of 
which the hospital had notes showed that there was no evidence that the disease was inherited. From 
the point of view of life assurance and of allaying a general fear, this was of great utility. Why cancer 
started at all, why it was sometimes located at one spot, sometimes widely disseminated throughout 
the body, why it killed, how it killed, were questions to which no positive answer had yet been given 
(Jour. A.M. A., 20th March, 1909). 

1053. We know its inexorable advance, we can be pretty sure as to some causes of 
its provocation, we know that now in Anglo-Saxondom one woman in eight dies of it, 
and that Nature " red in tooth and claw " demands an ever-increasing proportion, 
and at earlier ages. All that the physicians can tell us is : to beware of provoking it, 
watch for symptoms of it, take promptly qualified advice, then have it removed by the 
knife or prepare for early and inevitable death. 

If it were epidemic outside the people there would be a chance to attack 
the foreign element, but it is endemic in the people an inverted or perverted growth 
of some sort. In that case it may be related to the infinitely small, where it would remain 
for ever beyond research. No one knows. 

1054. For that reason there is extreme hesitancy and reserve by recognised authorities 
as to stating causes. A gynaecologist, not now in practice, criticised the conclusions 
of Bergeret in relation to cancer, whilst agreeing with the general deductions of my former 
volume and of the present. He was good enough to bring me Kelly's great works and 
those of other authorities upon the subject. I do not for a moment presume to do more, 
but claim to do no less, than faithfully report that which these authorities declare to be 



213 

most urgent for the public, and even for the young, to know. It is impossible to understand 
how the contemplation of either Nature's chastisements or man's misfortunes can subserve 
prurience. Current literature amply purveys for that, and licentious trash can be bought 
anywhere by the barrow-load. It is offered free by post and sent gratuitously "on an 
enormous scale " to women in child-bed. Cancer at least is beyond the bounds of 
ribaldry. 

1055. My friend, who feared nothing of that kind, was afraid that Bergeret's con- 
clusions as to the provocation of carcinoma and sarcoma might prejudice other, more 
positive and incontrovertible observations. After much reflection I could not venture 
upon such suppression, as being at the least presumptuous and unjustifiable. But, 
amongst the causes of grave uterine disorders described by Bergeret, I pointed out to 
the surgeon with all deference, that Kelly and the others include those named by Bergeret. 
" Ah, yes," said my friend, " but what about the proportion ? " That the authorities 
do not give, and I had no desire to rush in where they fear to tread. The whole subject 
may well exhaust anyone's temerity, be he lay or medical. The discussion would be 
upon the infrequency of cervical cancer in nulliparous women. But there is nothing to 
show that Bergeret's observations related to them, and besides, he deals with degenerations 
other than those of the cervix, which he and his colleagues then and since believe to have 
arisen from the same set of provocations. That is to say from conjugal frauds, including 
of course induced abortion. 

1056. So on page 625 (16th February, 1907) of the Journal of the American Medical 
Association, Dr. D. T. QUIGLEY states : 

I think it would have a wholesome effect on the minds of some of our female 
patients, if the fact became generally known to the laity that an abortion may 

result in cancer The most common place for cancer is the cervix (neck 

of the womb). Therefore, it must be the most susceptible to the causes which 
produce cancer. We know that irritation is an exciting cause of cancer. Why 
then irritate an uterus every day, or every few days, for a month or a year, with 
chemicals and foreign substances ? 

Bergeret proceeds : 

CANCER OF THE WOMB. 

1057. I now come to a cruel disease for which an operation, or death, is the implacable issue, and which, 
most frequently, only kills the woman after having made her endure the sharpest suffering. (LEBEBT, 
" Traite Pratique des Maladies Canoereuses "). 

When I pass my records in review, there is not a single one of the numerous cases of uterine cancer 
confided to my care which did not offer me, amongst its precedents, genital frauds. 

1 have seen women succumb thus, at a comparatively early age, at a time of life when it would 
appear that they ought to be free from this kind of degenerations. It was because unbridled frauds 
had fatigued the organs without measure and had prematurely used them up. 

1058. Observation XXXVJLI. Woman of twenty years, blonde, lymphatic, very delicate, and of soft 
fibre. 

Married at sixteen years to a dark, vigoroxis man with athletic strength, who was of libidinous 
character. It was a case of .ZEsop's earthen pot and iron pot. 

At 17 years of age, a baby. Then continual frauds At 23 years a second pregnancy, which 
greatly surprised the husband, because he had taken, as he thought, good precautions ... At 
five months an abortion, followed by metritis and abnormal uterine haemorrhage. The younp woman 
attributed openly all these accidents to her husband's immoderation. Septic leucorrhcea followed, 
the cervix uteri is slashed, tumefied and hard. 

Three months afterwards, persistence of pains which only give moments of truce when under 
the influence of strong doses of morphine ; alternations of flux with blood and of very foetid leucorrhcea. 
The neck expanded like a mushroom, quite deformed, largely gaping ; the body of the womb tumefied 
and very sensible to pressure. 

The malady made that rapid progress which has caused the name galloping to be given to certain 
forma of consumption. 

This galloping cancer killed the patient some months after the abortion. 



214 

1059. Observation XXXVJII. Woman of 32 years, handsome, and of vigorous constitution. Very 
lascivious. Husband vigorous, and she had relations with another man. Both defrauders. The 
woman died of galloping cancer. 

Observation XXXEX. Woman of 36 years, blonde, tender. Married at 17 years, three children 
in the early part, one after the other. Then frauds often repeated. Uterine cancer ; cervix uteri 
swollen like a mushroom ; intolerable pains in the loins ; death. 

Observation XL. Woman of 35 years, good constitution. Husband very vigorous although 
aged 56 years. She declared that her system was extremely fatigued by the fraudulent approaches 
of her husband, who wanted to avoid the expense of a family. . . At thirty-four she began to 
suffer in the womb. Six months after, her husband caused her intolerable pains. Finally she could 
no longer leave her bed and I was called in. I found a galloping ulcerated cancer which caused her 
death very shortly after. 

Her husband hastened to remarry with a woman fifty years of age who was forced to leave him. 
We shall see her story under the heading of indirect frauds. 

1060. Observation XII. Woman of 42 years, fine skin, tender constitution. Husband very con- 
cupiscent. 

Three children in the beginning of the marriage, then frauds during more than fifteen years. 

Scirrhous cancer of the body of the womb, occasioning abominable sufferings. She did not 
know what position to assume ; could not remain extended ; passed days and nights crouching or 
resting upon her elbows and knees. I have never seen a more lamentable situation. Whence came 
this excessive suffering ? In this woman's case the uterine cancer was especially characterised by 
hardness with cornincation of the organ. I think that the pains from this variety of scirrhous, which 
might be called atrophiant, because it withers the tissues whilst condensing them, must be far more 
poignant than those from fungoid or vegetant cancer. In the latter case the nervous filaments are 
more at ease than in the midst of flesh-formations whose fibres, hardened and tightened, strain the 
nerves in all parts. 

This unfortunate woman succumbed to the excess of her sufferings, which had moreover caused 
profound trouble to nutrition. 

1061. Observation XLH. Woman of 42 years. Scirrhous cancer of the womb and left ovary. In- 
sufferable agony along the course of the sciatic nerve. Continual haemorrhages. 

I have seen uterine cancer carry away, almost at the same moment, both mother and daughter. 

Observation XLin. The daughter had come to die in the hospital in order to be away from the 
husband, who still tormented her with his approaches in spite of ulcerated and poisonous cancer due 
to continual frauds. 

The mother, aged 53 years, took to her bed shortly after the death of her daughter. She had had 
six children when aged 18 up to 30 years. Then, regular and very frequent frauds. 

Fungoid cancer, almost indolent, of the neck of the womb ; but she suffered from continual 
haemorrhages which caused her to die of rapid exhaustion. 

1062. There is a very interesting analogy between the history of a case of cancer in 
the individual and the case of malignant disease in a nation, as France herself is afflicted. 
We see that cancer caused the accident that killed the woman. But something caused the 
cancer. No use to attempt to remove the phase, if we could. The thing indicated is to 
cut out the disease, but the disease itself is not recognised until far advanced. Then 
neither patient nor nation will submit. In either the sufferings may not be intolerable. 
They both die of exhaustion. 

1063. Observation XLIV. Woman of 42 years. Four children, then frauds during several years. 
Scirrhous cancer of the womb, fungosities of the neck which bleeds at the least movement : 

further disquieting haemorrhages caused by her husband. No severe pains, death by slow exhaustion. 

1064. Observation XLV. Tall and handsome woman with an admirable constitution. Three children ; 
the last twelve years ago. Then sterility by frauds. 

This woman had always enjoyed magnificent health until the invasion of her actual disease, 
which began with abundant haemorrhages. Very soon after came lively colics, metrorrhagias (bleedings 
of the womb). The pains occurred by crises with a frightful intensity. The uterus developed itself 
gradually until it acquired the size of an adult's head. Nothing at the neck of the womb which was 
effaced. At the beginning they flattered themselves with the thought that perhaps it was only a ( 
fibrous body, and the womb would finish by expelling it. One day, after such violent colics that she 
was obliged to lie down, she felt a fleshy object pass away, the size of a walnut : it was cancerous 
tissue. Her martyrdom lasted nearly a year before death came to release her. 

In the observations which precede we have seen that the malady was sometimes a great number 
of years before breaking out, after the sexual relations had ceased to be natural. This long immunity 
causes people to fall into a fatal illusion. They imagine that these fraudulent practices are harmless 



215 

and that they can deliver themselves up to their use with impunity. But in the course of time the organs 
are used up, their vitality is disturbed, their texture is altered, and the disease breaks out at a moment 
when long quietude had habituated the defrauders to live in security. 

But if the organs, still endowed with the force of resistance which proceeds from youth and 
mature age, can struggle for a considerable time against the causes of destruction, it is no longer the 
same with women who have arrived at the autumn of hie. In their cases these frauds, even in the 
instances where they are put in practice with moderation, may easily engender organic degeneracies. 

DISEASES OF THE OVARIES. 

1065. The important r&le that these organs fill in the functions of reproduction makes them fatally 
susceptible to the influences of fraudulent practices, which profoundly disturb their functions. In 
fact, just as ovarian diseases are rare with women who, in consequence of orderly sexual relations, mid 
themselves fecundated and become mothers, so on the other hand are these diseases frequent in the 
case of women whose organs are submitted to manoeuvres which frustrate the vow of nature. We see 
all sorts of ovarian diseases result from the practice, from acute inflammation up to the gravest degener- 
acies. (GALLA.KD, " Le9ons Cliniques sur les Maladies des Femmes." FLEETWOOD CnuBCHrLL, 
" Traite des Maladies des Femmes.'') 

Amongst the very numerous cases that I have observed. I shall choose those which offer special 
points deserving of attention. 

1066. Observation XLVI. Woman of 29 years. Married at twenty, she had a baby in the first year; 
then frauds often repeated. 

At twenty-five years, she experienced every month severe pains, and from year to year these 
sufferings became, gradually, atrocious colics. At twenty-eight I was consulted. I ordered a preg- 
nancy, but fecundation had become impossible. Upon examining the abdomen there was found a 
tumour, on each side, which could only belong to the ovaries. That in the left was already the size 
of a foetus at full term. This tumour greatly affected the circulation of the fseces. The patient had 
had at times symptoms of peritonitis which must have provoked the exudation of false membranes 
around the mass. The latter was enchained to its place by this pseudo-membranous gangue, and 
in proportion as it increased, instead of extending itself at the side of the abdomen, it flattened the rec- 
tum. Then insurmountable constipation, which caused intestinal colics of very violent character, 
accompanied by distension of the whole belly, as in cases of strangulated hernia. After several days 
of horrible sufferings, stercorous vomiting [the faecal matter passing through the mouth], wretched 
pulse, and the face of a dying woman. But there was formed a red fluctuating point at some distance 
from the spine in the anterior and superior iliac region. Very soon the abscess opened and the flood 
of delayed faecal matter, mixed with gas, escaped. The abdomen relaxed itself immediately ; very 
prompt relief ; return of appetite ; but the patient was so incommoded and so humiliated at being 
constantly bathed with her own evacuations that she no longer dared to eat. She allowed herself to 
die of hunger, and succumbed in marasmus at the end of some weeks. 

1067. Observation XLVII. Woman of 29 years. Ovarian cyst filling half of the belly. At the com- 
mencement, considerable uterine haemorrhage, intestinal circulation disturbed, violent colics, and, 
towards the end, signs of peritonitis, followed by death. 

Whilst attending her I received the confession that, from the age of 22 years, she had had a very 
ardent and fraudulent lover. 

Observation XLVDI. Woman of 34 years. Married at 25. Two children, early ; then frauds. 
At 32 years, the abdomen took on very quickly a great development. 1 ascertained the existence 
of encysted dropsy of the ovary. Very soon, necessity to puncture ; but the cyst filled again so 
rapidly that from month to month it had to be emptied. After the tenth puncturation, violent shudder, 
peritonitis, death. 

Observation XT-Ty. Woman of 37 years. Married eight years. Twins in the first year ; then 
sterility through frauds. 

Ovarian dropsy, numerous puncturations ; death in marasmus [wasting and exhaustion] at 40 
years. 

Observation L. A gay and licentious woman. At 22, a baby : afterwards, frequent sexual 
relations, always accompanied by fraudulent artifices. From 26 to 38 years atrocious monthly colics. 

At 40 years, an ovarian cyst as big as the head of a child of 18 months. After a very painful 
day's work, employed in washing linen, which had much fatigued the abdomen, this woman was seized 
with shivers ; severe pains in the tumour. High fever, necessity for abstracting some blood and for 
prolonged baths. After acute inflammation the resorption of the liquid contained in the cyst operated 
itself slowly, and at the end of three to four months the tumour was reduced to the volume of a hen's 

egg- 
Observation LI. Married woman of 54 years. In spite of her advanced age she submitted to 
frequent and fraudulent approaches. This brought on acute metro-ovaritis (inflammation of womb 
and ovaries) of very intense character, to which 1 saw her on the point of succumbing by the extension 
of the phlogosis (inflammation) to the peritoneal surface. 



216 

STERILITY. 

1068. We often see husbands and wives in the flower of their age commence their relations by frauds, 
several years consecutively, in order not to have the burden of a child* and enjoying as egotists the 
heyday of their youth, promising themselves to have, later, some progeny. But they leave out of account 
the metritis, the ovaritis (inflammation of womb and ovaries), which come eventually, sometimes very 
stealthily, and so profoundly to modify the organs of the woman that later conception is impossible. 
(Vide Roubaud, " Traite de 1' Impuissance et de la Sterilite," 3rd edition). 

1069. This state of nullity proceeds either from the fact of the successive loss of all the eggs, which 
abandon the ovary one after the other because of reiterated excitations .... or indeed by 
destruction of the ovaries themselves, which become inflamed, suppurate, or change themselves into 
encysted tumours which present on their surface cicatrices, more or less numerous, caused by the rup- 
ture of so many Graafian vesicles and their expulsion without fecundation. For it is a rare thing to 
find healthy organs with women who have abused themselves with these genesic frauds. 

1070. Observation IH. A sensual woman. Prom the age of 17 years fraudulent relations with a 
man whom she afterwards married at the age of 23 years. 

Sterility, although the cervix uteri was normal in form, Yolume and position. Three years 
before, very intense uterine catarrh accompanied by fever and lively pains in the lower abdomen. 
Attributable to fraudulent excesses [described by the author]. It is probable this inflammation 
of the uterine cavity, which by extending itself to the fallopian tubes caused the occlusion of the latter 
and sterility. 

Observation T,TTT, Handsome brunette of 24 years. Mother had a large family. 

Prom the commencement of the marriage very frequent relations, with frauds. Soon, extremely 
acute metritis (inflammation of the womb), complicated with peri-uterine hematocele [vide pa^s. 1042 
e. s.], and sufferings which made her scream. This woman kept her bed a long time. She remained 
sterile, although, later, the husband had ardently desired a child. 

Observation LIV. Woman of 28 years, very strong constitution. Her mother was very fertile. 

Married six months, she is sterile and very much afflicted at not having a child. She comes to 
consult me for pains which she feels continually hi the kidneys and thighs. For several years before 
her marriage, frequent and fraudulent relations, which were followed by abdominal sufferings so 
severe that she was often prevented from sleeping a great part of the night. 

1071. Observation LV. Madame . Married very young ; in the first year a male child, which 

was received with transports of joy. The husband vowed that thenceforward he would stop at that, 
and he remained faithful to his oath. He has been heard many times to ridicule good citizens who, 
being of patriarchal morals, did not recoil from the perspective of an indefinite line. This improvi- 
dent (!) defrauder was cruelly chastised for his absurd boasts and his vain calculations. His son 
was taken from him at 17 years of age by typhoid fever. 

He expected immediately to replace him, but his wife many times during her long artificial 
widowhood thus soiled by the continual frauds of her husband, had come to complain to me of severe 
suffering hi the uterus. They sought in vain a new fecundation. All aptitude for conception seemed 
to have vanished : sterility, despair. 

Nevertheless, after two years' employment of all sorts of means to favour fecundation, I met 
the husband one day with a beaming countenance ; his wife was enceinte. 

But his joy was of short duration. The uterine functions, reanimated for an instant, had not 
strength enough to undertake the pregnancy for long ; abortion at five months. 

Later, all resources failed as against an inert and sterile organism. 

ACCIDENTAL PREGNANCIES. 

1072. It happens sometimes that fraudulent subjects, in spite of the precautions that they have taken 
or thought they had taken to perfection, witness to their great surprise the wife become enceinte. I 
have seen husbands become jealous in the presence of an unexpected pregnancy, with which moreover 
they believed they had nothing to do, and then illtreat their wives and expel them from the conjugal 
domicile. 

I have seen in like manner abandonments of women not in wedlock, at the first signs of pregnancy 
and for the same reason. 

1073. The gynaecologist then supplies the causes in detail of a fact so well known to 
all adults that they will not here be given. 

It is not without reason that the religious law has severely proscribed the least privacies between 
the sexes. 

Dr. Bergeret cites from his case-books several instances of family distresses 
and tragedies. The pure story of Othello and Desdemona which he also alludes 
has counterparts every day amongst us, though of the ignoblest kind. 



217 

1074. Several cases are given illustrative of the misunderstandings, miseries, and crimes 
that ensue upon these accidental pregnancies. Amongst the persons to be commiserated 
are the unfortunate undesired children who are permitted to survive, and who, as accidents, 
are now so numerous in Anglo-Saxon countries. The further declension when the females 
amongst the latter become mothers, with their inherited qualities and disqualifications, 
cannot be estimated, but it is none the less sure for that. We pass therefore to 



LOCAL ACCIDENTS IN THE MAN. 

1075. These are frequent and miserable, whilst again many cases are supplied that do 
not seem suitable for the present purpose. 

The employment of frauds leads to premature impotence (vide ROUBAUD, " Traite de 1'Impuiss- 
ance et de la Sterilite"). I have seen men, still young, deplore bitterly the misfortune that they had 
brought upon themselves by squandering their youth and their virility in contraband pleasures. They 
submitted in vain to all sorts of treatments with the object of reanimating this vital fire that formerly 
had been too actively employed . . . And at the moment they were dreaming of the joy of a 
family, the happiness of paternity, they perceived that their genital power we.s exhausted. Their 
lives were poisoned by it and they fell into gloomy melancholy. 

IEEE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 

The nerves are profoundly affected by the practice of genesic frauds . . . 

1076. Observation LXHL A husband consulted me regarding his wife, whose limbs, hi consequence, 
failed her, and her whole body was in a state of langour which greatly disturbed her for her work. 

Observation LXIV. Another husband frequently consulted me about his wife, who was often 
affected, because of these matters, with violent attacks of nerves, especially by a state of syncope, 
of lethargy, which sometimes really terrified him. 

Observation LXV. A young man of excellent education and endowed with delicate sentiments, 
who had been induced to practice frauds, told me that in consequence of these fraudulent relations 
he felt confused and as if he had committed homicide. 

The super-excitation of the nervous system provoked by the employment of frauds may give rise 
to two frightful maladies, nymphomania and satyriasis. This kind of affection is very rare, fortunately. 
However, I have seen some cases which terminated in a deplorable manner. 

1077. Examples of these are given and they are of a nature truly appalling. Quite 
a literature has arisen, and fresh names have been invented for these much worse than 
bestial aberrations which place harmless human lives at the mercy of creatures thus 
demented by the monstrosities of Neo-Malthusianism. If the cases were made generally 
known, it might, indeed must, become a warning to those men and women who in the 
contemplation of marriage make bargains with one another to depart from the natural 
order by which alone society and the race can be maintained. KRAFFT-EBING'S terrible 
work, " Psycopathia Sexualis," written in German and Latin, deals particularly with those 
secondary abnormalities which are the unavoidable fruits of the primary abnormalities 
called Malthusianism sexual frauds. The book is intended for the use only of specialists 
in these half-bodily, half -mental diseases. Recent works upon pathology question whether 
the book just named does not do more harm than good. I mentioned that to the librarian 
of a great European medical institution, who replied : " Doctors come to me and ask fof 
works upon the subject, saying, ' I have in hand such a case, and what am I to do ? ' " 
No cases will here be given. But the statement of the ending of two or three may be 
salutary. 

Bergeret proceeds : 

1078. It was in vain that I made to these men [two separate cases] the most severe remonstrances ; 
they took no notice of them whatever. By a striking coincidence, both finished by being attacked 



218 

with epileptiform convulsions ; but these accidents did not stop them at all. On the contrary, in 
proportion as their brains were affected by the continuance of these shocks, the instincts of the brute 
took more and more the ascendant over them until they became worse than unbridled beasts. 

The elder of them sank into lunacy and died of an attack of general paralysis . . . 

Sometimes genesic frauds exhaust to such an extent the spinal marrow that it is in this part 
of the nervous system where are seen grave and painful accidents. But the evil practices that I am 
opposing act principally upon the nervous centres and produce the most painful neuroses. 

1079. Whilst dealing with the general accidents that occur to men by the undermining 
of their physical and mental health, Bergeret remarks (page 116) : 

How often I have seen women come to consult me about very troublesome nervous disorders 
because their Malthusian husbands did not take into account the puissant instinct of maternity which 
is developed in a great number of them. I used to order, as sole remedy, a pregnancy, and later I 
used to witness with satisfaction that my prescription had had complete success. Sometimes, women 
who regretfully submitted to the fraudulent manoeuvres of their husbands became neuropathic [dis- 
eased in the nerves] in consequence of the disgust with which these frauds inspired them. 

I have seen women possessing exquisite delicacy of sentiment whose health declined because 
of the painful impression that such procedure, coming from their husbands, had caused them. 

1080. Observation LXXIV. Woman of 25 years. She presented those fine traits, that expression of 
virginal candour, that one admires in the Madonnas of the Italian school. She cam* to consult me upon 
a state of suffering, of general neuropathy, of which she could not, she said, or rather dare not, tell 
me the cause. I guessed it, for she had been married three years, had no child, and I know that her 
family had made her marry in spite of herself a man of ignoble and bestial appearance, who was bound 
to have the instincts of a brute. [It should be remarked that this figure of speech, although sufficiently 
descriptive, is one of the most erroneous that we are accustomed to employ. No such instincts are 
observable in brutes. Only infamous departures from the normal, chiefly attributable to atrocious 
literature and pervert teachings, are thus indicated]. I interrogate her upon her relations with her 
husband ; she reddens, and pressed by my questions, she ends up by avowing that they are [Malthusian 
in short]. He, wounded at her delicacy, makes her suffer the more in consequence. I have never 
heard anything more heartrending than the recital of these turpitudes, as given by this sweet and 
beautiful creature that they had rendered so unhappy. 

1081. Observation LXXV. Pretty woman of thirty years. She was sacrificed like the woman men- 
tioned in the preceding observation, by covetous parents, to an old debauchee. Very soon her fresh- 
ness vanished, her beauty wilted. They thought her enceinte, but it was nothing of the sort. 

She came to consult me about neuropathic troubles with which her existence was tormented. 
Immediately that I touched upon the chapter of the husband, she burst into sobs. I perceived the 
cause. This man, whose abject figure I well knew, always reminded me every time that I met him, 
of those Roman medals representing the hard and brutal countenance of Otho or Vitellius. Veritable 
hog of an epicure, the man did not fear to profane this delicate nature by his marital authority, in mak- 
ing her endure such pollution without ever thinking of indemnifying her by any hope of the sweetness 
of maternity. 

On the eve of their marriage he had declared to her that he did not want to be importuned by 
the cries of a child. 

I used all my efforts to console her, and promised to address a severe lesson to her husband. 
The latter made the most beautiful promises, but he was a hypocrite : he did not keep them. A short 
time afterwards I was called to the help of this woman, who, suddenly, after having gone out one 
morning in her usual state of health, appeared to be in her agony. 

I found her in fact expiring. I was struck with the alteration presented by her lips ; the surface 
appeared to be burnt. I partly opened the mouth ; everywhere I saw traces of corrosive liquid. I 
felt her pulse at the wrist ; the fingers were clasped round a little bottle half filled with a slightly 
brownish liquid. I poured some upon a marble tile ; it effervesced. Whilst making this experiment 
the woman gave her last sigh. 

I went to the pharmacist and I learnt from him that two hours previously the woman had come 
to buy a phial of sulphuric acid for her husband, who, she said, wanted to use it to have a barrel 
cleansed. 

APOPLEXY. 

1082. In place of purely nervous troubles, fraudulent manoeuvres, in precipitating the movement of 
the heart, and violently launching the blood into the brain, may provoke apoplectic strokes. 

Observations LXXVI. and LXXVII. give details of cases of fatal apoplexy in 
men as the final scene in the midst of these Malthusian practices. 

I have seen a case perfectly analogous in which the victim, on that occasion the female, survived 
in a state of hemiplegia (half-paralysis) and without recovering consciousness for some days. 



219 
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM. 

1083. Observations LXXVIH. to LXXXHI. illustrate the troubles, whether slow, rapid, 
permanently injurious, or fatal, that attack the heart because of the employment of 
Malthusian manoeuvres to circumvent nature. 

Observation LXXXII. Young man of 24. Full of intelligence and hope for the future, of very 
ardent temperament . . . He experienced such palpitations, because of fraudulent proceedings, 
that I was called one day to see him in this state. He was pallid ; a cold sweat trickled over his face ; 
the pulse offered no more than a quivering, so disordered that it was impossible to seize a single pul- 
sation. I advised a discontinuance, but the couple had not the courage. The heart affection soon 
forced the young man to take to his bed, where his life dragged on for some time, and he finished by 
dying in orthopncea and anasarcha [fighting for breath, under the advance of general dropsy]. 

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. 

1084. Doctor Bergeret supplies the physiological reasons which cause the blood to 
surge to and from the heart towards the lungs and brain in both sexes, when he describes 
the facts and the consequences of frauds against nature. 

I have known delicate women who were seized with haemoptysis (lung-bleeding^ frequently, 
after fraudulent approaches which had strongly congested the lungs. Several found themselves 
necessitated to interrupt sexual relations, because a suffocation, followed by accesses of violent cough- 
ing, caused the blood to rush towards the chest. 

1085. Observation LXXXEX. Young and pretty woman aged 24 years. Married three years. No 
children. 

Called to see her, I found phthisis, passing from the first to the second degree. Seeing with what 
an admirable organisation nature had originally endowed her, I asked in the presence of her husband, 
why he had acted so that they should not have children. She kept silence, dropped her eyes, and 
I believe that I saw a tear glistening on her eyelid. The husband, a big burly man with a vulgar face 
and breathing only the lowest selfishness, hastened to speak first, flinging at me this ignoble reply : 
" Ah, monsieur, don't you know that children are only a nuisance in life ?" At these words the 
afflicted woman sobbed aloud ; emotion choked her, and a paroxysm of coughing brought blood 
in streams from her mouth. 

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. 

1086. The stomach is probably of all the organs that which has the closest sympathy with the generative 
apparatus. The vitality of the latter draws its aliment from good nutrition. It is not surprising 
that all the disorders, which frauds upon the organs of reproduction provoke, act upon the stomach 
by a painful reverberation. It is in such conditions that we see excruciating gastralgias (pains in 
the stomach) arise, and the most varied neuroses of the stomach. 

1087. Observation XCI. A married couple came to me, their faces pale and emaciated, complaining 
as follows : 

The wife had very painful gastralgia. 

The husband mentions all sorts of troubles, which, however, can be summed up in his case, by 
pronounced hypochondria. 

They both agree hi declaring that they lead a very wretched life. Both still young, the husband 
thirty and the wife twenty-six. Married about ten years, they had two children pretty promptly. 
Later they made use of fraudulent stratagems against Nature, and they used them inordinately. But 
there is one circumstance that I ought to point out, in order to show how physicians can be deceived 
by the lying answers of their clients, upon whose lips shame withholds painful avowals. 

At the first question relative to frauds that I addressed to the husband, the latter having replied 
without hesitation in the negative, and having defended himself in a rather lively manner against 
such a suspicion, the irritated wife threw in his face these two words : " You lie !" Then she declared 
that I had hit the nail on the head, and that she was aware for a long time that she was suffering 
in the stomach, principally after frauds. 

I ordered a pregnancy. Eight months after, I met this couple together. They were both in 
excellent health ; their physiognomy had completely changed, and the lady was stout under the 
influence of a pregnancy which was approaching its term. 

The physician ought to distrust very much assertions coming from the mouth of husbands. 
They are disposed to deny, because in the exercise of frauds they are usually the most culpable. 

The fatigue and the sufferings of the uterus so easily disturb the stomach, that I have seen -women 
with whom the least pressure upon the abdomen provoked nausea and efforts to vomit. 



220 

Sometimes there ia no need that the fraudulent approaches should be frequent in order to cause 
accidents BO troublesome that the persona are obliged to consult a doctor. 

1988. Observation XCII. Two young married people came to me to complain of various derangements 
of their health. 

Married about 18 months, no child. Husband only complaining of severe pains in the 
stomach. But the wife suffers from an abundant leucorrhcaa which enervates her, and from such heat 
in the abdomen " as if there were fire there." Troublesome digestion, and frequent vomitings after 
meals. What most of all makes this couple uneasy is the derangements of the stomach. They declare 
to me that why they have not had a child is because whilst using very moderately their marital rights, 
they did all they possibly could to avoid having one. I made them promise to reform upon this 
point, undertaking that when they should have a pregnancy, even when the wife would be in that 
state their digestion would be improved. 

In fact, the following year I saw them in fine health beside their baby's cot, and they both thanked 
me for the sound advice I had given them. 

The functions of the stomach being frequently perverted by genesic frauds, it results with subjects 
troubled by these accidents that the processes of nutrition languish, plumpness disappears and a dark 
circle forms around the eyes, which become hollow. The round shape of youth gives place to the 
leanness of premature old age. I have attended young women who had thus been withered before 
their time by defrauders. 

1089. Observation XCHI. A woman had led a dissolute life up to 41 years of age ; she was emaciated 
to the point when she was little else than skin and bone. At this age they omitted their frauds once 
by forgetfulness, and she became enceinte. Under the influence of pregnancy she recovered her 
freshness and plumpness. 

1090. Observation X01V. I gave my professional attention to two distinct cases, in each case a man 
who by fraudulent excesses had been reduced to a great state of exhaustion, although no single es- 
sential function was specially disturbed. It was the nutrition alone which suffered. They described 
a feeling of void in the thorax and all the body ; the ordinary secretions were defective ; such perspir- 
ation as was necessary to their health was suppressed. Each partook of food to excess to fill this 
void which had become so troublesome, and then after meals there was tension of the stomach which 
inspired in them the gloomiest ideas : they became melancholy and miserable. 

1091. What the gynaecologist classifies as Indirect Frauds will not be mentioned. 
The disastrous effects of the use of the English invention produced about Malthus' time, 
and certainly that which is most generally employed, are denounced in general and 
particular by Drs. BERGERET, GOTTRRIER (" L'Avenir du Mariage, ou 1'usage et Tabus 
dans 1'union des sexes," Paris, 1871, page 117) and by other physicians. 



1092. Fraudulent practices in the approach of the sexes often bring about grievous consequences to 
families. They cause the habit of and the taste for sensuality, and thus they lead to inconstancy, 
to infidelity and to adultery. 

CHAPTER I. SENSUALITY AND JEALOUSY OF THE HUSBAND. 

1093. The men become inclined to seek enjoyments heightened by the unforeseen, by strangeness, rather 
than the easy and natural pleasures which they may taste in the bosom of their family. In this way 
I have seen husbands who possessed wives full of attractions and endowed with great beauty, end by 
abandoning them to take up with low women, or go and wallow in the mire of infamy. 

1094. On the other hand, when a man sees a numerous family brought up around him, fruit of an honour- 
able commerce with the companion of his life, he is drawn towards serious ideas, thoughts of the future, 
which make him repel the seductions of sensuality. Legitimate children are a source of many satis- 
factions ; there is no enjoyment purer and more durable for the heart. Illegitimate children, on the 
contrary, more frequently become a source of trouble and embarrassment : for which reason frauds 
are always more common between lovers than between married folk. 

1095. Husbands who defraud are selfish, cowardly and idle men who do not mean to give themselves 
the trouble of bringing up several children. " so as to enjoy life," according to their expression. This 



221 

love of comfort, of material enjoyments, is often carried too far. The general wealth, the average 
well-being, have increased in an enormous proportion during half a century. Formerly men were 
extremely fortunate who by work and orderly life succeeded in providing the prime necessaries of 
existence. To-day whoever chooses to work and has the spirit of economy is sure to see his struggles 
rewarded. But, instead of being contented, the desires of man which rarely know any bounds, soon 
turn to superfluity as a necessary thing. To possess this superfluity, this luxury, these pleasures of 
vanity which he so much covets, he must not have too many children to bring up and then he sets 
to work with his frauds. 

But these abnormal approaches lead to incidents which commence to throw a profound pertur- 
bation between the couple. Although the husband is convinced that he has perfectly managed matters, 
his wife becomes enceinte and jealousy breaks out in all its fury. This result can arise in two seta of 
circumstances. [Described]. 

I have been the confidant of surprised husbands and of household storms of which these frauds, 
when followed by pregnancy, have been the source. 

1096. Frauds demoralise the conjugal union, arouse misunderstandings and discords which are also 
the commencement of separations and of acts in which medical jurisprudence ought to intervene. 
Thus I have seen couples separated upon the occasion of conception of which the husband declared 
it was impossible that he could have been the author, although I had the best reasons for believing 
that the wife was perfectly innocent. 

/ 
CHAPTER n. DEMORALISATION OF THE WOMAN. 

1097. One of the gravest troubles which result for the family from conjugal frauds is that they become 
for the woman a school of demoralisation. Most of the women that I have seen fall into adultery 
had defrauding husbands. Originally they had been thoroughly virtuous persons. But their hus- 
bands, having had the imprudence to teach them the refinements of Malthusian lubricity, having had 
the still greater lack of perception, after having pressed these pleasures to the point of satiety, to chase 
after adventures so as to vary their pleasures these women whose senses had been thus perverted, 
whose self-respect had been profoundly wounded, ended by putting into practice in their turn and 
with other men the lessons they had received from their husbands. 

1098. Observation CXXII. is probably a case of every-day shame and sorrow, that 
of an erring wife whose husband, of otherwise " irreproachable conduct," had taught 
her the use of frauds against her own nature. She falls in for a revolting physical 
punishment, also only too fearfully common, and was treated by the celebrated practitioner. 

She had had two children in the early part of the marriage. She avowed that her husband 
defrauded, and she added these words, which struck me greatly ; " Oh ! Monsieur Bergeret, if he had 
never used those things and had given me a child every two or three years, the children would have 
occupied me and I should never have gone astray !" 

1099. I have observed several analogous cases, and proved that nothing disgusts a woman more with 
her husband, nothing is more calculated to drive her to adultery than the illstarred disposition of a 
defrauding man who satisfies his in some sort animal inclinations, without troubling himself as to 
what is experienced by a woman whose nervous system is much more easily shaken, or by a creature 
with delicate feelings whose nature revolts in the presence of such proceedings. 

1100. Observation CXXUI. Young woman of 24 years. 

Her countenance beamed with candour and good principles. She came to complain to me of 
cruel neuralgia in the head, of gastralgia, of a state of languor which is very distressing. Her air of 
profound sadness makes me suspect that moral causes must have contributed to the derangement 
of her health. I press her with questions. She tells me that she has a child three years old and 
finishes by avowing that her husband uses frauds so as not to have any more. " These frauds disgust 
me !" she said ; " I feel that if I had another child my existence would be filled by it." Since the first 
no longer demands the constant cares of early life and that it could easily make room for another 
hi her arms, she says that she feels a sentiment which she hardly dares to avow, which is that her 
child annoys her. So she showed great delight when I announced to her that I was going to order 
her husband to put a stop to his frauds. She thanked me with effusion. 

Nothing is more worthy the close attention of parents when they want their daughters to marry, 
than the moral dispositions of the men to whom they must abandon them. If a young and candid 
maiden, with delicate feelings, is delivered over to one of these men whose brutal instincts predominate 
over moral considerations, then their daughter is lost. 

1101. Observation CXXV. A man of 40 years became possessed of a young woman of 22, whom he 
married. His character was vile. Desiring to avoid children, they used for several years Malthusian 
frauds. Then they decided to have children. The wife became enceinte, but the fatigued organs 
could only carry to the sixth month. The young wife experienced a bitter disappointment, a burning 



222 

regret. I consoled her by repeating that the evil -was reparable. But she did not conceive again 
afterwards, and then her fury against the husband knew no bounds. One day this husband fell 
seriously ill and had me called in. Upon seeing me go up to him his wife cried out " Doctor, you 
are too good to bother about him. You let him die, the filthy brute ! " 

I have already cited a fact which demonstrates that the frauds exercised by the husband (Obs. 
CXXIL), are a school of demoralisation for the wife. 



CHAPTER m. DEGENERACY OF THE CHILDREN. 

1102. The children which happen along when by chance there is fecundation amongst married de- 
frauders, also present a sad state from the point of view of the physical and intellectual faculties. 

They are born predisposed to rachitic and scrofulous diatheses (LEBERT, Traitd Pratique des 
Maladies Scrofuleuses). They exhibit a debility of body, a feebleness of constitution, which offer 
less resistance to the numerous causes of destruction at the lesser ages ( BOUCHTJT, Hygiene de la Premiere 
Enfance, 8e edition, Paris, 1885. Traite Pratique des Maladies des Nouveaux-nes, 8th edition, Paris, 
1885). They do not succeed in attaining the normal height ; they are sometimes cretins or idiots 
(vide Vol. I., par. 1064) (SEQUIN, Traitement Moral, Hygiene et Education des Idiots : et autres 
enfante arrieres ou retardes dans leur developpement). 

1103 . " Experience proves," says Dr. DBVAY (Hygiene des Families), " that the end of procreation 
is often attained in spite of the ill-will and the criminal efforts of the husband. Who knows whether 
children, so often feeble and pitiful, are not the fruit of incomplete and abnormal acts where Nature, 
outraged and more or less frustrated, appears to become unable to form perfect beings : and who 
knows, further, if thus momentarily deprived of her plastic and creative force, Nature does not some- 
times produce anomalies and monstrosities in default ? " (DEBREYNE, Essai sur la Theologie Morale, 
consideree dans ses rapports avec la physiologic et la medecine, 2e edition, p. 101. See also ISIDORE 
GEOFFROY SAINT- HILAIRE, Histoire des Anomalies de 1'organisation chez 1'homme, comprenant les 
lois et les causes des Monstruosites. Also L. GUINARD, Precis de Teratologie, Paris, 1893.) 

1104. Finally, the augmentation on a rising scale of births of the feminine sex demonstrates for its cause 
the relative feebleness of the father, which is too often due to the habit of frauds. 



CHAPTER IV. EXTINCTION OF FAMILIES. 

1105. " The extinction of a family," says Tourdes, " is often the fatal consequence of the limitation 
of the number of the children. A family which propagates itself by one or two scions has little chance 
of duration. It only requires a very few generations to meet the fatal chance of death or of sterility." 

1106. Nothing is more sad than the interior of a household without children, above all where they 
have come in the first period of the marriage, and death has snatched them away afterwards ; and when, 
after the loss of these children, a long practice of frauds has rendered the organs of the wife incapable 
of new conceptions, remorse joins itself to sorrow, and the position of the couple becomes frightful. 
Legouve says : 

Dieu fit dans sa bonte, touche de nos miseres, 
Le rire des enfants pour les larmes des meres. 
[Touched by our griefs, God in His goodness gave 
A baby's smile, the mother's tears to save.] 

1 107. Observation CXXVII. A married couple had an only son, 19 years old. A severe fever snatched 
him from them. The husband had agreed to this child only by calculation, in order that he might 
be as rich as the father. He had then had recourse to fraudulent Malthusian marital approaches, 
in spite of the protestations of his wife, who ardently desired to have more children. Their only 
child dead, they ceased the frauds for the time and hoped to procreate another. But in vain. 

Then this desperate mother lost her head. She spends her life in flinging in the face of her hus- 
band the most scalding reproaches. 

" You are a monster," she says to him every day, " you did not want many children ; you used 
to say you hadn't the means to feed and bring them up, whilst you fed and brought up horses and dogs. 
It's all right ! God has punished you 1 " 

1108. Observation CXXVEL A married couple, who had, soon after their marriage, two beautiful 
children, boy and girl. The parents stopped at that and used frauds. 

These children grew up and became magnificent ; the parents used to point them out with pride. 
The eldest was fifteen years old when scarlet fever came and killed them both in the same week. The 
father followed soon after, carried off by pneumonia. 

I have never beheld such grief as that of the mother thus left alone in the world. Ten years 
after the death of her children, when I met this heart-broken Rachel I saw a stream of tears rush from 



223 

her eyes. Vox in Rama audita est ; ploratus et ululatus multus : Racnel plorans suos filios, et uoluit 
consolari, quia non sunt. 

FA voice is heard in Rama, 

Weeping and bitter wailing, 

Rachel mourning for her children, 

And will not be consoled. 

Because they are no more.] 

1109. I am well aware that anecdotes of actual every-day life, such as these by a 
venerated man, can make but little appeal to or impression upon the average English 
Malthusian man or woman. Each can say with truth, it is not my case, and concludes that 
all is well. It is a mere matter for jest and jibe, and as they must be numbered by millions 
with daily accessions, there is the comforting thought, " Others do it, why shouldn't I ? " 
Bergeret, indeed, turned a few aside from selfish fraud against their family, Nature and 
the nation ; the Divine Intelligence does not come into the account at all and need not 
be mentioned. Here and there may be found a medical man whose advice has rescued an 
individual that had been led into the slough of fraudulent sexuality. It must indeed be 
rare. When a whole race has adopted in its literature, its commerce, and even in political 
parties, the idea and the practice of child-prevention ; when the manufacture, advertising, 
and open sale of a series of articles for the sole purpose of prevention of conception, is 
permitted by administrations and popularised, then that race is, to use Mr. THEODOBE 
ROOSEVELT'S words, not only " rotten to its innermost core," but it has chosen its own 
road to destruction and is already far down the slope. 

1110. It cannot be too often repeated that though there be little or no hope in that 
direction, where people voluntarily place themselves under the rapidly advancing cloud 
of extinction, there is full daylight and unbounded hope in the other. That hope rests 
solely upon the perpetuation of moral principles exactly as of old, upon the inculcation 
of inflexible duty, of the " categorical imperative " from an absolute Authority, outside 
of and inside of ourselves. 

1111. " The great deciding events of history are not brought about by debates in par- 
liament and parliamentary majorities but by iron and blood." So it has been in the 
past, right up to the present, and so it must be in the future. The actual battles of the 
far past, those of recent years, and the potentiality for battle now, settle the positions 
of the nations to-day. The race is to the swift, the battle to the strong, and Providence 
is on the side of the big battalions. We have all history for a guide, although there is 
endless argument on the other side and even argument has its reward history shows 
that the enfeebled, senile and decadent peoples succumbed to the fierce and clean and 
strong. The obliterated nations that provided us with a flood of argumentative literature, 
much of it old-Malthusian, are the two usually quoted Greece and Rome as examples 
of decay. The families who shall survive the present period of sweeping artificial 
selection, the forms of faith which alone can preserve them, will have proved their right 
to existence and are sure of their " place in the sunshine." 



FOURTH PART. 
DANGERS AND TROUBLES FOR SOCIETY. 

Genesic Frauds are injurious to society in two ways : They are a cause of demoralisation ; they 
effect a notable diminution in the increase of population. 

Chapter I. DEMORALISATION. Fraudulent practices greatly favour libertinage. 

1112. A man who would not seduce a woman upon the condition of having regular relations with her 
Busceptible of involving all the embarrassment of a pregnancy, will not hesitate, if he is a clever de- 
frauder, to complete with this woman her seduction up to the last consequences, short only of 



224 

fecundation. The practice of these frauds, therefore, is one of the greatest inducements to debauchery. 
Hence the presentation of the evils that they engender should tend to remove them and to favour 
legitimate and regular relations : it is a great lesson of moral and social hygiene. 

1113. In fact, respect for woman is one of the characteristic signs of the moral grandeur of societies. 
With primitive people the woman is most often the slave of man, the toy of his passions and his caprices. 
The more civilisation augments, the more we see the social condition of woman improve. Those 
nations with whom she is a sort of cult are those where moral ideas have made the most progress. 

1114. Is it to respect woman, to make of her the instrument of base lust ? The practice of frauds is 
demoralising by the facility that it gives to people to give themselves up to inconstancy, and even 
to keep several mistresses at a time. I have cited (Observation LXX.) the example of a rich man 
who had four or five mistresses at the same time. If he had had children by the first, perhaps the 
preoccupations which would have resulted would have turned him aside from seducing other victims ; 
in any case it is pretty nearly certain that he would not have wanted children from four or five women 
at a time, and consequently he would have stopped at the first, or even the second, in place of flying 
from conquest to conquest in order to satisfy the attraction of curiosity, or rather, of vanity. Personal 
vanity, said J. J. ROUSSEAU, makes more victims than love. [Observation LXX. is not quoted 
herein. The man was a personal acquaintance, perhaps a relative of Bergeret]. 

1115. The practice of frauds deeply demoralises by spreading the taste and habit for sensual pleasures. 
The commerce of the sexes becomes nothing more than the satisfaction of concupiscence or of obscene 
lubricity, instead of that union to which nature points by the attraction of pleasure, and which ought 
to have pregnancy for its consequence. That is to say, a situation capable of awakening in the soul 
the sweetest and the most serious preoccupations. 

1116. The practice of frauds makes the woman acquire habits of voluptuousness which lead her to 
adultery ; and, again, how could a husband be disposed to respect a lascivious woman ? Women 
who become so, lose in the eyes of their spouses that moral prestige, that aureola of modesty, which 
so adorns them. The girl that a seducer teaches to be lascivious by the habitual practice of frauds 
is easily led to further misconduct, to prostitution, to infamy. What a number of young girls and 
young wives I have seen dishonour their family, and spread trouble in society, because practised 
seducers, habitual defrauders, had given them the first lessons in sensuality ! 

1117. The evils that are engendered by the vice that I am thus combating have already struck other 
minds than my own. Some of them have been even too deeply impressed and have exaggerated the 
consequences ; some pessimistic writers, some austere moralists, have claimed that genesic frauds 
are leading our society to the abyss. They voluntarily utter the cry of the poet who was witness of 
the decadence of Rome : 

Saevior anuis 

Luxuria incubuit victumque ulciscitur orbem. 
[Crueller than armed men, the nightmare luxury chastises a conquered world.] 

The poet was JUVENAL. (Vide 1761). 

1118. It is to be borne in mind that when Bergeret wrote his book, the birthrate of 
France was the same as that of England or of the United Kingdom to-day. The rate 
of decline was much slower in France than that of our race now, and therefore he justified 
himself, as he thought, with some hope of recovery for his beloved country. But his 
voice, and that of the little forlorn band of patriots who have never ceased to warn their 
fellow-citizens of the nation's sure and easy slide to the abyss, have passed wholly unheeded. 
The keen eyes of BERTILLON the elder, BERGERET, ARSENE DUMONT and BUDEN are closed 
in death. Their duty was nobly done, although they could not arrest the dissolution 
of a mighty nation which now proceeds with hastening pace and lessening numbers to 
the inevitable catastrophe. 

Chapter H. CESSATION OF INCREASE IN THE POPULATION. 

1119. If, as MONTESQUIEU has said, and with him so many other publicists, the power of a nation 
depends, in great measure, upon the number of sound men that it can at any given moment range in 
battle, we understand the calamitous influence that frauds are bound to exert upon the prosperity of 
states. In fact, how many germs are smothered at the moment when they were about to become 
fertile ? Genital frauds, looked at from this point of view, are seen to be a plague to society, since 
they limit fecundity without imposing a rein to sexual ardour. 

1120. I know that there are other philosophers, with serene thoughts, who, soothing their imagination 
with a happy optimism, claim that the golden age is near at hand when human butcheries, as they 
call battles, will promptly disappear before the breath of civilisation. But this lovely dream of 
universal and permanent peace will remain a very long time yet in a state of Utopia, if indeed it ever 
be called upon to realise itself. 



225 

1121. Every fraud is an indirect infanticide, a germ smothered and rendered unproductive. De- 
frauders are more culpable than those who corner the grain- market, those abominable speculators 
that have been accused in times of famine, of destroying by fire provisions in the shape of wheat and 
of hay, in order to raise the price of these staples which they accumulate in their own dep&te. 

1 122. Is it not a disgrace to our modern civilisation to see the increase of population no longer follow 
the same progression as in the past, marriages less fecund, large families becoming more and more 
rare, whilst general comfort makes such rapid progress ? 

1123. This rarefaction in the product of sexual unions is the consequence of monstrous calculations. 
It is a painful fact to find, but we cannot refuse to recognise it ; the evil sometimes comes from the 
excess of wealth. The man who has attained to comfort dreams of riches, of opulence, if not for 
himself then for his successor, to whom out of vanity he wants to leave a fine fortune. As long as 
he is poor, he fears less to have many children, in the hope that they will become his support in his 
old age. 

1124. Bergeret then suggests, not very directly, some few methods, or rather means, 
of raising the natality. He dismisses the civil law and economic laws as having little to 
do with the question. 

1125. RELIGIOUS LAW. It must be said very emphatically, to the credit of the religious law, 
that the Catholic Church has always severely proscribed conjugal frauds. A father of the Church, 
St. JEROME, said with much truth, " There is nothing more shameful for a man than to treat his wife 
as an adulteress." We recall the circular addressed by the ARCHBISHOP OK LYONS, towards 1860, 
to the faithful of his diocese, reproaching husbands for frustrating Nature. (Par. 377). 

1126. But it is impossible to disguise the fact that in the times in which we are living, the religious 
spirit has lost its prestige ; the voice which comes from the evangelic chair is less listened to. Truly 
it is a case of calling out "Quid leges, sine moribus, vanae proficiuntP " [What profit is there in 
laws, empty as they are without morals?]. 

Moreover, the precepts of hygiene are always in perfect harmony with those of religion. Is 
it not a physician who wrote these words : Caste vivat, qui se sanum cupit ? [Who will be healthy, 
let him live chastely.] 

1127. Make known to all at what price is obtained the voluntary limitation of fecundity. That is the 
surest means to arrest the progress of the evil. It is imperative that the population should know all 
the troubles that are provoked by genesic frauds. 

I only see two ways which could lead to this result instruction by the press and by the schools 
of medicine. I cannot see that, up to the present, the newspapers, nor the serials, nor general or 
special treatises, have sufficiently insisted upon the question that I have just raised. If I revert to 
my college recollections, I cannot recall that any one of my masters even spoke seriously before me 
of genital frauds. Is it any better to-day ? I think I have every right to doubt it, because young 
doctors do not appear to me to be penetrated with the gravity of such a subject. 

1128. Instruction in the colleges presents, then, in regard to genital frauds, a very regrettable gap 
and one which it is important to fill up. I should like to see that, in the future, young physicians 
who are commencing their career should be penetrated by the facts that I have just exposed, and that 
they should comprehend all their importance ; that their minds should be armed in advance against 
all the dangers which result from artifices put in use to deceive nature in the satisfaction of the 
generative instincts. I wish that they were thoroughly convinced of the necessity of often proclaiming 
that a man cannot violate with impunity this law of Nature, this grand law which presides over the 
propagation of the species, and that the rule to follow, in the exercise of the generative functions, must 
be the application of the Biblical precept, crescite et multiplicamini. [Increase and multiply]. 

I wish that they were put in the way to form professional experiences upon these grave questions 
for themselves, and that, thrown all at once into the midst of families at the very beginning of their 
career, they were forewarned of all the complications, of all the miseries, against which it will be part 
of their duty to struggle in the interest of the families and of society. They will not lack opportunities 
often to apply the rules thus derived, in the advice which they wUl have to trace out for their clients. 

Instruction hi colleges, by penetrating into the young generations whence the medical corps 
recruits itself, possesses above all a powerful means of disseminating beneficent ideas. 



Note. THE PHYSICIAN'S PREROGATIVE. 

Charles H. Lewis says that physics is the synonym of natural philosophy, and that, by the 
derivation of his name, the physician is a natural philosopher, or scientist ; but by the title of doctor 
he is also a teacher, and in his dual capacity the administering of remedies falls far short of measuring 
the field of his activities. His advice and counsel are often the most needed and most useful part 
of his service, and it is his duty to dispense knowledge as well as medicine. " Journal of the Michigan 
State Medical Society." 



226 

AUTHORITATIVE CONDEMNATION. 

PRACTICE OF GYN^COLOGY. W. E. ASHTON, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of 
Gynaecology, Philadelphia. Page 142. 

1129. Women often suffer both locally and in general health from unnatural 
interference with sexual intercourse. The most frequent excuse for the disturbance 
of normal relations is the prevention of pregnancy, a practice which is unfortunately 
but too common at the present day. The sexual act must be complete, and any 
interference with the normal function by the use of ... [the act of Onan], of injec- 
tions, or other means to prevent conception, causes congestion of the pelvic organs 
which eventually leads to functional and organic disease. Sexual excess exhausts the 
nervous system, in time produces chronic congestion of the uterus and its appendages, 
resulting in endometritis, menorrhagia and other forms of pelvic disease. 
[Inflammation of the lining membrane of, and a form of bleeding from, the womb]. 

" British Medical Journal," April 9th, 1904, page 865. 

1130. A practitioner writes : 

In my opinion the diminishing birth-rate is due in a very large measure to the 
unblushing, wholesale, and systematic practice of procuring abortion. 

The following cases occurring in my practice during the short period of two 
months will bear out my statement : 

He narrates four cases, very ordinary samples, to judge by the mass of narratives 
of the kind. 

These cases are either of sufferings from bleeding of the womb (metrorrhagia) 
through taking usual drugs as advertised in our newspapers, or they are demands to procure 
abortion because of inconvenience. 

Such cases speak for themselves. They are not accounted for by the " higher 
civilisation," " excessive muscular exercise," or the many other theories of a 
diminishing birth-rate. The whole thing is explained in two words, viz : criminal 
abortion. 

1131. In discussing the question, the Editor concludes an article (May 21st, 1904, 
page 1210) thus : 

We think there is overwhelming evidence showing that the cause seriously 
contributing to produce the decrease in the English birth-rate is the use of artificial 
means of restricting the size of families ; a line of conduct which there is every 
reason to regard as degrading to those who practise them, injurious both mentally 
and physically, and contrary to the highest interests and the moral standards of 
the community. 



RACE CULTURE OR RACE SUICIDE : A PLEA FOR THE UNBORN. 
ROBHBT R. RENTOUL, M.D., F.R.C.S. The Walter Scott Publishing Co., London, 1906. 

HOW OUR NATION "TAKES TOLL OF BLOOD," 

Page 106 

1132. It is strange that the British public are so willing to allow their daily press to 
be used as a medium for the advertising of drugs and other nostrums which kill 
their children, make many women invalids, and so poison the children in the womb 
that they show the detrimental effects of these drugs in after life not only in their 
physical, but in their mental condition. [Figures given of sale and revenue]. 
The " Chemist and Druggist " says that the people of the United Kingdom yearly 
consume 178 tons of pills, or 5,600,000, many guaranteed to " remove all female 



227 

obstructions." It is rather humiliating to know that Great Britain is the only 
European nation which makes a profit by the sale of " patent " medicines ; even 
Ireland is not degraded by this tax. 

1133. It may be thought by the ignorant that the Act to suppress indecent advertise- 
ments (July 24th, 1889) might meet the question of advertising abortion and similar 
nostrums. It does not do so, in fact, it has been drafted so as to avoid expressly 
this advertising. For many years the medical profession has demanded legislation, 
but evidently the powers that be are too strong inside and outside parliament to 
encourage us to hope for any purer state of affairs. 

1134. The question of the fall of the birth-rate in this country is now receiving 
close attention. In 1904 Dr. John W. Taylor, of Birmingham, with rare courage 
called attention to this subject, while more lately Drs. Newsholme and Stevenson 
(1906), have brought the subject before the Royal Statistical Society. Medical 
opinion is beginning to agree that abortion and miscarriage lead to cancer of the 
womb and neighbouring parts, as frequently those portions of the conception left 
behind in the womb undergo a retrograde or degenerative change. It is also true 
that a large percentage of sterile women voluntary and artificial suffer from 
fibroid tumours of the womb. There is no good to be gained in asserting that it 
is right to cheat, and especially to cheat Nature. 



PROGRESSIVE DEGENERATION. 

THE LANCET, p. 798. 10th September, 1904. 
HEALTH OF WARWICKSHIRE. Decrease in the Birth-Rate. 

1135. Reporting on same, PROFESSOR A. BOSTOCK HILL, county medical officer ot 

health, calls particular attention to the diminution in the birth-rate. " The human 
element is the main factor of power, and no increase of wealth can compensate a 
nation for the loss of virile citizens, on whom the ultimate safety of the country 
must depend." 

He views with serious apprehension the constant decrease in the birth-rate 
throughout the country, and calls particular attention to the fact that if the pro- 
duction of healthy children is to be checked as it has been of late years we must 
expect a progressive moral and physical degeneration. Borough of Aston birth-rate 
dropped from 44 in 1874 to 28.7 in 1903. DR. F. H. MAY, medical officer of health 
of the borough, attributes this highly unsatisfactory state of affairs to the " lessened 
number of marriages and the effect of education in fostering an inclination in many 
to restrict their families." 



INDEX TO THE MORALS OF A NATION. 

The Intention of the Creator. 

MEDICAL GYNAECOLOGY. HOWARD A. KELLY, M.D., Ph D., F.R.C.S., 
Professor of Gynaecology, John Hopkins University. Appletons, 1908. 

Page 329. STERILITY, National Importance : 

1136. The question of sterility is a problem of the highest national importance, for 
upon the fertility of the dual units (husband and wife) which go to make up the 



228 

body politic, depends the healthy national life. All wealth, all that is best in art 
and science, all precious stores of tradition, may become worse than useless, a mere 
mockery of what might have been, if accompanied by a progressive sterility. (Here 
he quotes DR. HUNSBEBGEB'S address, given in full 1365 e.s.). The intention 
of the Creator expressed in the primal command coupled with the first blessing 
(Genesis i.. 28) is rendered nugatory by sterility. Fertility is the natural outcome 
of right, clean, living. Such a condition as a congenital, unavoidable sterility in 
either sex is rare ; a vast amount of that decadence which constitutes a national 
problem is of the avoidable kind, and such sterility is almost without exception 
volitional ; that is to say, dependent upon illicit sexual relations. 

1137. In this way the percentage of sterility is an index to the morals of a nation. 
If the birth-rate sinks below the death-rate of a community, immorality and vice 
of all sorts prevail, and, looked at from this standpoint, it will at once be seen that 
the treatment of sterility, when the disease is marked enough to affect national 
statistics, is a deep and difficult, if not a hopeless problem. 

Here he makes reference to Drs. Newsholme and Stevenson, already quoted 
more than once in my first Volume, and herein. 

1138. The increasing practice of artificial prevention must mean a lower moral stan- 
dard, because the increasing fertility in such poor countries as Ireland and Norway 
hardly accords with the attempts to explain sterility on economic grounds. 

Dr. Kelly proceeds to state the case in statistical form, as affording the strongest 
exposition, quoting Dr. Bertillon's and Dr. Tatham's tables. Those are to be found 
herein, quoted directly in much more illustrative and complete form. 

1139. Dr. Kelly is recognised as a high authority in his department of the profession, 
that division of it which is most concerned with the present subject. When, therefore, 
such an earnest and acute observer writing soberly as an authority, in a text-book for 
surgeons, with the whole inevitable light of professional criticism thrown upon his declara- 
tions pronounces that the disease of wilful sterility is all but a hopeless problem, even 
statesmen may stop and reflect. 

1140. In their writings the works of healers tendency is a word with a very real 
meaning, and not as used by Malthus and the Economists. A tendency would not be 
admitted unless the ascribed effects were seen, and often seen. Physicians declare to an 
increasing tendency to wilful sterility and to avoidance of maternal duties, more particu- 
larly that of suckling infants. Such a tendency means racial elimination. It is the 
" slow wasting disease " spoken of by Bertillon that has carried off many nations, and 
which has so greatly advanced towards our own extinction. Only it is anything but 
slow. 

1141. Dr. Kelly suggests no cure, for he well knows that no cure is possible or necessary. 
It is a matter of morals, private and national. It is a matter of choice as to whom we 
shall serve, or what we shall sow. There is occasion for regret that space, and the patience 
of the reader, cannot suffice to set forth more at length the noble view-point and the lofty 
teaching that he offers to his willing colleagues. Truly there is a great and impassable 
gulf fixed between his doctrine and that of our Political Economists. 



THE REGULATION OF PROSTITUTION. 

HOWABD A. KELLY, M.D., Baltimore. 
(Quoted in part from the " Journal of the A.M.A.," February 10th, 1906, page 397). 

1142. The only system as yet tried in this country is, as I have elsewhere said, that of utter indifference. 
As might have been anticipated, this has proved a disastrous failure, and we are in consequence called 
on to face the renewed efforts now being made to introduce another and even worse system, namely, 



229 

that of regulation, which has so conspicuously failed elsewhere. It is saddening and disheartening to reflect 
that it is almost 2,000 years since we heard the fundamental declaration that " by the law is the knowledge 
of sin," while we stand here, in the midst of our boasted civilization, actually proposing that by the law 
sin shall be made safe and easy, corrupting the very standards of righteousness and justice at their 
fountain heads, and placing the burden of proof that immorality is sin on him who would uphold right 
and purity. 

1143. If then experience at home has shown that indifference is a failure, and experience abroad has 
proved that regulation is no more successful, is there any remedy for this evil in our midst, and if so, 
what is it ? A remedy there is, but it is not an easy remedy. It is of a drastic nature and acts on 
the whole system in order to purge this sore, cleansing the body of many noxious humours and sending 
good sound blood to the spot. This remedy is a sense of personal responsibility, which manifests 
itself under the form of an active, aggressive interest in this as well as in all other forms of right doing, 
by carrying on an unremitting personal campaign against them, wherever and under whatever guise 
they may be found. A high standard of morals must be maintained in every avenue of life, for nothing 
is more certain than that this impurity cannot be removed, or even lessened, while the business and 
social life of the community remain corrupt in a thousand different ways. 

1144. Now simply to state that we need a higher standard of morals is but expres- 
sing the fact of the disease in different terms, and conveys no power of reform. 
We do not need knowledge as some of us imagine ; we need some transforming, 
regenerating power from without to enable us to accomplish that which our 
corrupt tendencies continually hinder. For this reason my own hope lies solely 
in God and prevailing upon men to look to Him for grace and strength to 
do that which they can not of themselves accomplish. Such a definite, real, 
personal approach to God is offered to us by our Christian faith, and where 
the faith is real it confers this power. " Sin shall not have dominion over you." 
But while it is eminently proper to point to this, hi my belief, the one true 
remedy, the present is not the place for a full discussion of this subject. 

1145. If you tell me that the course I suggest is an impossibility, I answer, neither 
is there any balm in Gilead for this wound. But if it can not be remedied, 
at least do not let us debauch public morals by making the very laws of the land 
panderers to vice ; because our feet are in the mire is no reason why we should 
wade in waist deep. 

1146. Before leaving this subject of regulation, I wish to present the translation of an important article 
which details the experience of an enthusiast for regulation, who carefully observed and studied the 
methods in vogue in Brussels and in Paris, and then had an opportunity of testing them while in an 
official position of his own at The Hague I refer to Professor J. L. CHANJLEUKY VAN IJSSELSTEIN. I 
consider his testimony the more valuable because he was at the outset, as I have said, an ardent 
advocate of regulation, and entered on his career with enthusiasm, yet he speaks here, after some years' 
experience as a converted sceptic. 

If regulation, tested under such favourable circumstances, has failed in a country where law is, 
in some degree at least, respected, how can a like plan succeed in a country like ours, where the very 
term legislator has become a byword for corruption ; where laws are made to be evaded and set aside 
by expensive processes, quibbling,and disheartening delays, and where every man does that which is 
right in his own eyes. 

I quote Professor van Ijsselstein, therefore, hoping that his experience may prove " a word 
to the wise." 

1147. He then supplies Prof. Ijsselstein's statement in full, which is unsuitable for 
reprinting here, but invaluable with such an endorsement to those who have the power 
to make laws. When we have the authoritative declarations that one-half the total 
number of young men in Anglo-Saxondom suffer, or have suffered, from venereal disease, 
we laymen who are not entitled to opinions in default of the opportunities of observation, 
have occasion for thought. National declension does not mean lessening of prostitution, 
nor freedom from loathsome disease and its consequences. Restriction of births, unnatural 
interferences, " monogamic prostitution " (par. 377) was preached by John Stuart 
Mill, the Holyoakes, Mrs. Annie Besant and the rest of the Malthusian School as a sure 
cure for public prostitution. The effect is exactly the contrary, as foretold to the letter 
by conscientious physicians at the time of the apostasy, and emphasised by them ever 
since. 

1148. Unfaithfulness within marriage drives to unfaithfulness outside of it. Of that 
truth the most abundant medical testimony is furnished herein. 



230 
CANCER. 

1149. In a lecture upon " Cancer Prophylaxis " by DR. E. E. MONTGOMERY, Professor 
of Gynaecology in Jefferson Medical College, read before the Section in Obstetrics and 
Diseases of Women, of the American Medical Association, June, 1907. " Journal of the 
American Medical Association," 21st September, 1907. Page 983 et seq. 

The Professor said : 

1150. The discussion of this subject of cancer becomes difficult at its onset because 
we do not know its cause. The ablest investigators have diligently sought to 
determine its origin and to lay bare the mystery of its development, but thus far 
in vain 

Clinical observations have made it evident, however, that the predisposition 
to the occurrence of malignant disease can be both congenital and acquired . . . 
In the great majority of cases the predisposition is acquired through changes in 
cell structure as the result of prolonged or continual irritation. The history of the 
occurrence of cancer in the uterus seems to make this statement justifiable, as the 
disease occurs with the greatest frequency in that portion of the uterus, the cervix, 
which is most exposed to injury and irritation. 

DR. THOS. S. CULLEN, Baltimore, in the discussion said : 

1151. The instruction of the laity as to the early signs of carcinoma I consider a sub- 
ject of the greatest importance. The committee, of which Dr. John G. Clark is chair- 
man, is carefully surveying the best means of instructing the public. The result of their 
labours will undoubtedly be of the greatest benefit. My experience coincides with 
Dr. Montgomery's in that cervical lesions are responsible for carcinoma of the cervix. 
In nearly every instance where a malignant cervical growth developed the patient 
had one or more children. In cancer of the body of the womb he stated that a 
different etiologic factor [cause] seems to be operative. Many of these patients 
have never been pregnant. Endometritis [inflammation of the lining of the womb] 
seems in some way to favour the development of carcinoma of the uterine body. 
(Pars. 1235 e. s.). 

1152. Dr. Craig (p. 985) thinks that practically all forms of uterine cancer are the result 
of some form of cellular irritation. 

1153. In an address to the same body of gynaecologists upon " The Status of the 
Fight against Cancer of the Uterus," DR. J. WESLEY BOVEE, of Washington D.C., said : 

It appears that in no walk in life, in no class of society, in no race of people 
carefully studied, and in no country, are the women free from this disease. In 
the unexplored (!) regions of Africa, and in the North American Indian, absence 
of cancer has by some writers been asserted. Probably further investigation 
will prove the fallacy of such statements. If not, then civilisation will no doubt 
carry this curse to those peoples. And, too, reversion to a primitive type may be 
the solution of the most vexing question of how to rid the human family of cancer. 
For the Hebrew race less frequency has been claimed by Vineberg and others 
Cancer of the womb, whether of the body or the cervix, is essen- 
tially a local disease at the beginning .... Vulnerability of tissue seems 
to act as a strong factor. This feature is demonstrated in the almost constant 
invariability of its occurring in the uterus that has been rendered vulnerable by 
traumatism [wounds], by inflammation, by decadence of functional activity and other 
states not necessary to mention. 



231 
CANCER IN AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND AND BRITAIN. 

" The Natural History of Cancer, with special reference to its causation and 
prevention." W. ROGER WILLIAMS, F.R.C.S. London. W. Heinemann, 1908. Page 468. 

1154. From the foregoing considerations it follows, that damage to the ovaries by 
disease, or their removal by operation, greatly increases the proclivity to cancer. 

1155. The great frequency of cancer in castrated animals also points in the same 
direction. 

1156. For a young country the social evolution of Australia has of late pursued a 
peculiar course. Its immense territory is occupied by a mere handful of people- 
some 3,750,000 of whom the great bulk are clotted in a few large towns on the 
coast of the temperate region, where the style of living emulated is that of the capital 
cities of Europe. Under the influence of socialistic ideas, immigration is discour- 
aged, although the declining birth-rate has already fallen to such an extent as to 
endanger the future of the race. Thus, the population is almost stagnant, and it 
contains an unduly large proportion of adult and elderly persons. Under this con- 
catenation of artificial circumstances, and with the aid of the lavish expenditure 
of borrowed millions, a high standard of individual material comfort has been at- 
tained in this "workers' paradise." Owing to the cheapness of meat and the 
gluttonous habits of the people the amount consumed per head is exceedingly high. 
Under these circumstances the tubercle mortality has diminished, while the inci- 
dence of cancer has greatly increased. 

1157. A curious feature (in Australasia) with regard to cancer is that males are now 
more prone to the disease than females, the respective death-rates for 1900 being 
59 and 55, and this greater proclivity of males is found in all the different States of 
the Commonwealth. 

1158. In New Zealand, where the conditions of existence and social evolution resemble 
that of Australia, the leading morbid tendencies are also somewhat similar. Cancer 
and insanity have increased and are increasing, while tubercle is declining. The 
people are prosperous, with a diminishing birth-rate, and immense quantities of 
flesh-food are consumed. In New Zealand as in Australia cancer is more prevalent 
among males than among females. 

1159. The reader is reminded that the word castration as used by these medical men 
applies both to male and female. 



INEXORABLE ADVANCE OF MALIGNANT DISEASE. 

1160. Attention is thus drawn [after giving British figures] to the remarkable fact 
that the increasing cancer mortality is affecting, and for many years has affected, 
males to a much greater extent than females. The difference between the sexes 
in respect to their proclivity to malignant disease, has thus been steadily dimin- 
ishing. 

1161. [Again figures are supplied showing a tremendous increase in cancer death- 
rates, especially since 1871, with an accelerated tendency in both sexes, but in a 
higher degree with males]. 

It thus appears that, although there has been a great increase of malignant 
disease in both sexes during the last half century, and although at the present time 
more women are affected than men, yet the malady has augmented much more 
rapidly among the latter than among the former. Moreover it is noticeable that 
the average age of English women is higher than that of men, so that the death- 
rates, as given above, are unduly favourable to the female sex. 



232 

1162. It seeins likely, if this disproportionate increase of cancer amongst males 
is not checked, that the disease will soon be as prevalent among men as among 
women, or the comparative proclivity of the sexes in the respect may be reversed, 
as has already happened in a few countries such as Australia and New Zealand. 
(Note. The same disparity is shown if we restrict our field to persons aged 35 
and upwards. Thus in 1885, 1 in 21 men and 1 in 12 women of this age-limit 
eventually died of cancer ; whereas in 1905 the corresponding figures were 1 in 12 
men and 1 in 8 women.) 

1163. The greater prevalence of malignant disease among women is entirely due to 
the frequency with which in them the mammae and uterus are affected, the corres- 
ponding structures in males very rarely originating the disease ; while in all other 
localities [of the body] the male liability is greater. 

1164. Here it may be noted that the comparative proclivity of women to non- 
malignant tumours and cysts is even more considerable that it is to cancer ; and 
this also arises from the fact that, in them, the reproductive organs, especially 
the uterus and ovaries, very frequently originate tumours of this kind, whereas 
the corresponding male organs are seldom, affected. 

1165. It seems to me probable that this undue incidence of the increasing cancer- 
mortality in men, may be ascribed to the fact that of late, as the result of 
urbanization, the conditions of life for men have come to resemble more closely 
those of women than heretofore. It is undeniable that urbanization has affected 
far more profoundly the natural life of men altering, modifying, and sup- 
pressing their ancestral habits than it has the natural life of women. Out of 
these conditions, which comprise a more domesticated mode of life, want of proper 
exercise, and excess of food, I believe the present increased cancer mortality has 
sprung. 

1166. There is little convincing in the foregoing guess about urbanization, for it is 
extremely doubtful that there has been any change that could be noted in the habits 
of men and women in respect of exercise or food during twenty years, and still less a 
progressive change. Least of all does his conclusion seem to apply to Australia and New 
Zealand. The habits show, rather, less urbanization than more, with a greater amount 
of physical exercise, because there is no tendency to crowd in cities but rather a constant 
tendency to have suburban homes. He would hardly blame suburbanization. At 
the least there has been for many years an increasing use of fresh air, night and day, and 
hardly can the word gluttony be applied to residents in Australia and New Zealand. 
It could be claimed that although on the average there is more food consumed by the popu- 
lation than in other countries, it is well divided, and that the people are well nourished, 
but gorging is far from general, whilst this latter would be the necessary condition to 
uphold his theory. Again, dwellers in the country, those not urbanized, are apparently 
heavier flesh-eaters than town-dwellers. The latter have had urgent inculcation for 
several years against excessive use of meat. Many have lessened the quantity and the 
frequency, but how many there are no statistics to show. 

1167. Cattle, though herbivorous, are subject to cancer and for that disease they are 
destroyed. This does not uphold the flesh-eating theory as a cause. But it is far too- 
long-winded a subject to attempt to controvert, and especially for a layman it would be 
presumptuous. 

1168. Yet there remains one cause which has been deemed by some physicians as 
we have seen to be operative in a high degree, namely, sexual interferences. If that 
be the chief cause of the increase, directly and indirectly, there can be no mistake about 
its existence on an adequate and progressive scale. Beyond mere citation, no attempt 
will be made here to add anything to the suggestions and the conclusions of physicians 
who have stated their views in that direction. Of these authorities many more could 
be quoted, but alas, the conclusions can only remain a matter of judgment, not of 
certainty. 



233 



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CANCER HAS SURPASSED CONSUMPTION. 

1169. Cancer is a disease more to be dreaded than tubercule, under the conditions 
of existence at present obtaining in modern communities, where the occidental 
type of civilization prevails ; for while tubercle has declined with great rapidity, 
cancer has increased at a still faster rate, and these inversely related changes are 
still in active progress. In illustration of these remarks, it may be mentioned that 
during the last half of the nineteenth century, the cancer mortality for our country 
(England) tripled, while during the same period, the tubercle rate declined to the 
extent of nearly one-half. 

1170. Moreover, the latest ascertained cancer rate (88 for 1905), is the highest on 
record [and higher since] while that for phthisis (114 in 1905) is the lowest 

1171. Cancer is now a more fatal disease for women than phthisis (consumption 
of the lungs) the respective death-rates for 1905 being 100 for the former and 94 
for the latter malady. It was in 1903 that cancer first gained this lead. 

1172. Unless some great change in the national habits soon takes place, of which 
there is at present no well-marked indication, cancer will ere long claim more 
victims even than phthisis, as is already the case in many localities, e.g., Hampstead, 
Clifton, Bath. 

1173. These are just the places where the birth-rate has suffered startling decline 
and where Neo-Malthusians claim that the gospel has had its greatest success. 

1174. The Report of the Medical Officer of Health for 1903 shows that well-to-do, 
salubrious Hampstead has the highest cancer death-rate of any Metropolitan 
borough, whilst its death-rate from phthisis is the lowest. Next to Hampstead 
the wealthy communities of Marylebone (comprising some of the best residential 
quarters of the West End) and Chelsea suffer most from cancer. Of the six 
metropob'tan boroughs having the highest phthisis mortality, viz., Holborn, 
Shoreditch, Finsbury, Bethnal Green, and Stepney, only one Southwark has 
a cancer death-rate above the average, and this is an exceptional occurrence. 

Just these places again have the higher, i.e., the more normal, birth-rate. 

1175. Observations which should be of deep significance, in view of the spreading racial 
degeneracy that takes the dread form of carcinoma, are given by Dr. Williams. These 
are the all but complete absence anyway the extreme infrequency of malignant 
disease amongst so diverse races as the Australian blacks, the natives of New Guinea, 
of Fiji, of Borneo, and of the Philippines. Very recent detailed evidence, however, not 
supplied by Mr. Williams, shows that in Manila the disease, though infrequent, is not quite 
so rare as had been supposed. 



PROVOCATION OP CANCER BY IRRITATION. 

Cancer Research. 

1176. The " Third Scientific Report " of the investigations of the Imperial Cancer Research Fund has 
just been issued by Dr. Bashford, general superintendent of the work and director of the laboratory. 
It is a record of a vast amount of patient experiment and observations. The first report of the fund 
was published in the spring of 1904, the second a year later ; so that the present volume is the outcome 
of more than three years' silence, during which work has been continuously conducted in the laboratories. 
The nature of the connection between the irritation and the disease has received much attention from 
the investigators acting for the fund. A wide study of cases of cancer has shown that the hypothesis 
of a congenital or embryonic origin of cancer is incorrect. Thus cancer of the skin of the abdomen 
is practically unknown in Europe, but common in Kashmir. This is not due to any special presence 
of embryonic germs in the skin of the abdomen of the Kashmiris, but to its irritation by wearing a 
charcoal oven around the waist. Again, cancer of the floor of the mouth is rare in European women, 
although not uncommon in men ; but in India women suffer from it in high degree. The difference 



235 

is due to the fact that Indian women chew betel nut, and sleep with the plug in the cheek at the exact 
spot where cancer starts. In needle-women melanotic sarcoma often develops in the fingers 
at the site of frequent puncturing by the sewing needle. Belief in the congenital origin being aban- 
doned, the question of heredity is discussed. The most recent returns of the Registrar-General show 
that in 1906, out of a total of 141,241 deaths of males above the age of 35, 12,695 were due to cancer, 
and that out of a total of 140,607 similar deaths of females, 17,671 were due to cancer. "Journal 
of the American Medical Association " (London Letter of 17th October, 1908). 



CHILD MURDER IN THE WOMB. 

(Extracted from my Report, Vol. I.) 

Production of Abortion by Drugs. 

1177. 41. The following generalisation, which is strictly warranted by facts, conveys a warning to 
would-be abortionists, whether professional or habitual, or lay and occasional : There is no drug, 
and no combination of drugs, which will, when taken by the mouth, cause a healthy uterus to empty 
itself, unless it be given in doses sufficiently large to seriously endanger, by poisoning, the life of the 
woman who takes it or them. " Taylor's Medical Jurisprudence," Vol. II., 166. 

It not infrequently happens, when powerful drugs are taken with the object of causing abortion, 
that the woman is fatally poisoned, and dies undelivered ; in other cases, abortion is speedily followed 
by the death of the mother. " Encyclopaedia Medica," 1902, Vol. XII., page 342. 

1178. 61. In the report of the Royal Commission on the Declining Birth-rate, the question of the 
large amount of abortion-mongering prevalent in Sydney was carefully considered, and some suggestions 
were made with a view to putting a stop to this practice, but. judging from the number of deaths 
resulting apparently from criminally induced abortion, reported to the Crown, it would appear that 
the practice is as prevalent as ever. One cannot but view with the deepest regret the death of so large 
a number of young women occurring as a result of septicaemia. " Australian Medical Gazette," 20th 
April, 1905, page 165. 

1179. 62 Only by the production of such violent irritation of the abdominal and pelvic organs as 
generally endangers life can the pregnant uterus be stimulated to expel its contents. " Materia 
Medica," by CHAS. D. F. PHILLIPS. 

The abortifacient effect of savin and other drugs cannot be obtained unless by the administration 
o* a quantity sufficient to endanger life. " Materia Medica," by ROBERTS BABTHOLOW. 

A most essential reform in the prevention of abortion could be brought about by the press. 
There is scarcely a paper, religious or secular, which does not contain the advertisement of a means to 
procure abortion. In the papers of great cities the name and address of those who will undertake 
this crime are daily published and widely circulated. PETERSON and HAINES, II., 100 : " Forensic 
Medicine." 

Certain volatile oils have a strong action on the alimentary canal, producing gastro-enteritis 
and, through this, hyperemia of the pelvic viscera. This has led to their employment for the pro- 
curing of criminal abortion, and they have a toxicological importance, since they are usually fatal 
through the gastro-enteritis before they produce the desired result. 

He then supplies a list of the usual so-called abortifacient drugs 

Oil of savin, of tansy, and of pennyroyal enjoy a special reputation in this connection, but any 
other irritant produces the same result. The ecbolic (expulsive) effect is only secondary to the gastro- 
enteritis, and the latter is very often fatal without accomplishing the object for which it was produced. 
122. TORALD SOLLMANN, M.D., Professor of Pharmacology, University, Cleveland, Ohio. " Text- 
book of Pharmacology." Phila., Saunders, 1901 . 

1180. 25. An Australian surgeon, enjoying an active general practice, and having unusually wide 
opportunities of observation in a city of over half-a-million inhabitants, said to me when being 
questioned officially upon genesic frauds 

A. Those abortifacients are not the worst ; it is not those things that are so destructive. 

Q. How can you say that ? All the authorities of your profession in all countries are unanimous 
in declaring that countless healthy lives are thus lost annually. We have proved and know 
for certain that the murderous wickedness is wide-spread and widely spreading. And you 
know yourself that the physical consequences to the women are disastrous. 

A. I know all that, and I tell you again that the practice of abortion is not the worst phase of the 
trouble. 

Q. Then what do you mean, for there is no greater crime to, or by, humanity ? 

A. Prevention is the worst ! I tell you that women are destroyed by the practice. It means 
utter wreck to their morals and principles in every way. As to the other thing, the abortion, 
I could make all the money I want if I would only consent, for I am constantly asked to 
operate in that way. 



236 

THE WRECK OF A RACK INDIFFERENCE OF THE PEOPLE, THE CHURCH AND 

THE LAW. 

Only a part of the discussion by the surgeons, upon the sin of child-destruction, 
ia herein supplied. (The Journal of the American Medical Association, September 19th, 
1908, page 957) : 

CRIMINAL ABORTION IN ITS BROADEST SENSE. 

Chairman's Address before the Section on Obstetrics and Diseases of Women, of the American Medical 

Association, Chicago, 1908. 

WALTIB B. DOBSETT, M.D., St. Louis. 
A HEART TO HEART TALE AMONGST SURGEONS. 

1181. In looking over the programme one must be impressed by the wealth of subjects to be discussed, 
as well as the names of the authors of the papers. This certainly should convince us that we are to 
enjoy a treat seldom offered in bodies of this character. Should I attempt to add anything of a 
scientific nature, I fear it would rather detract from than add to its interest. I have, therefore, 
concluded to present a subject that concerns us not alone as obstetricians and gynaecologists, but as 
citizens of a great republic " Criminal Abortion in its Broadest Sense." 

It is high time we should have a heart to heart talk. 

1182. The accepted definition of the word " crime " is " a breach of law, whether divine or human." 
Laws are rules, whether human or divine, for the government of the human race, and are enacted for 
the good of mankind. While the subject may be viewed from many standpoints, still there is a common 
ground on which we all must stand in order to view the subject in its composite form. It is reasonable 
to assume that the infraction of a law should carry with it a penalty, whether that law is human or 
divine, else it would be useless to enact laws ; and no law holds good that does not have attached a 
penalty, which should be commensurate with the importance of the law. While there is probably 
no one in this audience who would deny that criminal abortion is fast becoming more and more common, 
still there may be many who may not be willing to take a decided step toward its suppression. The 
question may be asked : " Does it concern us as physicians ? Does it concern us as members of the 
American Medical Association and of this section ? Does it concern us as citizens of this our beloved 
country ? " 

1183. It is a rule in law that no case can be prosecuted without first obtaining sufficient information 
from those who possess it. The abdominal surgeon sees almost daily the results of the work of the 
abortionist, and the obstetrician can not be blind to the practice of the disreputable midwife and 
the unprincipled doctor. Admitting, then, that these statements are true, who should be concerned 
in this matter ? 

1184. Possessing the information that we undoubtedly do, should it not be our duty as citizens, as well 
as physicians, and members of this important branch of the great American Medical Association, 
to suggest some means for the suppression of an evil that threatens such an onslaught to our civi- 
lisation ? When I say possessed with the information, I say it advisedly. Each and every member 
of this section can at this moment relate sad death-bed scenes that fairly make the blood run cold. 
Beautiful women are robbed of their lives, beautiful babies made orphans, and whole families wrecked, 
by a conscienceless scoundrel who goes free and unpunished by the law of our land. 



THE CLERGY UNCONCERNED. LACK OF MORAL COURAGE. 

1 1 85. It is useless to expect ecclesiastic intervention. The clergy do not seem to be at an concerned. 
To furnish them with this information is to throw away your time. Few sermons are preached from 
the pulpit for fear of shocking the delicate feelings of a fashionably dressed congregation, and the begging 
for money to save the souls of the far away heathen seems of more importance. They cannot but 
realise the enormity of the crime from knowledge gained at the bedside of the victim of the abortionist. 
Yet they do not possess the moral courage to express their convictions to those to whom they are " called ' ' 
to minister. Their education along biologic lines has, I am certain, in many cases been sadly neglected. 

1 186. Young people marrying deliberately agree not to be parents for two or three years. They prefer 
to enjoy life by getting into and keeping in the social whirl. They may be, and often are, considered 
good and respectable people possibly church-going people. 

1187. Self-induced abortion, or abortion produced by a fashionable or fad doctor, is, as we know,, a 
fruitful cause of the horrible pus cases in which we are now and then called to operate. This fad 
doctor is one with a lucrative practice and is often " the l>on " at social functions. He it is who 



237 

empties the uterus in cases of emesis gravidarum (" morning sickness "), -without first racking his 
precious brain in trying all recognised remedies and methods to check the vomiting. He it is who 
finds so many cases of contracted pelvis where it is utterly impossible to do anything but an early 
abortion to save the woman's life. He it is who finds so many cases of retention of menses, that 
require dilatation and curetment. He it is who finds the urine " loaded with albumen," necessitating 
an immediate emptying of the uterus to prevent death from Bright's disease. Such men a"d women 
prostitute the profession o! medicine and should be exposed. 



MEDICAL STUDENTS NOT TAUGHT THE ENORMITY OF THE CRIME. 

1188. A careful review of our medical college announcements fails to furnish sufficient evidence oi 
properly taught medical ethics, or medical jurisprudence (I say medical jurisprudence in contradistinction 
to legal medicine) to justify us at this time in hoping that we may receive much help from them toward 
the control of criminal abortion. 

The average student is not impressed by precept or example with the enormity of the crime, and 
coming into practice, often a poor young man, is first shocked when he is asked to procure an abortion ; 
but after the wolf has howled at the door for a time he yields to the temptation and often drops into 
the practice. Far from the Hippocratean teaching of the ancients have our colleges wandered by their 
utter disregard as to the morals of their students. 

1 189. The secular press, that for money consideration, carries the offensive advertisements of abortionists 
and manufacturers of abortifacients, in direct violation to our municipal, state and federal laws, will 
be slow in responding to a call to suppress criminal abortion, and not until the filing of information 
with officers of the law will they cease to carry into your household the filthy announcements as to how 
and where the pregnant mother can most easily and safely rid her womb of the products of conception. 

1190. Much has been said by the chief executive (President Roosevelt) of our nation on race suicide, and 
much has been reiterated by other right-thinking people ; still, little has been done toward the en- 
actment of new laws or the enforcement of those already on the statute books to punish those guilty 
of the crime. The prevalence of the crime is so patent, that few physicians can say that they are not 
frequently importuned by what society calls the "respectable element " to commit abortion. Pleas 
of limited income, the exacting demands of the social world, the desire to travel, the already too large 
family, and numerous other " reasons " are to you stories " too oft told " to be repeated here. 

1191. In an editorial in the " Illinois State Medical Journal," March, 1908, attention is drawn to a 
statement of Justice John Proctor Clark to the effect that 100,000 abortions are annually committed 
in New York. 

In a paper read before the Chicago Medical Society by Dr. C. S. Bacon, it was estimated that from 
6,000 to 10,000 abortions are committed annually in the city of Chicago, and that from 20 to 25 per 
cent, of all pregnancies terminate in abortion, and that of this per cent, one-half are from induced 
abortion. 

1192. With foeticide among our best element, and with a constantly increasing influx of degenerates 
from foreign countries, what can be expected of us as a nation a few generations hence ? We 
physicians, above all others, are best prepared to answer the query. 

It is not my purpose to institute Utopian plans, through or by which criminal abortion can be 
suppressed, still some suggestions may be in order. 



TEACH ETHICS IN MEDICAL COLLEGES. 

1193. l. The obligatory teaching of medical jurisprudence and medical ethics in its true sense in out 
medical colleges. This should be statutory, and medical examining boards should be empowered to 
enforce the laws of their states, and declare all schools not requiring a full course in medical ethics 
not in good standing and their graduates ineligible to practice medicine. 

2. The enactment of good and sufficient laws and the amendment of insufficient laws now on 
our statute books. 

This may raise the question as to how this can be done. Or by some it may be asked, are not 
our laws good and sufficient as they stand ? In order to answer the last question, I propounded the 
following questions to a very able lawyer, and had him prepare by way of answer a digest of the now 
existing laws in the several states and territories. 

[Here answers are supplied as to the state of American legislation.] 

1194. Are not these answers startling ? I think they show conclusively that our laws are inefficient 
and inadequate in most, if not all, of our states. Now arises the question, how can new laws be 

I 



238 

enacted and inefficient laws be amended ? My answer is, through the influence of the American 
Medical Association, through ita House of Delegates. Let us, the members of this section, through 
our representative in the House of Delegates, appeal to this body and request the president of Che 
American Medical Association to appoint a committee to be known as the Committee on Criminal 
Abortion, whose duties shall be to see that the state societies have appointed similar committees, 
whose duty it shall be to enlist the interest of their state legislatures in the enactment of good and 
sufficient laws against criminal abortion, and that this committee of the House of Delegates report 
annually as to the status of laws on criminal abortion in the different states, as well as what suggestions 
they may have to make in the prosecution of the cause. 

1195. Each state has an attorney-general, whose office is at the capital of the state. He is paid a salary 
by the state, and he, above all others, ought to be interested in the enactment and enforcement of whole- 
some and useful laws in his state. It is the duty of the attorney-general and his assistants to follow 
up the convictions of the lower courts for the various crimes. A man is tried in the circuit court or 
criminal court of one of the counties, and if convicted he appeals to the supreme court of the state. 
The county prosecuting attorney does not follow the case to the supreme court, but the whole record 
of the case is written up and forwarded to the supreme court, and it is the duty of the attorney-general 
to use his best efforts to uphold the conviction. He studies the case, writes a brief for the state and 
argues it in the supreme court. Many times he finds that he cannot uphold a conviction because of some 
uncertainty in the wording of the law, or on account of some blunder made by the man who wrote it 
and got it passed in the legislature. The more convictions the attorney-general gets upheld, the 
greater reputation he gets. He is, if a studious man, better able to decide than the ordinary lawyer, 
whether a proposed law will meet the requirements of the state constitution, and whether it will be 
held a valid law. 

1196. It might be suggested that this committee, or the state committee, acting in accord with the 
national committee, draft a bill, submit it to the attorney-general of the state, and ask suggestions 
from him as to the proper wording of the law before first submitting it for passage by the legislature. 
When they are sure the law is in good form, then printed copies of it should be sent to every member 
of both houses of the legislature, and this should be followed by letters from influential physicians in 
every county of the state to representatives and senators of their respective counties, or by personal 
interviews, explaining the object, need and purpose of the law proposed, and they should be urged 
to vote for it. There is no doubt but we can in this way do much good. Let's do it. 



DISCUSSION. 

THE UNBORN BABE IS A SPIRITUAL BEING. 

1197. DB W. H. WATHEN, Louisville : No subject could be brought before this section which is of more 
vital importance in a moral, and I might say in a pathologic sense, than this. We who are doing ab- 
dominal and pelvic surgery know how frequently we are compelled to operate because of the induction 
of abortion. In a moral sense it is offensive to every honest doctor and to every honest citizen. This 
offence is not any more an offence on the part of the woman on whom the abortion is committed, be 
she married or single, than it is on the part of the person who commits it. I believe that hi most of 
the cases in which I operate for pelvic trouble resulting from induced abortion, the abortion has 
been induced on the advice of a physician or done by a physician, and I have seen many cases in 
which abortions have been induced by members of reputable medical colleges. The matter is disguised 
by the fact that a woman six weeks or two months pregnant is often taken to a hospital for the pur- 
pose of curettage. Her uterus is curetted and the product of conception removed. In order to secure 
legislation there must be impressed on the profession the belief that, if there is any moral offence 
in destroying the life of an unborn child, the moral offence is just as bad four weeks after conception 
as if the child were killed at eight months. From the moment of conception the child is a spiritual 
being. Let us all join in our efforts to educate the people, the women and the men, of this country 
concerning the immorality of having abortions produced at any time, and let us join in our efforts 
in a determination to ostracise any man who will produce a criminal abortion. Let US also join in 
efforts to have laws enacted that will make it a criminal offence, punishable by such penalties as the 
state sees fit to inflict, death or a sentence to the penitentiary, for any man producing an abortion. 

1198. DR. J. H. CARSTENS, Detroit : Laws have been enacted all over the country concerning murder, 
but still people commit murder. We have laws in some states concerning abortions, but people produce 
abortions just the same. With the peculiar development of our civilisation, with the rapid bringing 
up by a very rapid process of evolution of people from a lower stratum of society to a higher, people 
have not grown morally as fast as they have otherwise. They think that there is nothing earnest in 
this world, that it is just made for them and for their pleasure, and everything that interferes with that 




239 

pleasure they obiect to and try to do away with. This question of abortion involves the lack of moral 
responsibility and the superficial education of our girls all over the country. They are not impressed 
with the true import of life and the responsibilities of married women. They are not taught that a woman 
does not exist for social pleasure alone, or that she can take her place in society and have pleasure, but 
that she should still remember her moral responsibility, and that it is good and noble and great to be a 
mother. If we can impress this idea on the minds of the people we can do something to prevent the 
committing of abortion. If we do not we shall never accomplish much by law. I believe that it is 
the duty of the medical profession to emphasize this view of the matter, to develop this view of moral 
responsibility, to try to induce women to have a love for children. 

TEACH THE CHILDREN SEXUAL TRUTH. 

1199. DR. HELEN C. PUTNAM, Providence : I want to support what DR. Carstens just now said about 
education. For the American Academy of Medicine during several years I have been visiting our 
public schools to investigate the teaching of physiology and hygiene. I have included in that investiga- 
tion inquiry concerning how teachers feel, and what they are doing, with reference to teaching the 
physiology and hygiene of sex. I have found many instructors anxious about the matter because 
they see in the schools the need of such teaching. I have found a few trained in biology doing admirable 
work, which I wish to bring to the attention of the medical profession, hoping that physicians will 
encourage such teachers and will find more, especially in their own communities, to do similar work. 
These women trained in biology begin with children at about 8 years of age, and include those up to 
14 or 15. They instruct through direct personal observation (the " laboratory method ") concerning 
the origin and functions of life in plants and animals. After a year's work, especially if the children 
are 13 or 14 years of age, they give a frank " sex talk," telling them of the importance of life as they 
have seen it in plants and animals, and comparing it with human life before birth and after. The 
children's minds in their course of study have traced evolution in Nature, and when they have this 
sex talk by the teacher they are not startled, but receive it as naturally as they learned of plant and 
animal reproduction. Parents are not offended with startling stories, for the children have grown 
to the subject naturally. The school committee is not disturbed, because there is no complaint from 
any source. If any wish to know more about what a few teachers are doing to create a changed public 
sentiment which shall support our views with regard to abortion, I refer you to the detailed reports 
which the Academy is publishing in its bulletin. While it is not possible to have such instruction 
in all the schools at once, we can begin with one teacher in a school in each community ; see that she 
has a good training in biology, and have her do good work in her school as an object lesson to others. 
If personal effort were made in this way I believe that within ten years we should have accomplished 
a great deal in changing the public attitude toward sex matters and the sacredness of parenthood that 
would do more than laws to reach the result we want. 

FOLLY OF THE JURY SYSTEM. 

1200. DR. B. W. HOLMES, Chicago : I have had the misfortune for three years to be a sort of mentor 
on criminal abortion work in Chicago. During this period I have presided over a committee of the 
Chicago Medical Society to investigate and to attempt to eradicate the evil. I have come to the 
conclusion that the public does not want, the profession does not want, the women in particular do not 
want, any aggressive campaign against the crime of abortion. I have secured evidence. I have asked 
different physicians, who either had direct knowledge of crime against the prisoner before the bar or 
who could testify as to her general reputation, to come and testify. They promised to come, but 
when the time for trial is at hand no one appears. On the other hand, so-called reputable members 
of our Chicago Medical Society regularly appear in court to support the testimony of some notorious 
abortionist. A Chicago attorney has told me that it is not possible to get twelve men together without 
at least one of them being personally responsible for the downfall of a girl, or at least interested in getting 
her out of her difficulty. I am convinced that legislation is not needed at least, in Illinois. We have 
as good a law as perhaps can be made. It is the enforcement of law that is needed. What can you 
expect when a member of our legislature is backing financially and politically one of the most notorious 
abortion hospitals in Chicago ? It is necessary to go back and educate the boy and girl concerning the 
meaning of sexual life. The fact should be taught that life begins with conception and not with 
quickening. Then perhaps in the coming centuries we shall have reached a time when there will not 
be abortions. I believe that half of the midwives of Chicago get their support from criminal abortion 
work, as I know definitely a quarter do. One midwife took out a license to help out the family ex- 
chequer. For one week she had a sign up : then the husband said that they could not run the risk 
of the police coming down on them. In that one week there were ten applicants for criminal abortion 
and not one for confinement. I do not think that it is a good thing for the woman to be held criminally. 
Morally she is a criminal. If she is legally a criminal you can not get any evidence of it. I have 
evidence of this every day. I have repeatedly taken ante-mortem statements, vith the express provision 
that if the woman recovers nothing shall be done, that only if she dies shall the person be prosecuted. 
I have positive evidence that prominent men in Chicago and Chicago is not different from other 
cities will commit abortion. What can one do ? In a certain county society complaints were lodged 



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with the censors concerning three physicians known by reputation and deed to be professional 
abortionists, and the censors refused to take action. 

1201. Fundamentally it is a matter of education which should be begun in the medical school. Until 
three years ago the school with which I am connected did not have any systematic instruction on criminal 
abortion. It had a little lecture by a lawyer who did not present the actual facts. Every medical 
school should have a course on that subject. There should be impressed on the men before they take 
up their work the dangers to the woman, to themselves, and the moral responsibility assumed in tho 
matter of abortion. If also the boy and girl in school are taught something of this they will grow up 
with moral stamina not easily overcome. They will know facts and will live accordingly. Many now 
make themselves believe that there is no life until the movements are felt. When tho false teaching 
in this respect is put aside good will be accomplished. 

1202. DR. EDWARD T. ABRAMS, Dollar Bay, Mich. : For the past two years I have been a member of 
the Michigan legislature, and also chairman of the committee on public health of that body. One of 
the bills which came before the legislature was drawn, I think, by the committee on legislation of the 
state medical society, and bore directly on the first question raised by our chairman to-day whether 
or not the woman should be made a party to the criminality of the act. I introduced the bill at the 
request of the committee, and within twenty-four hours after I was called before the judiciary com- 
mittee, which was composed entirely of lawyers, to answer the question whether or not I favoured 
abortion. I received half a dozen letters from half a dozen circuit judges in the state of Michigan who 
were my friends, asking me how long since I had turned over a new leaf. I was assured by the best 
legal authority in our state that there would be no more powerful inducement for the concealment of 
abortion than to make the woman a party to the criminality of the act, because it would destroy abso- 
lutely the method of getting evidence. All the lawyers told me that. Per contra, we had absolutely no 
trouble in adding an amendment to our medical act giving the board of registration an absolute right 
to take from any practitioner his license to practice within the borders of the state after he had been 
convicted by due process of law of having committed an abortion, without requiring further evidence 
than the records of the court. 

1203. DR. W. 0. HENRY. Omaha : I believe that the medical profession should feel responsible for the 
education of the boys and girls in the public schools concerning this question. These boys and girls 
should be taught two things : First, the physical wrong and injury that results. Many do not know 
this until thev have passed through the experience. In the second place they should be taught the 
moral wrong. In a measure we should depend on the clergy for this latter. I believe that the clergy 
should be informed concerning the physical injury and the moral as well. I should be glad to see work 
carried out along the lines of education on this matter in the high schools, seminaries and colleges, 
and among men and women of the country through the medical men and the clergy. 

SEXUAL EDUCATION OF THE YOUNG A SOVEREIGN DUTY. 

1204. DR. DENSLOW LEWIS, Chicago : It is well and good to enact laws and to punish the criminal 
practitioner and midwife, but what good does that do to the girl, and how does it save the next girl ? 
I believe, as I have believed for many years, that this matter of education of the young in sex relation- 
ship, and also regarding venereal infection, is our sovereign duty and should be our chief privilege. I am 
delighted that at last the American Medical Association has created a Board of Public Instruction 
in medical subjects, but I am astonished to find in the report of this Board of Public Instruction, made 
yesterday, the statement that gynsecologic subjetcs and matters pertaining to sexual questions can 
best be taken up through circular letters to physicians and carefully prepared monographs by some 
first-class authority in the medical profession. This is well, but action in this very important matter 
should be immediate. The girl requires no monograph from a first-class authority to learn the truth. 
She needs to know that impregnation and conception often follow the sexual act. Those of you who, 
like myself, have had charge for years of maternity hospitals, know that many young girls seen there 
have submitted to the sexual act without the slightest knowledge of the probable result. For that 
reason it is incumbent on us to urge on this Board of Public Instruction immediate action in the hope 
that another year may not pass without something being done so that every girl may know the con- 
sequence of indiscretion. The boy should know the dignity of virility and his duty and honour toward 
every woman. He should be taught the healthfulness of continence and the advisability of sexual 
control. 

1205. PROF. AUGUST MARTIN, Berlin, Germany : I believe that in Germany and everywhere all agree 
in condemning criminal abortion. It is forbidden by law ; it is forbidden by the professional code 
of ethics. Laws have been issued in numerous communities to try to suppress criminal abortion, 
but I do not know of any which have had success. Our laws themselves place great difficulties in 
the way of legal action by forbidding us to speak about professional secrets. When we are called 
in a case of criminal abortion we are not allowed to give evidence unless the parties interested in the 
case give us permission, and frequently this permission can not be given, as the poor patient is dead. 
But when a good chance is offered to give evidence then, indeed, in every case our courts condemn 
criminal abortion with the utmost severity. Joint efforts in condemning criminal abortion as ou this 
occasion by and by will contribute to restrain the evil among professional men. 



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ABORTION IS CHILD MURDER. 

1206. DR. FLOBUS F. LAWRENCE, Columbus : Moral problems can not be settled by statutory enact- 
ments. A certain amount of restriction can be had and a certain amount of educational value must 
follow every statutory enactment, provided that enactment is enforced. It has been mentioned that 
there has been great difficulty in obtaining evidence to enforce the statutes in question. In Ohio 
one of the greatest stumbling-blocks has been the question of viability. The Courts determined 
that there was no great legal responsibility unless the foetus were of viable age. If our statutes are to 
accomplish the results they should we must first educate the public mind and morals to the belief that 
conception means human life, and that the interruption or destruction of that conception means murder 
just as much as if the child had been murdered with a bludgeon after it had been delivered into the 
world. Anything less than that is a mere travesty on the truth and on true morality. 

HOW ABORTIONISTS PROSTITUTE THUIK. PATIENTS. 

1207. DR. WALTEB B. DOBSETT, St. Louis : The city of St. Louis has not been remiss in her duty 
in this regard. A paper was read recently in one of our meetings by Dr. John Grant, of St. Louis, on 
the subject of criminal abortion. The meeting was attended by many of the laity and clergy. One 
clergyman, who was much interested, promised to preach a sermon before his congregation, but his 
board advised against it. It seems to me from this that things have come to a bad pass. In order, 
however, to show you what has been done and what can be done, not only in the enactment of laws 
but in the enforcement of them, I will quote from a letter which I received from Dr. Wheeler Bond, 
the health commissioner of St. Louis, in response to an inquiry I made of him. He said that when 
he accepted the position of health commissioner there were licensed physicians and midwives who 
concealed illegitimate under the pretence of legitimate practice, and charlatans who without any 
authority proclaimed themselves doctors and waxed fat on abortions. There were also